Mass Movement


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Mass Movement

  1. 1. Mass Movement
  2. 2. Overview Geomorphology Slope Processes Mass Movement (Mass Wasting)
  3. 3. Geomorphology The science of landforms Origin Processes of change Distribution on the planet Landforms are the product of Forces that build up the landforms Forces that wear it down or modify it Denudation weathering mass movement erosion, transportation and deposition Gravity and moving air, water, waves, and ice
  4. 4. Dynamic Equilibrium Model Energy constantly flowing through landscapes Potential energy: energy of position (gravity): uplift Kinetic energy: energy of motion: hydrologic cycle Heat energy: solar energy: sun Chemical energy: from atmosphere and within the crust Landforms are a balance between stabilizing forces (friction, inertia, cohesion) and destabilizing forces that can set things in motion Cycle Equilibrium stability A destabilizing event Adjustment New equilibrium stability
  5. 5. Slope Processes Erosion: weathering Transportation: Mass wasting Deposition: Debris slope, talus cone
  6. 6. Mass Movements Also called: Mass Wasting Weathering prepares material for movement Gravity sets material in motion Steepness of slope Friction and cohesive nature of the material Angle of repose Amount of moisture available Characteristics of a particular mass movement depend on speed of movement and amount of water mixed with the material Fall, slide, flow, creep
  7. 7. Angle of Repose The maximum angle at which slope material can be inclined without moving downslope It is a critical value for stability for a particular slope If the actual slope angle is less than the angle of repose, the slope is stable If the actual slope angle is greater than the angle of repose, mass movement can occur The angle of repose changes as slope conditions (such as soil moisture) changes The angle of repose can never be exceeded Angle of repose can decrease under severe motion (earthquakes) or saturation
  8. 8. Types of Mass Movements Rockfall Loose rocks fall through the air, accumulate in a talus cone High angle of repose Debris avalanche Rocks, debris and soil Extremely high velocity Water and ice often fluidize debris Landslide Unsaturated mass of bedrock and regolith that moves suddenly and rapidly Rotational slumping Translational slides Flows earthflow mudflow Creep: a persistent movement of soil down slope
  9. 9. Rockfall
  10. 10. Rotational block slump
  11. 11. Debris avalanche
  12. 12. Debris avalanche
  13. 13. Soil Creep
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