Volunteering Assessments - an overview

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Volunteering Assessments - an overview

  1. 1. VOLUNTEERINGASSESSMENTSan overviewS. Wojciech SokolowskiJohns Hopkins University CHANGING PERSPECTIVES: MEASURING AND SHOWING THE IMPACT OF VOLUNTEERING Laguépie, April 24-30 2012
  2. 2. WHY VOLUNTEER ASSESSMENT?IMPORTANT ECONOMIC RESEOURCE •For society •For the economy •For the nonprofit sectorIMPORTANT SOCIAL / CULTURAL RESOURCE •Social value expression •Social solidarity expression •“Warm glow” WHAT IS NOT COUNTED DOES NOT COUNT?
  3. 3. BUT WHEN IT COMES TO VOLUNTEERING ASSESSMENT…
  4. 4. HOW IS VOLUNTEERING DEFINED? UNPAID UNCOERCED BENEFICIAL TO OTHERS SOME EFFORT INSTITUTIONAL SETTING • THROUGH ORGANIZATION • DIRECT
  5. 5. SCOPE OF VOLUNTEERINGLEISURE HOUSEWORK Non-organizational (direct) helping Loosely organized (for a cause or profession) Through organization MANDATORYWORK SERVICE
  6. 6. TYPES OF VOLUNTEERING RESEARCH DATA ASSEMBLY ANALYTICS EXPLANATION EVALUATION
  7. 7. TYPES OF VOLUNTEERING RESEARCH DATA ASSEMBLY • Household surveys • Organizational surveys ANALYTICS • Socio-demographic • Industry • National /Regional • Cross-national EXPLANATION • Why people volunteer? • How people volunteer? EVALUATION • Values of volunteering • Effects of volunteering
  8. 8. VOLUNTEERING DATA ASSEMBLYHOUSEHOLD SURVEYS•“Omnibus” opinion surveys (WVS, Gallup, National GSS)•Time Use Surveys (ATUS, HETUS, National TUS)•Dedicated Surveys (e.g. Canada Survey of Giving, Volunteering and Participating)ORGANIZATIONAL SURVEYS• JHU Comparative Nonprofit Sector ProjectLABOR FORCE SURVEYS• Current Population Survey (US)• ILO Manual on the Measurement of Volunteer Work
  9. 9. ILO MANUAL ON THE MEASUREMENT OF VOLUNTEER WORK
  10. 10. ILO MANUAL APPROACHUSE OF LABOR FORCE SURVEYSBROAD OPERATIONAL DEFINTION • Organizational Volunteering • Direct Volunteering • Decision rulesOPTIMAL REFERENCE PERIOD • Four weeks (recommended)CAPTURE VOLUNTEER TIMECAPTURE INSTITUTIONAL DIMENSIONS • Type of institution (NPI, government, business) • Industry (ISIC 4)CAPTURE OCCUPATIONAL DIMENSIONVALUING VOLUNTEER INPUT
  11. 11. THE ILO MANUAL APPROACH WILL: Clarify the true size of the unpaid labour force Document volunteering’s role and benchmark progress Permit valid cross-country comparisons Boost visibility and respect for volunteering Improve volunteer infrastructure Encourage supportive public policies Encourage more volunteering Fulfill EU and UN policy recommendations
  12. 12. COMMITTEED ILO MANUAL IMPLEMENTERS Brazil Hungary Italy Moldova* Montenegro Norway Poland (completed) Portugal* South Africa (completed) Spain* *pending funding availability
  13. 13. THE EUROPEAN VOLUNTEER MEASUREMENT PROJECT (EVMP) A joint venture of: + European Volunteering Agencies and European Statistics Agencies
  14. 14. EVMP IMPLEMENTATION ACTIONS FROM THE GRASSROOTS LEVEL• Preparation of publicity & training materials (FAQ, Overview, Website, Blog)• Identification of National Focal Points• Solicitation of Declarations of Support (18)• Conduct training workshops (Estonia, Germany, Spain, Poland, Montenegro)• Meetings with statistics officials• Participation in national and international-level events (Hungary, Poland, Spain, Italy, France, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
  15. 15. TYPES OF VOLUNTEERING RESEARCH DATA ASSEMBLY • Household surveys • Organizational surveys ANALYTICS • Socio-demographic • Industry • National /Regional • Cross-national EXPLANATION • Why people volunteer? • How people volunteer? EVALUATION • Values of volunteering • Effects of volunteering
  16. 16. ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORKSNATIONAL • Caring Canadians Involved Canadians • Bureau of Labor Statistics (USA) • Volunteer Centre (UK)CROSS-NATIONAL • JHU Comparative Nonprofit Sector Project (CNP) • NPI Satellite Accounts • UN Volunteers
  17. 17. COMPARATIVE NONPROFIT SECTOR PROJECT COUNTRIES Denmark The Netherlands Sweden Switzerland Czech Republic Belgium Finland United Kingdom Norway Austria Poland France Italy Romania Germany Canada Slovakia Russia HungaryUnited States Ireland Spain Japan Mexico Portugal Morocco Turkey Korea Israel Colombia The Philippines Ghana Lebanon India Brazil Egypt Kenya Thailand Pakistan South Africa Tanzania Chile Argentina Uganda Australia New Zealand Peru
  18. 18. GLOBAL SCALE OF VOLUNTEERING China 1,023.5Volunteers 971.0 India 756.5 U.S. 239.7 Indonesia 162.4 Brazil 127.7 Russia 121.6 Japan 109.4Bangladesh 101.3 Source: CCSS estimates Pakistan 92.8 population over 15 years of age (millions)
  19. 19. ECONOMIC CONTRIBUTION OF VOLUNTEERINGValue added by: U.S. 12,580 Japan 4,229 Germany 3,329 China 2,303 U.K. 2,280 France 1,457 Volunteers 1,348 (96 million FTE jobs) Canada 1,134 Spain 1,130 Italy Source: CCSS estimates 1,097 USD (billions)
  20. 20. VOLUNTEER VALUE TO NPIs Total: ca. 80 million FTE, 34 countries Volunteers, 44% Paid workers, 56%Source: CCSS estimates
  21. 21. IMPORTANT SOURCE OF PRIVATE PHILANTHROPY Cash contributions 32% Value of volunteer time Total value of private philanthropy ca. $564 bn., 68% 34 countries Source: CCSS estimates
  22. 22. TYPES OF VOLUNTEERING RESEARCH DATA ASSEMBLY • Household surveys • Organizational surveys ANALYTICS • Socio-demographic • Industry • National /Regional • Cross-national EXPLANATION • Why people volunteer? • How people volunteer? EVALUATION • Values of volunteering • Effects of volunteering
  23. 23. EVALUATION TYPES RESULTS: Any consequence EFFECTS: measurable consequences VALUE ADDED: measurable utility
  24. 24. LEVELS OF ANALYSISINDIVIDUAL• Volunteer• BeneficiaryMICRO-STRUCTURAL• Organization• Family• NeighborhoodMACRO-STRUCTURAL• Eco-system• Industry• Economy• Nation• World
  25. 25. THE VOLUNTEERING FEEDBACK LOOP ANTECEDENTS FEEDBACK EXPERIENCES IMPACTS OUTPUTS OUTCOMES
  26. 26. THE VOLUNTEERING FEEDBACK LOOP ANTECEDENTS FEEDBACK EXPERIENCES IMPACTS OUTPUTS OUTCOMES
  27. 27. ANTECEDENTSMOTIVATION •Altruism •Solidarity/duty •Self-interestPERSONALITY •Empathy •GregariousnessPERSONAL RESOURCES •Qualifications • Education • Available timeOPPORTUNITY COST •Value of foregone activitiesTRANSACTION COST • Training •Transportation /accommodationsEXPECTATIONS • Volunteers •Organizations •BeneficiariesMACRO STRUCTURAL FACTORS • Opportunity structure •Social values and norms
  28. 28. THE VOLUNTEERING FEEDBACK LOOP ANTECEDENTS FEEDBACK EXPERIENCES IMPACTS OUTPUTS OUTCOMES
  29. 29. EXPERIENCESMANAGEMENT• Adequate capacity deployment• Task assignment and coordination• Supervision and feedback• Reliability and retentionEXTERNALITIES• Effect on paid staff and clients• Legal liability• Legitimacy• Satisfaction, stress, burnout
  30. 30. THE VOLUNTEERING FEEDBACK LOOP ANTECEDENTS FEEDBACK EXPERIENCES IMPACTS OUTPUTS OUTCOMES
  31. 31. OUTPUTSWORK UNITS PERFORMED • Number of hours • Number of FTE jobs • Value of laborPEOPLE INVOLVED • Number of volunteers • Number of beneficiariesSERVICES RENDERED • Physical output (number of procedures, planted trees, tons of waste removed, etc.) • Value of physical output
  32. 32. OUTCOMESBENEFICIARIES • Value of services rendered • Costs or “bads” avoidedVOLUNTEERS • Satisfaction • Jobs skills • Social/cultural capital gainORGANIZATIONS • Value of services produced • Labor costs saved • LegitimacyECO-SYSTEMS (Communities, countries) • Value of services • “Multiplier effect” of services • Costs or “bads” avoided • Employment training
  33. 33. IMPACTSBENEFICIARIES • Changes in life quality • Changes of value systemVOLUNTEERS • Mental /emotional health • Physical health • Career development • Social/cultural capital gain • Life satisfactionORGANIZATIONS • Staff / capacity development • Community relations • LegitimacyECO-SYSTEMS (Communities, countries) • Social solidarity / integration • Peace and cooperation • Self-governance • Labor force development • Economic /social development
  34. 34. THE VOLUNTEERING FEEDBACK LOOP ANTECEDENTS FEEDBACK EXPERIENCES IMPACTS OUTPUTS OUTCOMES
  35. 35. FEEDBACKPOSITIVE – Satisfaction Willingness to volunteer moreVOLUNTEER POSITIVE – Creation of value Volunteering friendly environmentECOSYSTEMNEGATIVE – Stress/burnout Emotional problems, unwillingnessVOLUNTEER to volunteer Loss of productivityNEGATIVE – Mission failure, conflict or legitimacy, unwillingnesECOSYSTEM s to use volunteers
  36. 36. VALUE OF VOLUNTEERING ASSESSMENTS BASIS OF VALUATIONFOCUS OF VALUATION Declared Observed value of comparable volunteer input input Observed Declared value of value of comparable volunteer output output
  37. 37. VALUE OF VOLUNTEERING TO RECIPIENTS • Replacement cost of volunteer INPUT RECIPIENTS labor • Contingent valuation of volunteer input • Market value of volunteerOUTPUT service • Contingent valuation of volunteer service
  38. 38. VALUE OF VOLUNTEERING TO VOLUNTEERS • Opportunity cost (value of VOLUNTEERS foregone activities) COST • Transaction cost (cost of engaging in volunteer activities) • Satisfaction BENEFIT • • Job skill /career Social connections • Social status
  39. 39. FUTURE STEPS1. Build volunteer measurement capacity2. Continue promotion of ILO Manual3. Secure buy-in from Eurostat and national statistical agencies4. Build on the foundation: broader impacts, strengthened infrastructure, enabling policy5. Facilitate collaboration of
  40. 40. THANK YOU!FOR INFORMATION ON ALL OUR PROJECTS, PLEASE VISIT CCSS.JHU.EDU

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