Coastal
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Transcript

  • 1. The Oceans, Coastal Processes and Landforms
  • 2. Overview
    • Oceans
    • Coastal Systems
      • Components
      • Actions
      • Outputs
    • Biotic Components
  • 3. Oceans
    • Chemical composition
      • Water
      • Salts: dissolved ionic compounds
        • Cl - , Na + , Mg 2+ , SO 4 2- , Ca 2+ , K + , Br -
      • Salinity (parts per hundred)
        • Average: 3.5%
        • Brine: >3.5%
          • Areas with high rates of evaporation
        • Brackish: <3.5%
          • Areas at the mouths of rivers; estuaries
      • Atmospheric gases
        • N 2 , CO 2 , O 2
    • Physical structure
  • 4.  
  • 5.  
  • 6. Coastal System Components
    • Solar Energy
      • Atmospheric winds
        • Create ocean waves
      • Climatic regimes
    • Gravitational Energy
      • Tides
    • Characteristics of coastal rock
    • Human activities
    • Terminology
      • Littoral zone
      • Shoreline
      • Coast
  • 7.  
  • 8. Coastal System Actions
    • Erosion, transport and deposition occur through the action of tides and breaking waves
    • Tides
      • Gravity: Moon and Sun
        • Tidal power
      • Spring tides, neap tides
    Lunar Phases Tide Predictor
  • 9. Lunar Phases Tide Predictor
  • 10. Lunar Phases Tide Predictor
  • 11. Lunar Phases Tide Predictor
  • 12. Lunar Phases Tide Predictor
  • 13.
    • Waves
      • Solar > Wind > Water
      • Each wave crest is a pulse of energy
        • performs the erosive work
  • 14.
    • Wave refraction and coastal straightening
      • erosive
  • 15.
    • Longshore current and beach drift
      • erosion, transportation, and deposition
  • 16.  
  • 17. Coastal System Outputs
    • Erosional processes and landforms
      • Rugged, high relief, tectonically active
      • wave cut platform
    • Transport: longshore currents, beachdrift
    • Depositional processes and landforms
      • Land with gentle relief, providing sediments
      • beaches
      • barrier spit
      • bay barrier
      • tombolo
      • barrier islands – often supports vegetation
  • 18. Erosional Landforms
  • 19.  
  • 20.  
  • 21.  
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25.  
  • 26. Depositional Landforms
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31. Biological Processes
    • Coral reefs
      • Coral polyps
        • Secrete CaCO 3
        • Symbiotic with algae
        • Specific ecological niche – sensitive to changes
          • 10 – 55 meters depth
          • 2.7 – 4.0 % salinity
          • 18 o – 29 o C water temperature
          • clear, sediment free water
          • sea-level rise and warming of ocean waters threatens coral reefs
          • If global trends were to stop immediately, it is estimated that 50% of the world’s coral reefs will die
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35.  
  • 36.  
  • 37.  
  • 38.  
  • 39. Coastal Wetlands
    • Salt marshes: Poleward (N or S) of 30 o latitude
      • Often form in intertidal zone
      • Often occur on barrier islands
    • Mangrove swamps: Between 30 o N and S latitude
      • Grow on sediment accumulation
      • Serve to shelter young fish, important for conservation
    • Vegetation
      • hydrophytic
      • halophytic
    • Estimated 40-80% loss over the last 10,000 years
  • 40.  
  • 41.  
  • 42.  
  • 43.  
  • 44.  
  • 45.  
  • 46. Issues
    • Oceans poorly understood
      • Humans are still hunter-gatherers on the oceans
      • We use the oceans as our universal dump
    • Shoreline development
      • Development occurs on these constantly shifting landscapes
    • Climate change
      • Rising seal levels
      • Rising ocean temperature
  • 47.