Sensor networks a survey
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Sensor networks a survey

on

  • 3,950 views

Sensor networks a survey

Sensor networks a survey

Statistics

Views

Total Views
3,950
Views on SlideShare
3,950
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
4
Downloads
440
Comments
1

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • gud 1..quite helpful!!
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Sensor networks a survey Sensor networks a survey Presentation Transcript

  • Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam and E. Cayirci Presented by Yuyan Xue 11-30-2005
  • Outline
    • Introduction
    • Applications of sensor networks
    • Factors influencing sensor network design
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Conclusion
  • Introduction
    • A sensor network is composed of a large number of sensor nodes, which are densely deployed either inside the phenomenon or very close to it.
    • Random deployment
    • Cooperative capabilities
  • Introduction
    • Sensor networks VS ad hoc networks:
    • The number of nodes in a sensor network can be several orders of magnitude higher than the nodes in an ad hoc network.
    • Sensor nodes are densely deployed.
    • Sensor nodes are limited in power, computational capacities and memory.
    • Sensor nodes are prone to failures.
    • The topology of a sensor network changes frequently.
    • Sensor nodes mainly use broadcast, most ad hoc networks are based on p2p.
    • Sensor nodes may not have global ID.
  • Applications of Sensor networks
  • Applications of sensor networks
    • Military applications
    • Monitoring friendly forces, equipment and ammunition
    • Reconnaissance of opposing forces and terrain
    • Battlefield surveillance
    • Battle damage assessment
    • Nuclear, biological and chemical attack detection
  • Applications of sensor networks
    • Environmental applications
    • Forest fire detection
    • Biocomplexity mapping of the environment
    • Flood detection
    • Precision agriculture
  • Applications of sensor networks
    • Health applications
    • Tele-monitoring of human physiological data
    • Tracking and monitoring patients and doctors inside a hospital
    • Drug administration in hospitals
  • Applications of sensor networks
    • Home and other commercial applications
    • Home automation and Smart environment
    • Interactive museums
    • Managing inventory control
    • Vehicle tracking and detection
    • Detecting and monitoring car thefts
  • Factors Influencing Sensor Network Design
  • Factors influencing sensor network design
  • Factors influencing sensor network design
    • Fault Tolerance
    • Scalability
    • Hardware Constrains
    • Sensor Network Topology
    • Environment
    • Transmission Media
    • Power Consumption
  • Factors influencing sensor network design
    • Fault tolerance
    • Fault tolerance is the ability to sustain sensor network functionalities without any interruption due to sensor node failures.
    • The fault tolerance level depends on the application of the sensor networks.
  • Factors influencing sensor network design
    • Scalability
    • Scalability measures the density of the sensor nodes.
    • Density = (R) =(N R 2 )/A R – Radio Transmission Range
  • Factors influencing sensor network design
    • Production costs
    • The cost of a single node is very important to justify the overall cost of the networks.
    • The cost of a sensor node is a very challenging issue given the amount of functionalities with a price of much less than a dollar.
  • Factors influencing sensor network design
    • Hardware constraints
  • Factors influencing sensor network design
    • Sensor network topology
    • Pre-deployment and deployment phase
    • Post-deployment phase
    • Re-deployment of additional nodes phase
  • Factors influencing sensor network design
    • Environment
    • Busy intersections
    • Interior of a large machinery
    • Bottom of an ocean
    • Surface of an ocean during a tornado
    • Biologically or chemically contaminated field
    • Battlefield beyond the enemy lines
    • Home or a large building
    • Large warehouse
    • Animals
    • Fast moving vehicles
    • Drain or river moving with current.
  • Factors influencing sensor network design
    • Transmission media
    • In a multihop sensor network, communicating nodes are linked by a wireless medium. To enable global operation, the chosen transmission medium must be available worldwide.
    • Radio
    • infrared
    • optical media
  • Factors influencing sensor network design
    • Power Consumption
    • Sensing
    • Communication
    • Data processing
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Combine power and routing awareness
    • Integrates date with networking protocols
    • Communicates power efficiently through the wireless medium
    • Promotes cooperative efforts among sensor nodes.
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Physical layer :
    • Address the needs of simple but robust modulation, transmission, and receiving techniques.
    • frequency selection
    • carrier frequency generation
    • signal detection and propagation
    • signal modulation and data encryption.
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Propagation Effects Minimum output power (d n 2=<n<4) Ground reflect – Multihop in dense sensor net work
    • Power Efficiency Modulation Scheme M-ary Modulation scheme Ultra wideband(impulse radio)
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Open research issues
    • Modulation schemes
    • Strategies to overcome signal propagation effects
    • Hardware design: transceiver
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Data link layer:
    • The data link layer is responsible for the multiplexing of data stream, data frame detection, the medium access and error control.
    • Medium Access Control
    • Power Saving Modes of Operation
    • Error Control
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Medium access control
    • Creation of the network infrastructure
    • Fairly and efficiently share communication resources between sensor nodes
    • Existing MAC protocols (Cellular System, Bluetooth and mobile ad hoc network)
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • MAC for Sensor Networks
    • Self-organizing medium access control for sensor networks and Eaves-drop-and-register Algorithm
    • CSMA-Based Medium Access
    • Hybrid TDMA/FDMA-Based
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Power Saving Modes of Operation
    • Sensor nodes communicate using short data packets
    • The shorter the packets, the more dominance of startup energy
    • Operation in a power saving mode is energy efficient only if the time spent in that mode is greater than a certain threshold .
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Error Control
    • Error control modes in Communication Networks (additional retransmission energy cost) Forward Error Correction (FEC) Automatic repeat request (ARQ)
    • Simple error control codes with low-complexity encoding and decoding might present the best solutions for sensor networks.
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Open research issues
    • MAC for mobile sensor networks
    • Determination of lower bounds on the energy required for sensor network self-organization
    • Error control coding schemes.
    • Power saving modes of operation
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Network layer:
    • Power efficiency is always an important consideration.
    • Sensor networks are mostly data centric.
    • Data aggregation is useful only when it does not hinder the collaborative effort of the sensor nodes.
    • An ideal sensor network has attribute-based addressing and location awareness.
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Maximum available power (PA) route: Route 2
    • Minimum energy (ME) route: Route 1
    • Minimum hop (MH) route: Route 3
    • Maximum minimum PA node route: Route 3
    • Minimum longest edge route: Route 1
    Energy Efficient Routes
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Interest Dissemination
    • Sinks broadcast the interest
    • Sensor nodes broadcast the advertisements
    • Attribute-based naming “ The areas where the temperature is over 70 o F ” “The temperature read by a certain node ”
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Data aggregation
    • Solve implosion and overlap Problem
    • Aggregation based on same attribute of phenomenon
    • Specifics (the locations of reporting sensor nodes) should not be left out
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks Several Network Layer Schemes for Sensor Networks
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Open research issues
    • New protocols need to be developed to address higher topology changes and higher scalability.
    • New internetworking schemes should be developed to allow easy communication between the sensor networks and external networks.
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Transport layer:
    • This layer is especially needed when the system is planned to be accessed through Internet or other external networks.
    • TCP/UDP type protocols meet most requirements (not based on global addressing).
    • Little attempt thus far to propose a scheme or to discuss the issues related to the transport layer of a sensor network in literature.
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Open research issues
    • Because acknowledgments are too costly, new schemes that split the end-to-end communication probably at the sinks may be needed.
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Application layer:
    • Management protocol makes the hardware and software of the lower layers transparent to the sensor network management applications.
    • Sensor management protocol (SMP)
    • Task assignment and data advertisement protocol (TADAP)
    • Sensor query and data dissemination protocol (SQDDP)
  • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Sensor management protocol (SMP)
    • Introducing the rules related to data aggregation, attribute-based naming, and clustering to the sensor nodes
    • Exchanging data related to the location
    • finding algorithms
    • Time synchronization of the sensor nodes
    • Moving sensor nodes
    • Turning sensor nodes on and off
    • Querying the sensor network configuration and the status of nodes, and reconfiguring the sensor network
    • Authentication, key distribution, and security in data communications
  •  
  • Some Other Interesting Applications
    • MIT d'Arbeloff Lab – The ring sensor
      • Monitors the physiological status of the wearer and transmits the information to the medical professional over the Internet
    • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
      • Nose-on-a-chip is a MEMS-based sensor
      • It can detect 400 species of gases and transmit a signal indicating the level to a central control station
  • iButton
    • A 16mm computer chip armored in a stainless steel can
    • Up-to-date information can travel with a person or object
    • Types of i-Button
      • Memory Button
      • Java Powered Cryptographic iButton
      • Thermochron iButton
  • iButton Applications
    • Caregivers Assistance
      • Do not need to keep a bunch of keys. Only one iButton will do the work
    • Elder Assistance
      • They do not need to enter all their personal information again and again. Only one touch of iButton is sufficient
      • They can enter their ATM card information and PIN with iButton
      • Vending Machine Operation Assistance
  • iBadge - UCLA
    • Investigate behavior of children/patient
    • Features:
      • Speech recording / replaying
      • Position detection
      • Direction detection / estimation(compass)
      • Weather data: Temperature, Humidity, Pressure, Light
  • iBadge - UCLA
  • Conclusion
    • Applications of sensor networks
    • Factors influencing sensor network design
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks