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Module 2 Week 2 Crustal Processes
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Module 2 Week 2 Crustal Processes

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    Module 2 Week 2 Crustal Processes Module 2 Week 2 Crustal Processes Presentation Transcript

    • Crustal Processes
    • Overview
      • Orders of relief
        • Topographic regions
      • Crustal Formation
        • Oceanic and Continental crust
        • Displaced terranes
      • Crustal Deformation
        • Folding
        • Faults
        • Landforms
    • Orders of Relief
      • Relief refers to the relative difference in height between objects on the landscape (specifically, the difference in height between the highest and lowest point)
        • Plains: low relief
        • Mountainous areas: high relief
      • Topography : Variation in the relief of the Earth’s surface
      • Orders of Relief : classification of landscape by spatial scale
    • First Order of Relief
      • Continental platforms
        • The above-water landmasses
        • The continental shelves
      • Ocean basins
    •  
    • First order relief: ~ 9000 – 10,000 meters
    • Second Order of Relief
      • On continents:
        • continental masses (Edward’s Plateau)
        • mountain masses (Rocky Mts, Alps, Sierra Nevada)
        • plains (the Great Plains)
        • lowlands (west Siberia)
      • Oceans
        • continental rises and slopes (the slope of the continental shelf)
        • abyssal plains, mid-oceanic ridges, submarine canyons, subduction trenches
    • Third Order of Relief
      • Most detailed order of relief
      • Individual features on the landscape
        • single mountains, valleys, rivers, etc.
        • Mt. St. Helens, Lake Travis, etc.
    • Topographic Regions of the World
      • A classification system of second order features based on relief
      • Six categories
        • Plains
          • Local relief less than 100 meters
        • Hills and Low Tablelands
          • Hills: Relief between 100 and 600 meters
          • Low Tablelands: Elevation less than 1500 meters, relief less than 100 meters (an elevated plain)
        • High Tablelands
          • Elevation greater than 1500 meters, relief less than 300 meters
          • Canyons are often a feature of high table lands
        • Mountains: Relief greater than 600 meters
        • Widely Spaced Mountains
          • Discontinuous or solitary with 600 meter plus relief; intervening spaces have relief less than 150 meters
        • Depressions: Basins surrounded by other features
    •  
    • Crustal Formation
      • Three categories of continental crust
        • Residual mountains and continental cores from past tectonic activity
          • Inactive
          • Continental cores (shields) or the original crust around which the rest of a continent’s crust forms
          • Terranes: migrating pieces of crust that merge with larger continents
            • Much of the west coast is terranes, esp. Alaska, British Columbia and Mountain West
        • Active tectonic features: mountains, folding, faulting
          • New crust formed from seafloor spreading and subduction
        • Volcanic features
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    • Crustal Deformation
      • All rock types experience stress
      • Sources of stress
        • Tectonic forces
        • Gravity
        • Weight of overlying rocks
      • Types of Stress
        • Tension
        • Compression
        • Shear
      • Strain: how rocks respond to stress
        • folding – pliable layers
        • faulting – rigid layers: normal, reverse, and strike-slip
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    • Folding
      • Folding occurs in response to compression
      • Strata folded into a series of anticlines and synclines
        • Anticline
          • Antiform: young > old > young
        • Syncline
          • Synform: old > young > old
      • Domes and Basins
    •  
    • Surface: Antiform Profile: Anticline
    • Surface: Synform Profile: Syncline
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    • Faulting
      • Rock strata fracture when stresses are too great to be compensated for by folding
      • Displacement of strata on either side of fracture is called a fault
        • Normal Fault
          • Hanging wall slips below foot wall
        • Reverse and Thrust Fault
          • Hanging wall raised above foot wall
        • Strike-Slip Fault
      • Faulting occurs in sudden episodes which release energy, triggering earthquakes
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    • Horst and Graben
      • Systems of normal faults producing alternating ridges and valleys
      • Characteristic of the Basin and Range area of the western US.
    •