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  • 1. Weathering
  • 2. Weathering Bedrock provides the parent material for soil and mass movement on slopes Joints (fractures) in the bedrock provide the location for weathering to further break apart the rock Joints fracture according to the properties of the bedrock As bedrock weathers, it turns into regolith and finer sediment A major constituent of soil Types of weathering physical: dominant in dry, cool climates Produces gravel, sand and silt sized particles of soil chemical: dominant in wetter, warmer climates Produces silt and clay sized soil particles Typically operate together
  • 3. Physical Weathering Fragments and disintegrates rock without changing its chemical composition Types of physical weathering Frost Action moisture in rock joints freeze and expand expansion forces rock apart Crystallization Evaporation of water in rock joints deposits salt crystals Accumulation of crystals exerts an outward pressure in the joint, forces rock apart Hydration Some minerals in rocks are capable of absorbing water Gypsum: CaSO4·H2O Hydration of crystals cause them to expand, forcing rock apart Pressure-release jointing (exfoliation) Erosion of sedimentary layers over igneous intrusions removes weight, and outer layers of igneous rock break off in sheets
  • 4. Root Pressure
  • 5. Chemical Weathering Water alters the chemical properties of the rock through decomposition and decay Four types of chemical weathering Spheroidal weathering Water penetrates joints and fractures dissolves cementing materials rounds edges of the rock Hydrolysis Water reacts with minerals in the rock, creating new minerals Causes the crystal structure in the rock to fail Oxidation The oxygen in the water reacts with rock minerals to create varies oxides Oxides are bonded more weakly to the rock and erode away more easily Carbonation and solution Carbon dioxide dissolves in water vapor to form carbonic acid Carbonic acid in precipitation dissolves limestone (CaCO3)
  • 6. Spheroidal Weathering
  • 7. Spheroidal Weathering
  • 8. Oxidation