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Earth Sun

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    Earth Sun Earth Sun Presentation Transcript

    • Earth-Sun Relations Solar Energy and the Earth as an Object in Space
    • Overview
      • The Solar System
        • Formation
        • Structure
        • Earth’s place
        • Solar Radiation
      • Electromagnetic Radiation
        • Composition
        • Spectrum
      • Insolation
        • Strength and distribution of solar energy over the earth
      • Seasonality
        • Result of Earth’s orientation in the solar system and the distribution of insolation
    • Solar System
      • The Sun and all of its orbiting bodies
        • Ten planets and their satellites
        • Asteroids
        • Comets
      • Formation
        • Nebular Hypothesis (Planetesimal Hypothesis)
          • 4.6 billion years
          • Sun and planets coalesced through gravitational attraction from a debris cloud
      • Sun
      • Mercury
      • Venus
      • Earth
      • Mars
      • Asteroid Belt
        • (incl. Ceres)
      • Jupiter
      • Saturn
      • Uranus
      • Neptune
      • (Pluto)
      • (Eris)
      • (Haumea)
      • (Makemake)
      • Structure
        • Ecliptic: a plane in which the bodies of the solar system revolve around the sun
          • created by mutual gravitational pull of the planets on each other
          • Exceptions: Mercury, Pluto, Eris, Haumea, Makemake
        • Planets move in elliptical orbits
          • Sun at one focus
    •  
      • Earth’s orientation
        • Average distance to sun: 93 million miles (150 million km) which is said to equal one astronomical unit (AU).
          • Perihelion: January 3
          • Aphelion: July 4
        • Earth-Moon distance: 238,866 miles (384,400 km)
          • Moon’s orbit lies in the Ecliptic
        • Earth’s equatorial (rotational) plane is tilted 23.5 o from the plane of the ecliptic
        • Axial Parallelism
    •  
      • Solar radiation
        • The Sun is a fusion reactor, and creates and emits all of the chemical elements
        • Composition
          • Electromagnetic radiation
            • Light, in all of its forms
            • Travels at the speed of light, c
          • Solar Wind
            • charged particles emitted by the sun
            • electrons, protons, other light ions
            • The earth’s magnetic field (magnetosphere) captures these particles and funnels them to the earths north and south magnetic poles, causing the Aurora Borealis
            • Solar flares emit large amounts of these particles and cause sunspots
          • Heavier elements and molecules
    • Electromagnetic Radiation
      • Light in all of its forms
        • All EMR travels at the speed of light, c
          • c = 299,792 km/s or 186,000 miles/s
          • It takes light roughly 8.333 minutes to reach earth from the sun, the solar system is roughly 11 hours in diameter.
        • Types of EMR vary according to:
          • wavelength (  )
          • frequency ( f )
          • c =  f
          • High frequency radiation carries more energy
        • The classification of light according to wavelength and frequency yields the Electromagnetic Spectrum
          • Visible Light is in the mid-range of frequency and wavelength
    •  
      • Composition of Sunlight
        • 8% Ultraviolet and shorter
        • 47% Visible
        • 45% Infrared and Longer
      • The Sun emits both short- and long-wave radiation due to its high temperature
        • 11,000 o F (6000 o C)
      • The cooler Earth emits mainly long-wave radiation
    •  
    • Insolation
      • Intercepted Solar Radiation
        • Intensity
        • Distribution
      • Solar Constant
        • The Intensity of sunlight when it reaches the Thermopause (upper boundary of the atmosphere)
        • 1372 Watts per square meter
        • Actual intensity varies across the Earth’s surface
      • Distribution
        • Intensity greatest under the subsolar point
        • Intensity decreases with increased latitude
        • Intensity also varies with the seasons
    •  
    •  
    • Seasonality
      • An annual cycle of variation of insolation due to a variety of factors:
        • The rotational tilt of the Earth relative to the Ecliptic
        • Axial parallelism
        • The revolution of the Earth around the sun
        • The rotation of the Earth around its axis
          • Produces diurnal pattern of day and night
          • Circle of illumination
      • Results of these factors
        • Subsolar point moves between 23.5 o N and 23.5 o S
        • Changing length of day and night
      • Important seasonal dates:
        • June Solstice (6/21)
          • Northern pole points toward Sun
          • Tropic of Cancer (23.5 o N) is the subsolar point
          • Northern Summer, Southern Winter
          • North pole gets 24 hours of sun, South gets 24 hours of night
        • March and September Equinox (3/21; 9/22)
          • Neither pole points toward Sun
          • Equator is the subsolar point
          • Northern Spring, Southern Fall (March); Northern Fall, Southern Spring (September)
          • Every Place on the Earth gets 12 hours of daylight
        • December Solstice (12/21)
          • Southern pole points toward sun
          • Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 o S) is the subsolar point
          • Northern Winter, Southern Summer
          • North Pole gets 24 hours of night, South gets 24 hours of sun
    •  
    •