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Sensor networks a survey
 

Sensor networks a survey

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Sensor networks a survey

Sensor networks a survey

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    Sensor networks a survey Sensor networks a survey Presentation Transcript

    • Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam and E. Cayirci Presented by Yuyan Xue 11-30-2005
    • Outline
      • Introduction
      • Applications of sensor networks
      • Factors influencing sensor network design
      • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Conclusion
    • Introduction
      • A sensor network is composed of a large number of sensor nodes, which are densely deployed either inside the phenomenon or very close to it.
      • Random deployment
      • Cooperative capabilities
    • Introduction
      • Sensor networks VS ad hoc networks:
      • The number of nodes in a sensor network can be several orders of magnitude higher than the nodes in an ad hoc network.
      • Sensor nodes are densely deployed.
      • Sensor nodes are limited in power, computational capacities and memory.
      • Sensor nodes are prone to failures.
      • The topology of a sensor network changes frequently.
      • Sensor nodes mainly use broadcast, most ad hoc networks are based on p2p.
      • Sensor nodes may not have global ID.
    • Applications of Sensor networks
    • Applications of sensor networks
      • Military applications
      • Monitoring friendly forces, equipment and ammunition
      • Reconnaissance of opposing forces and terrain
      • Battlefield surveillance
      • Battle damage assessment
      • Nuclear, biological and chemical attack detection
    • Applications of sensor networks
      • Environmental applications
      • Forest fire detection
      • Biocomplexity mapping of the environment
      • Flood detection
      • Precision agriculture
    • Applications of sensor networks
      • Health applications
      • Tele-monitoring of human physiological data
      • Tracking and monitoring patients and doctors inside a hospital
      • Drug administration in hospitals
    • Applications of sensor networks
      • Home and other commercial applications
      • Home automation and Smart environment
      • Interactive museums
      • Managing inventory control
      • Vehicle tracking and detection
      • Detecting and monitoring car thefts
    • Factors Influencing Sensor Network Design
    • Factors influencing sensor network design
    • Factors influencing sensor network design
      • Fault Tolerance
      • Scalability
      • Hardware Constrains
      • Sensor Network Topology
      • Environment
      • Transmission Media
      • Power Consumption
    • Factors influencing sensor network design
      • Fault tolerance
      • Fault tolerance is the ability to sustain sensor network functionalities without any interruption due to sensor node failures.
      • The fault tolerance level depends on the application of the sensor networks.
    • Factors influencing sensor network design
      • Scalability
      • Scalability measures the density of the sensor nodes.
      • Density = (R) =(N R 2 )/A R – Radio Transmission Range
    • Factors influencing sensor network design
      • Production costs
      • The cost of a single node is very important to justify the overall cost of the networks.
      • The cost of a sensor node is a very challenging issue given the amount of functionalities with a price of much less than a dollar.
    • Factors influencing sensor network design
      • Hardware constraints
    • Factors influencing sensor network design
      • Sensor network topology
      • Pre-deployment and deployment phase
      • Post-deployment phase
      • Re-deployment of additional nodes phase
    • Factors influencing sensor network design
      • Environment
      • Busy intersections
      • Interior of a large machinery
      • Bottom of an ocean
      • Surface of an ocean during a tornado
      • Biologically or chemically contaminated field
      • Battlefield beyond the enemy lines
      • Home or a large building
      • Large warehouse
      • Animals
      • Fast moving vehicles
      • Drain or river moving with current.
    • Factors influencing sensor network design
      • Transmission media
      • In a multihop sensor network, communicating nodes are linked by a wireless medium. To enable global operation, the chosen transmission medium must be available worldwide.
      • Radio
      • infrared
      • optical media
    • Factors influencing sensor network design
      • Power Consumption
      • Sensing
      • Communication
      • Data processing
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Combine power and routing awareness
      • Integrates date with networking protocols
      • Communicates power efficiently through the wireless medium
      • Promotes cooperative efforts among sensor nodes.
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Physical layer :
      • Address the needs of simple but robust modulation, transmission, and receiving techniques.
      • frequency selection
      • carrier frequency generation
      • signal detection and propagation
      • signal modulation and data encryption.
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Propagation Effects Minimum output power (d n 2=<n<4) Ground reflect – Multihop in dense sensor net work
      • Power Efficiency Modulation Scheme M-ary Modulation scheme Ultra wideband(impulse radio)
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Open research issues
      • Modulation schemes
      • Strategies to overcome signal propagation effects
      • Hardware design: transceiver
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Data link layer:
      • The data link layer is responsible for the multiplexing of data stream, data frame detection, the medium access and error control.
      • Medium Access Control
      • Power Saving Modes of Operation
      • Error Control
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Medium access control
      • Creation of the network infrastructure
      • Fairly and efficiently share communication resources between sensor nodes
      • Existing MAC protocols (Cellular System, Bluetooth and mobile ad hoc network)
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • MAC for Sensor Networks
      • Self-organizing medium access control for sensor networks and Eaves-drop-and-register Algorithm
      • CSMA-Based Medium Access
      • Hybrid TDMA/FDMA-Based
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Power Saving Modes of Operation
      • Sensor nodes communicate using short data packets
      • The shorter the packets, the more dominance of startup energy
      • Operation in a power saving mode is energy efficient only if the time spent in that mode is greater than a certain threshold .
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Error Control
      • Error control modes in Communication Networks (additional retransmission energy cost) Forward Error Correction (FEC) Automatic repeat request (ARQ)
      • Simple error control codes with low-complexity encoding and decoding might present the best solutions for sensor networks.
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Open research issues
      • MAC for mobile sensor networks
      • Determination of lower bounds on the energy required for sensor network self-organization
      • Error control coding schemes.
      • Power saving modes of operation
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Network layer:
      • Power efficiency is always an important consideration.
      • Sensor networks are mostly data centric.
      • Data aggregation is useful only when it does not hinder the collaborative effort of the sensor nodes.
      • An ideal sensor network has attribute-based addressing and location awareness.
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Maximum available power (PA) route: Route 2
      • Minimum energy (ME) route: Route 1
      • Minimum hop (MH) route: Route 3
      • Maximum minimum PA node route: Route 3
      • Minimum longest edge route: Route 1
      Energy Efficient Routes
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Interest Dissemination
      • Sinks broadcast the interest
      • Sensor nodes broadcast the advertisements
      • Attribute-based naming “ The areas where the temperature is over 70 o F ” “The temperature read by a certain node ”
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Data aggregation
      • Solve implosion and overlap Problem
      • Aggregation based on same attribute of phenomenon
      • Specifics (the locations of reporting sensor nodes) should not be left out
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks Several Network Layer Schemes for Sensor Networks
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Open research issues
      • New protocols need to be developed to address higher topology changes and higher scalability.
      • New internetworking schemes should be developed to allow easy communication between the sensor networks and external networks.
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Transport layer:
      • This layer is especially needed when the system is planned to be accessed through Internet or other external networks.
      • TCP/UDP type protocols meet most requirements (not based on global addressing).
      • Little attempt thus far to propose a scheme or to discuss the issues related to the transport layer of a sensor network in literature.
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Open research issues
      • Because acknowledgments are too costly, new schemes that split the end-to-end communication probably at the sinks may be needed.
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Application layer:
      • Management protocol makes the hardware and software of the lower layers transparent to the sensor network management applications.
      • Sensor management protocol (SMP)
      • Task assignment and data advertisement protocol (TADAP)
      • Sensor query and data dissemination protocol (SQDDP)
    • Communication architecture of sensor networks
      • Sensor management protocol (SMP)
      • Introducing the rules related to data aggregation, attribute-based naming, and clustering to the sensor nodes
      • Exchanging data related to the location
      • finding algorithms
      • Time synchronization of the sensor nodes
      • Moving sensor nodes
      • Turning sensor nodes on and off
      • Querying the sensor network configuration and the status of nodes, and reconfiguring the sensor network
      • Authentication, key distribution, and security in data communications
    •  
    • Some Other Interesting Applications
      • MIT d'Arbeloff Lab – The ring sensor
        • Monitors the physiological status of the wearer and transmits the information to the medical professional over the Internet
      • Oak Ridge National Laboratory
        • Nose-on-a-chip is a MEMS-based sensor
        • It can detect 400 species of gases and transmit a signal indicating the level to a central control station
    • iButton
      • A 16mm computer chip armored in a stainless steel can
      • Up-to-date information can travel with a person or object
      • Types of i-Button
        • Memory Button
        • Java Powered Cryptographic iButton
        • Thermochron iButton
    • iButton Applications
      • Caregivers Assistance
        • Do not need to keep a bunch of keys. Only one iButton will do the work
      • Elder Assistance
        • They do not need to enter all their personal information again and again. Only one touch of iButton is sufficient
        • They can enter their ATM card information and PIN with iButton
        • Vending Machine Operation Assistance
    • iBadge - UCLA
      • Investigate behavior of children/patient
      • Features:
        • Speech recording / replaying
        • Position detection
        • Direction detection / estimation(compass)
        • Weather data: Temperature, Humidity, Pressure, Light
    • iBadge - UCLA
    • Conclusion
      • Applications of sensor networks
      • Factors influencing sensor network design
      • Communication architecture of sensor networks