Temperature
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Temperature

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Temperature Temperature Presentation Transcript

  • Temperature Basic Concepts, Controls and Global Patterns
  • Overview
    • Temperature
      • Relevance to Physical Geography
    • Temperature Scales
    • Temperature Controls
      • Latitude
      • Altitude
      • Clouds
      • Continents and Oceans
    • Global Patterns
    • Urban Microclimate
  • Temperature
    • The average kinetic energy of particles of matter (atoms, molecules)
    • A direct consequence of insolation
    • A major component of climate
      • Increases moisture content of air
        • Increases availability of water (rainfall; weather)
          • Differentiates biomes
          • Sculpts landscapes
      • Increases rates of chemical reactions
        • Weathering (creation of landforms)
        • Decomposition (soil formation, nutrient cycling)
  • Measuring Temperature
    • Temperature scales
      • Fahrenheit
      • Celsius
      • Kelvin
        • absolute zero
  • Representing Temperature
    • The measures below are used in the assessment of climate for a given area. Notice that each builds on the other.
    • Daily Mean Temperature
      • Average of the high est and lowest temperature on a given day
    • Monthly Mean Temperature
      • A verage of daily mean temperatures in a given month
    • Annual Temperature Range
      • The mathematical difference between the highest and lowest monthly mean temperature in a year
  • Principle Temperature Controls
    • Latitude
      • Insolation
      • Daylength, sun angle
    • Altitude
      • Normal lapse rate (6.4 C o /km)
      • Lower average temperatures
      • Greater difference between daytime maximum and nighttime minimum temperatures
        • Increased nighttime cooling
    • Clouds
      • Albedo reduces daytime maximum temperature
      • Greenhouse effect raises the nighttime low temperature
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    • Continental and Maritime differences
      • Evaporation
        • Greater over oceans
        • Absorbs energy (latent heat), moderates temperatures
      • Transparency
        • Heating of land occurs mainly at the surface
        • Light penetrates water to a depth of 60m on average
          • Distributes heat energy
      • Specific Heat
        • The amount of heat energy something can absorb without changing phase
        • Water has a high specific heat capacity
          • water heats and cools slower than land
          • moderates temperatures
      • Movement
        • Convection currents in the ocean distribute heat
        • Ocean currents
          • Circulate heat latitudinally
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    • Maritime Effect
      • The ocean’s ability to absorb heat moderates temperatures
        • Decreases the range of temperatures
          • average high temperatures are lower
          • average low temperatures are higher
    • Continental Effect
      • Isolated from the ocean’s influence
      • Increases the range of temperatures
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  • Global Temperature Patterns
    • Terminology
      • Isotherms
      • Thermal Equator
    • Trends
      • The thermal equator shifts toward the subsolar point
      • Over Continents, isotherms dip toward the thermal equator
    • Annual Range
      • Northern Hemisphere influenced more by continental effect (high temperature range)
      • Southern Hemisphere influenced more by maritime effect
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