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Transcript

  • 1. Earth-Sun Relations Solar Energy and the Earth as an Object in Space
  • 2. Overview
    • The Solar System
      • Formation
      • Structure
      • Earth’s place
      • Solar Radiation
    • Electromagnetic Radiation
      • Composition
      • Spectrum
    • Insolation
      • Strength and distribution of solar energy over the earth
    • Seasonality
      • Result of Earth’s orientation in the solar system and the distribution of insolation
  • 3. Solar System
    • The Sun and all of its orbiting bodies
      • Ten planets and their satellites
      • Asteroids
      • Comets
    • Formation
      • Nebular Hypothesis (Planetesimal Hypothesis)
        • 4.6 billion years
        • Sun and planets coalesced through gravitational attraction from a debris cloud
    • Sun
    • Mercury
    • Venus
    • Earth
    • Mars
    • Asteroid Belt
      • (incl. Ceres)
    • Jupiter
    • Saturn
    • Uranus
    • Neptune
    • (Pluto)
    • (Eris)
    • (Haumea)
    • (Makemake)
  • 4.
    • Structure
      • Ecliptic: a plane in which the bodies of the solar system revolve around the sun
        • created by mutual gravitational pull of the planets on each other
        • Exceptions: Mercury, Pluto, Eris, Haumea, Makemake
      • Planets move in elliptical orbits
        • Sun at one focus
  • 5.  
  • 6.
    • Earth’s orientation
      • Average distance to sun: 93 million miles (150 million km) which is said to equal one astronomical unit (AU).
        • Perihelion: January 3
        • Aphelion: July 4
      • Earth-Moon distance: 238,866 miles (384,400 km)
        • Moon’s orbit lies in the Ecliptic
      • Earth’s equatorial (rotational) plane is tilted 23.5 o from the plane of the ecliptic
      • Axial Parallelism
  • 7.  
  • 8.
    • Solar radiation
      • The Sun is a fusion reactor, and creates and emits all of the chemical elements
      • Composition
        • Electromagnetic radiation
          • Light, in all of its forms
          • Travels at the speed of light, c
        • Solar Wind
          • charged particles emitted by the sun
          • electrons, protons, other light ions
          • The earth’s magnetic field (magnetosphere) captures these particles and funnels them to the earths north and south magnetic poles, causing the Aurora Borealis
          • Solar flares emit large amounts of these particles and cause sunspots
        • Heavier elements and molecules
  • 9. Electromagnetic Radiation
    • Light in all of its forms
      • All EMR travels at the speed of light, c
        • c = 299,792 km/s or 186,000 miles/s
        • It takes light roughly 8.333 minutes to reach earth from the sun, the solar system is roughly 11 hours in diameter.
      • Types of EMR vary according to:
        • wavelength (  )
        • frequency ( f )
        • c =  f
        • High frequency radiation carries more energy
      • The classification of light according to wavelength and frequency yields the Electromagnetic Spectrum
        • Visible Light is in the mid-range of frequency and wavelength
  • 10.  
  • 11.
    • Composition of Sunlight
      • 8% Ultraviolet and shorter
      • 47% Visible
      • 45% Infrared and Longer
    • The Sun emits both short- and long-wave radiation due to its high temperature
      • 11,000 o F (6000 o C)
    • The cooler Earth emits mainly long-wave radiation
  • 12.  
  • 13. Insolation
    • Intercepted Solar Radiation
      • Intensity
      • Distribution
    • Solar Constant
      • The Intensity of sunlight when it reaches the Thermopause (upper boundary of the atmosphere)
      • 1372 Watts per square meter
      • Actual intensity varies across the Earth’s surface
    • Distribution
      • Intensity greatest under the subsolar point
      • Intensity decreases with increased latitude
      • Intensity also varies with the seasons
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16. Seasonality
    • An annual cycle of variation of insolation due to a variety of factors:
      • The rotational tilt of the Earth relative to the Ecliptic
      • Axial parallelism
      • The revolution of the Earth around the sun
      • The rotation of the Earth around its axis
        • Produces diurnal pattern of day and night
        • Circle of illumination
    • Results of these factors
      • Subsolar point moves between 23.5 o N and 23.5 o S
      • Changing length of day and night
  • 17.
    • Important seasonal dates:
      • June Solstice (6/21)
        • Northern pole points toward Sun
        • Tropic of Cancer (23.5 o N) is the subsolar point
        • Northern Summer, Southern Winter
        • North pole gets 24 hours of sun, South gets 24 hours of night
      • March and September Equinox (3/21; 9/22)
        • Neither pole points toward Sun
        • Equator is the subsolar point
        • Northern Spring, Southern Fall (March); Northern Fall, Southern Spring (September)
        • Every Place on the Earth gets 12 hours of daylight
      • December Solstice (12/21)
        • Southern pole points toward sun
        • Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 o S) is the subsolar point
        • Northern Winter, Southern Summer
        • North Pole gets 24 hours of night, South gets 24 hours of sun
  • 18.  
  • 19.