Temperature Basic Concepts, Controls and Global Patterns
Overview <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance to Physical Geography </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperature Scal...
Temperature <ul><li>The average kinetic energy of particles of matter (atoms, molecules) </li></ul><ul><li>A direct conseq...
Measuring Temperature <ul><li>Temperature scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fahrenheit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celsius </li>...
Representing Temperature <ul><li>The measures below are used in the assessment of climate for a given area.  Notice that e...
Principle Temperature Controls <ul><li>Latitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daylength, sun...
 
 
<ul><li>Continental and Maritime differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater over...
 
 
<ul><li>Maritime Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ocean’s ability to absorb heat moderates temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul...
 
 
Global Temperature Patterns <ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isotherms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal Equator...
 
 
 
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Temperature

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Temperature

  1. 1. Temperature Basic Concepts, Controls and Global Patterns
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance to Physical Geography </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temperature Scales </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Altitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clouds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continents and Oceans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Global Patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Urban Microclimate </li></ul>
  3. 3. Temperature <ul><li>The average kinetic energy of particles of matter (atoms, molecules) </li></ul><ul><li>A direct consequence of insolation </li></ul><ul><li>A major component of climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases moisture content of air </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increases availability of water (rainfall; weather) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiates biomes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sculpts landscapes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases rates of chemical reactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weathering (creation of landforms) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decomposition (soil formation, nutrient cycling) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Measuring Temperature <ul><li>Temperature scales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fahrenheit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celsius </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kelvin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>absolute zero </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Representing Temperature <ul><li>The measures below are used in the assessment of climate for a given area. Notice that each builds on the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Daily Mean Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average of the high est and lowest temperature on a given day </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monthly Mean Temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A verage of daily mean temperatures in a given month </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Annual Temperature Range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mathematical difference between the highest and lowest monthly mean temperature in a year </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Principle Temperature Controls <ul><li>Latitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Insolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daylength, sun angle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Altitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal lapse rate (6.4 C o /km) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower average temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater difference between daytime maximum and nighttime minimum temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased nighttime cooling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Clouds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Albedo reduces daytime maximum temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenhouse effect raises the nighttime low temperature </li></ul></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Continental and Maritime differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater over oceans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absorbs energy (latent heat), moderates temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heating of land occurs mainly at the surface </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Light penetrates water to a depth of 60m on average </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Distributes heat energy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific Heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The amount of heat energy something can absorb without changing phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water has a high specific heat capacity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>water heats and cools slower than land </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>moderates temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convection currents in the ocean distribute heat </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean currents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Circulate heat latitudinally </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 12. <ul><li>Maritime Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ocean’s ability to absorb heat moderates temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases the range of temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>average high temperatures are lower </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>average low temperatures are higher </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Continental Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolated from the ocean’s influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases the range of temperatures </li></ul></ul>
  9. 15. Global Temperature Patterns <ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Isotherms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal Equator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The thermal equator shifts toward the subsolar point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over Continents, isotherms dip toward the thermal equator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Annual Range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Hemisphere influenced more by continental effect (high temperature range) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Hemisphere influenced more by maritime effect </li></ul></ul>
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