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The Oceans, Coastal Processes and Landforms
Overview <ul><li>Oceans </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acti...
Oceans <ul><li>Chemical composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salts:  dissolved ionic compoun...
 
 
Coastal System Components <ul><li>Solar Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric winds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Crea...
 
Coastal System Actions <ul><li>Erosion, transport and deposition occur through the action of tides and breaking waves </li...
Lunar Phases Tide Predictor
Lunar Phases Tide Predictor
Lunar Phases Tide Predictor
Lunar Phases Tide Predictor
<ul><li>Waves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar > Wind > Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each wave crest is a pulse of energy <...
<ul><li>Wave refraction and coastal straightening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>erosive </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Longshore current and beach drift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>erosion, transportation, and deposition </li></ul></ul>
 
Coastal System Outputs <ul><li>Erosional processes and landforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rugged, high relief, tectonically a...
Erosional Landforms
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Depositional Landforms
 
 
 
 
Biological Processes <ul><li>Coral reefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coral polyps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete CaCO 3 ...
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Coastal Wetlands <ul><li>Salt marshes:  Poleward (N or S) of 30 o  latitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often form in intertidal...
 
 
 
 
 
 
Issues <ul><li>Oceans poorly understood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans are still hunter-gatherers on the oceans </li></ul></...
 
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Coastal

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Transcript of "Coastal"

  1. 1. The Oceans, Coastal Processes and Landforms
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Oceans </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outputs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biotic Components </li></ul>
  3. 3. Oceans <ul><li>Chemical composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salts: dissolved ionic compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cl - , Na + , Mg 2+ , SO 4 2- , Ca 2+ , K + , Br - </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salinity (parts per hundred) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Average: 3.5% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brine: >3.5% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Areas with high rates of evaporation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brackish: <3.5% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Areas at the mouths of rivers; estuaries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>N 2 , CO 2 , O 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical structure </li></ul>
  4. 6. Coastal System Components <ul><li>Solar Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atmospheric winds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create ocean waves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climatic regimes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gravitational Energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tides </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of coastal rock </li></ul><ul><li>Human activities </li></ul><ul><li>Terminology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Littoral zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shoreline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coast </li></ul></ul>
  5. 8. Coastal System Actions <ul><li>Erosion, transport and deposition occur through the action of tides and breaking waves </li></ul><ul><li>Tides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gravity: Moon and Sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tidal power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spring tides, neap tides </li></ul></ul>Lunar Phases Tide Predictor
  6. 9. Lunar Phases Tide Predictor
  7. 10. Lunar Phases Tide Predictor
  8. 11. Lunar Phases Tide Predictor
  9. 12. Lunar Phases Tide Predictor
  10. 13. <ul><li>Waves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar > Wind > Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each wave crest is a pulse of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>performs the erosive work </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>Wave refraction and coastal straightening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>erosive </li></ul></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Longshore current and beach drift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>erosion, transportation, and deposition </li></ul></ul>
  13. 17. Coastal System Outputs <ul><li>Erosional processes and landforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rugged, high relief, tectonically active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wave cut platform </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transport: longshore currents, beachdrift </li></ul><ul><li>Depositional processes and landforms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land with gentle relief, providing sediments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>barrier spit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bay barrier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tombolo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>barrier islands – often supports vegetation </li></ul></ul>
  14. 18. Erosional Landforms
  15. 26. Depositional Landforms
  16. 31. Biological Processes <ul><li>Coral reefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coral polyps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secrete CaCO 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Symbiotic with algae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific ecological niche – sensitive to changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 – 55 meters depth </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2.7 – 4.0 % salinity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>18 o – 29 o C water temperature </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clear, sediment free water </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sea-level rise and warming of ocean waters threatens coral reefs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If global trends were to stop immediately, it is estimated that 50% of the world’s coral reefs will die </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 39. Coastal Wetlands <ul><li>Salt marshes: Poleward (N or S) of 30 o latitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often form in intertidal zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often occur on barrier islands </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mangrove swamps: Between 30 o N and S latitude </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Grow on sediment accumulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve to shelter young fish, important for conservation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vegetation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrophytic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>halophytic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Estimated 40-80% loss over the last 10,000 years </li></ul>
  18. 46. Issues <ul><li>Oceans poorly understood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans are still hunter-gatherers on the oceans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We use the oceans as our universal dump </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shoreline development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development occurs on these constantly shifting landscapes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising seal levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rising ocean temperature </li></ul></ul>
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