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Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
Sensor networks a survey
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Sensor networks a survey

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Sensor networks a survey

Sensor networks a survey

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  • 1. Wireless Sensor Networks: A Survey I. F. Akyildiz, W. Su, Y. Sankarasubramaniam and E. Cayirci Presented by Yuyan Xue 11-30-2005
  • 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Applications of sensor networks </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing sensor network design </li></ul><ul><li>Communication architecture of sensor networks </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  • 3. Introduction <ul><li>A sensor network is composed of a large number of sensor nodes, which are densely deployed either inside the phenomenon or very close to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Random deployment </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative capabilities </li></ul>
  • 4. Introduction <ul><li>Sensor networks VS ad hoc networks: </li></ul><ul><li>The number of nodes in a sensor network can be several orders of magnitude higher than the nodes in an ad hoc network. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor nodes are densely deployed. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor nodes are limited in power, computational capacities and memory. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor nodes are prone to failures. </li></ul><ul><li>The topology of a sensor network changes frequently. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor nodes mainly use broadcast, most ad hoc networks are based on p2p. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor nodes may not have global ID. </li></ul>
  • 5. Applications of Sensor networks
  • 6. Applications of sensor networks <ul><li>Military applications </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring friendly forces, equipment and ammunition </li></ul><ul><li>Reconnaissance of opposing forces and terrain </li></ul><ul><li>Battlefield surveillance </li></ul><ul><li>Battle damage assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear, biological and chemical attack detection </li></ul>
  • 7. Applications of sensor networks <ul><li>Environmental applications </li></ul><ul><li>Forest fire detection </li></ul><ul><li>Biocomplexity mapping of the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Flood detection </li></ul><ul><li>Precision agriculture </li></ul>
  • 8. Applications of sensor networks <ul><li>Health applications </li></ul><ul><li>Tele-monitoring of human physiological data </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking and monitoring patients and doctors inside a hospital </li></ul><ul><li>Drug administration in hospitals </li></ul>
  • 9. Applications of sensor networks <ul><li>Home and other commercial applications </li></ul><ul><li>Home automation and Smart environment </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive museums </li></ul><ul><li>Managing inventory control </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle tracking and detection </li></ul><ul><li>Detecting and monitoring car thefts </li></ul>
  • 10. Factors Influencing Sensor Network Design
  • 11. Factors influencing sensor network design
  • 12. Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Fault Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Scalability </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware Constrains </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor Network Topology </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission Media </li></ul><ul><li>Power Consumption </li></ul>
  • 13. Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Fault tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Fault tolerance is the ability to sustain sensor network functionalities without any interruption due to sensor node failures. </li></ul><ul><li>The fault tolerance level depends on the application of the sensor networks. </li></ul>
  • 14. Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Scalability </li></ul><ul><li>Scalability measures the density of the sensor nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>Density = (R) =(N R 2 )/A R – Radio Transmission Range </li></ul>
  • 15. Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Production costs </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of a single node is very important to justify the overall cost of the networks. </li></ul><ul><li>The cost of a sensor node is a very challenging issue given the amount of functionalities with a price of much less than a dollar. </li></ul>
  • 16. Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Hardware constraints </li></ul>
  • 17. Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Sensor network topology </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-deployment and deployment phase </li></ul><ul><li>Post-deployment phase </li></ul><ul><li>Re-deployment of additional nodes phase </li></ul>
  • 18. Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Busy intersections </li></ul><ul><li>Interior of a large machinery </li></ul><ul><li>Bottom of an ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Surface of an ocean during a tornado </li></ul><ul><li>Biologically or chemically contaminated field </li></ul><ul><li>Battlefield beyond the enemy lines </li></ul><ul><li>Home or a large building </li></ul><ul><li>Large warehouse </li></ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul><ul><li>Fast moving vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Drain or river moving with current. </li></ul>
  • 19. Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Transmission media </li></ul><ul><li>In a multihop sensor network, communicating nodes are linked by a wireless medium. To enable global operation, the chosen transmission medium must be available worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>infrared </li></ul><ul><li>optical media </li></ul>
  • 20. Factors influencing sensor network design <ul><li>Power Consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Data processing </li></ul>
  • 21. Communication architecture of sensor networks
  • 22. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Combine power and routing awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Integrates date with networking protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates power efficiently through the wireless medium </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes cooperative efforts among sensor nodes. </li></ul>
  • 23. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Physical layer : </li></ul><ul><li>Address the needs of simple but robust modulation, transmission, and receiving techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>frequency selection </li></ul><ul><li>carrier frequency generation </li></ul><ul><li>signal detection and propagation </li></ul><ul><li>signal modulation and data encryption. </li></ul>
  • 24. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Propagation Effects Minimum output power (d n 2=<n<4) Ground reflect – Multihop in dense sensor net work </li></ul><ul><li>Power Efficiency Modulation Scheme M-ary Modulation scheme Ultra wideband(impulse radio) </li></ul>
  • 25. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Open research issues </li></ul><ul><li>Modulation schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Strategies to overcome signal propagation effects </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware design: transceiver </li></ul>
  • 26. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Data link layer: </li></ul><ul><li>The data link layer is responsible for the multiplexing of data stream, data frame detection, the medium access and error control. </li></ul><ul><li>Medium Access Control </li></ul><ul><li>Power Saving Modes of Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Error Control </li></ul>
  • 27. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Medium access control </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of the network infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly and efficiently share communication resources between sensor nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Existing MAC protocols (Cellular System, Bluetooth and mobile ad hoc network) </li></ul>
  • 28. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>MAC for Sensor Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Self-organizing medium access control for sensor networks and Eaves-drop-and-register Algorithm </li></ul><ul><li>CSMA-Based Medium Access </li></ul><ul><li>Hybrid TDMA/FDMA-Based </li></ul>
  • 29. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Power Saving Modes of Operation </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor nodes communicate using short data packets </li></ul><ul><li>The shorter the packets, the more dominance of startup energy </li></ul><ul><li>Operation in a power saving mode is energy efficient only if the time spent in that mode is greater than a certain threshold . </li></ul>
  • 30. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Error Control </li></ul><ul><li>Error control modes in Communication Networks (additional retransmission energy cost) Forward Error Correction (FEC) Automatic repeat request (ARQ) </li></ul><ul><li>Simple error control codes with low-complexity encoding and decoding might present the best solutions for sensor networks. </li></ul>
  • 31. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Open research issues </li></ul><ul><li>MAC for mobile sensor networks </li></ul><ul><li>Determination of lower bounds on the energy required for sensor network self-organization </li></ul><ul><li>Error control coding schemes. </li></ul><ul><li>Power saving modes of operation </li></ul>
  • 32. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Network layer: </li></ul><ul><li>Power efficiency is always an important consideration. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor networks are mostly data centric. </li></ul><ul><li>Data aggregation is useful only when it does not hinder the collaborative effort of the sensor nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>An ideal sensor network has attribute-based addressing and location awareness. </li></ul>
  • 33. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Maximum available power (PA) route: Route 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum energy (ME) route: Route 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum hop (MH) route: Route 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum minimum PA node route: Route 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum longest edge route: Route 1 </li></ul>Energy Efficient Routes
  • 34. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Interest Dissemination </li></ul><ul><li>Sinks broadcast the interest </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor nodes broadcast the advertisements </li></ul><ul><li>Attribute-based naming “ The areas where the temperature is over 70 o F ” “The temperature read by a certain node ” </li></ul>
  • 35. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Data aggregation </li></ul><ul><li>Solve implosion and overlap Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregation based on same attribute of phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Specifics (the locations of reporting sensor nodes) should not be left out </li></ul>
  • 36. Communication architecture of sensor networks Several Network Layer Schemes for Sensor Networks
  • 37. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Open research issues </li></ul><ul><li>New protocols need to be developed to address higher topology changes and higher scalability. </li></ul><ul><li>New internetworking schemes should be developed to allow easy communication between the sensor networks and external networks. </li></ul>
  • 38. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Transport layer: </li></ul><ul><li>This layer is especially needed when the system is planned to be accessed through Internet or other external networks. </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/UDP type protocols meet most requirements (not based on global addressing). </li></ul><ul><li>Little attempt thus far to propose a scheme or to discuss the issues related to the transport layer of a sensor network in literature. </li></ul>
  • 39. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Open research issues </li></ul><ul><li>Because acknowledgments are too costly, new schemes that split the end-to-end communication probably at the sinks may be needed. </li></ul>
  • 40. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Application layer: </li></ul><ul><li>Management protocol makes the hardware and software of the lower layers transparent to the sensor network management applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor management protocol (SMP) </li></ul><ul><li>Task assignment and data advertisement protocol (TADAP) </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor query and data dissemination protocol (SQDDP) </li></ul>
  • 41. Communication architecture of sensor networks <ul><li>Sensor management protocol (SMP) </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing the rules related to data aggregation, attribute-based naming, and clustering to the sensor nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Exchanging data related to the location </li></ul><ul><li>finding algorithms </li></ul><ul><li>Time synchronization of the sensor nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Moving sensor nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Turning sensor nodes on and off </li></ul><ul><li>Querying the sensor network configuration and the status of nodes, and reconfiguring the sensor network </li></ul><ul><li>Authentication, key distribution, and security in data communications </li></ul>
  • 42.  
  • 43. Some Other Interesting Applications <ul><li>MIT d'Arbeloff Lab – The ring sensor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitors the physiological status of the wearer and transmits the information to the medical professional over the Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oak Ridge National Laboratory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nose-on-a-chip is a MEMS-based sensor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It can detect 400 species of gases and transmit a signal indicating the level to a central control station </li></ul></ul>
  • 44. iButton <ul><li>A 16mm computer chip armored in a stainless steel can </li></ul><ul><li>Up-to-date information can travel with a person or object </li></ul><ul><li>Types of i-Button </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory Button </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Java Powered Cryptographic iButton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermochron iButton </li></ul></ul>
  • 45. iButton Applications <ul><li>Caregivers Assistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not need to keep a bunch of keys. Only one iButton will do the work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Elder Assistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They do not need to enter all their personal information again and again. Only one touch of iButton is sufficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can enter their ATM card information and PIN with iButton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vending Machine Operation Assistance </li></ul></ul>
  • 46. iBadge - UCLA <ul><li>Investigate behavior of children/patient </li></ul><ul><li>Features: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech recording / replaying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Position detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction detection / estimation(compass) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather data: Temperature, Humidity, Pressure, Light </li></ul></ul>
  • 47. iBadge - UCLA
  • 48. Conclusion <ul><li>Applications of sensor networks </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing sensor network design </li></ul><ul><li>Communication architecture of sensor networks </li></ul>

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