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Escaping Test Hell - ACCU 2014

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My talk delivered on 10th of April 2014 in Bristol at ACCU Conference. …

My talk delivered on 10th of April 2014 in Bristol at ACCU Conference.
This is the combination of a few talks I delivered over 2012 and 2013 with some latest updates.

This is an experience report based on the work of many developers from Atlassian and Spartez working for years on Atlassian JIRA.
If you have (or going to have) thousands of automated tests and you are interested how it may impact you, this presentation is for you.

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  • @ChrisEdwards357, I've just noticed that the video from ACCU 2014 with my talk has been published at http://www.infoq.com/presentations/test-complexity
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  • @ChrisEdwards357, I was told by ACCU 2014 organizers that the video should be published within a few months (they publish one session per week). As soon as I am aware of it, I'll post the link here.
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  • Any chance you have the video or audio of this presentation?
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  • 1. Automated Test Hell Wojciech Seliga wojciech.seliga@spartez.com, @wseliga or There and Back Again
  • 2. About me • Coding since 6yo • Former C++ developer (’90s, early ’00s) • Agile Practices (inc.TDD) since 2003 • Dev Nerd,Tech Leader, Agile Coach, Speaker, PHB • 6.5 years with Atlassian (JIRA Dev Manager) • Spartez Co-founder & CEO
  • 3. XP Promise CostofChange Time Waterfall XP
  • 4. The Story
  • 5. 2.5 years ago
  • 6. About 50 engineers
  • 7. Obsessed with Quality
  • 8. Almost 10 years of accumulating garbage automatic tests
  • 9. 18 000 tests* on all levels 13 000 unit tests *excluding tests of the libraries 4 000 func and integration tests 1 000 Selenium tests
  • 10. Atlassian JIRA
  • 11. Our Continuous Integration environment
  • 12. Test frameworks • JUnit 3 and 4 • JMock, Easymock, Mockito • Powermock, Hamcrest • QUnit, HTMLUnit, Jasmine.js, Sinon.js • JWebUnit, Selenium, WebDriver • Custom runners
  • 13. Bamboo Setup • Dedicated server with 70+ remote agents (including Amazon Elastic) • Build engineers • Bamboo devs on-site
  • 14. Looks good so far?
  • 15. for each main branch
  • 16. Run in parallel in batches Run first
  • 17. There is Much More
  • 18. Type of tests • Unit • Functional • Integration • Platform • Performance
  • 19. Platforms • Dimension - DB: MySQL, PostgreSQL, MS SQL, Oracle • Dimension - OS: Linux, Windows • Dimension - Java ver.: 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8 • Dimension - CPU arch.: 32-bit, 64-bit • Dimension - Deployment Mode: Standalone, Tomcat, Websphere, Weblogic Run Nightly Coming
  • 20. Triggering Builds • On Commit (hooks, polling) • Dependent Builds • Nightly Builds • Manual Builds
  • 21. Very slow (long hours) and fragile feedback loop
  • 22. Serious performance and reliability issues
  • 23. It takes time to fix it...
  • 24. Sometimes very long
  • 25. You commit at 3 PM You get “Unit Test Green” email at 4PM You get flood of “Red Test X” emails at 4 - 9PM Your colleagues on the other side of the globe You happily go home You
  • 26. “We probably spend more time dealing with the JIRA test codebase than the production codebase”
  • 27. Dispirited devs accepting RED as a norm
  • 28. Broken window theory
  • 29. Feedback Speed ` Test Quality
  • 30. Catching up with UI changes Page Objects Pattern Problem: Solution:
  • 31. Page Objects Pattern • Page Objects model UI elements (pages, components, dialogs, areas) your tests interact with • Page Objects shield tests from changing internal structure of the page • Page Objects generally do not make assertions about data. The can assert the state. • Designed for chaining
  • 32. Page Objects Example public class AddUserPage extends AbstractJiraPage! {! ! private static final String URI = ! "/secure/admin/user/AddUser!default.jspa";! ! @ElementBy(name = "username")! private PageElement username;! ! @ElementBy(name = "password")! private PageElement password;! ! @ElementBy(name = "confirm")! private PageElement passwordConfirmation;! ! @ElementBy(name = "fullname")! private PageElement fullName;! ! @ElementBy(name = "email")! private PageElement email;! ! @ElementBy(name = "sendemail")! private PageElement sendEmail;! ! @ElementBy(id = "user-create-submit")! private PageElement submit;! ! @ElementBy (id = "user-create-cancel")! private PageElement cancelButton;! ! @Override! public String getUrl()! {! return URI;! }! ... @Override! public TimedCondition isAt()! {! return and(username.timed().isPresent(), ! password.timed().isPresent(), fullName.timed().isPresent());! }! ! public AddUserPage addUser(final String username, ! final String password, final String fullName, final String email, final boolean receiveEmail)! {! this.username.type(username);! this.password.type(password);! this.passwordConfirmation.type(password);! this.fullName.type(fullName);! this.email.type(email);! if(receiveEmail) {! this.sendEmail.select();! }! return this;! }! ! public ViewUserPage createUser()! {! return createUser(ViewUserPage.class);! }! ! ! public <T extends Page> T createUser(Class<T> nextPage, Object...args)! {! submit.click();! return pageBinder.bind(nextPage, args);! }!
  • 33. Using Page Objects @Test! public void testServerError()! {! jira.gotoLoginPage().loginAsSysAdmin(AddUserPage.class)! .addUser("username", "mypassword", "My Name",! "sample@email.com", false)! .createUser();! // assertions here! }!
  • 34. Opaque Test Fixtures REST-based Set-up Problem: Solution:
  • 35. REST-based Setup @Before! public void setUpTest() {! restore("some-big-xml-file-with-everything-needed-inside.xml");! }! @Before! public void setUpTest() {! restClient.restoreEmptyInstance();! restClient.createProject(/* project params */);! restClient.createUser(/* user params */);! restClient.createUser(/* user params */);! restClient.createSomethingElse(/* ... */);! }! VS
  • 36. Flakey Tests Timed Conditions Problem: Solution: Mock Unreliable Deps Test-friendly Markup
  • 37. Flakey Tests Quarantine Problem: Solution: Fix Eradicate
  • 38. Quarantine • @Ignore • @Category • Quarantine on CI server • Recover or Die
  • 39. Non-deterministic tests are strong inhibitor of change instead of the catalyst
  • 40. Execution Time: Test Level Unit Tests REST API Tests JWebUnit/HTMLUnit Tests Selenium/WebDriver Tests Speed Confidence
  • 41. Our example: Front-end-heavy web app 100 WebDriver tests: 100 QUnit tests: 15 minutes 1.2 seconds
  • 42. Test Pyramid Unit Tests (including JS tests) REST / HTML Tests Selenium Good!
  • 43. Test Code is Not Trash Design Maintain Refactor Share Review Prune Respect Discuss Restructure
  • 44. Optimum Balance Isolation Speed Coverage Level Access Effort
  • 45. Dangerous to temper with MaintainabilityQuality / Determinism
  • 46. Two years later…
  • 47. People - Motivation Making GREEN the norm
  • 48. Shades of Red
  • 49. Pragmatic CI Health
  • 50. Build Tiers and Policy Tier A1 - green soon after all commits Tier A2 - green at the end of the day Tier A3 - green at the end of the iteration unit tests and functional* tests WebDriver and bundled plugins tests supported platforms tests, compatibility tests
  • 51. Wallboards: Constant Awareness
  • 52. Training • assertThat over assertTrue/False and assertEquals • avoiding races - Atlassian Selenium with its TimedElement • Favouring unit tests over functional tests • Promoting Page Objects • Brownbags, blog posts, code reviews
  • 53. Quality
  • 54. Automatic Flakiness Detection Quarantine Re-run failed tests and see if they pass
  • 55. Quarantine - Healing
  • 56. SlowMo - expose races
  • 57. Selenium 1
  • 58. Selenium ditching Sky did not fall in
  • 59. Ditching - benefits • Freed build agents - better system throughput • Boosted morale • Gazillion of developer hours saved • Money saved on infrastructure
  • 60. Ditching - due diligence • conducting the audit - analysis of the coverage we lost • determining which tests needs to rewritten (e.g. security related) • rewriting the tests (good job for new hires + a senior mentor)
  • 61. Flaky Browser-based Tests Races between test code and asynchronous page logic Playing with "loading" CSS class does not really help
  • 62. Races Removal with Tracing // in the browser:! function mySearchClickHandler() {!     doSomeXhr().always(function() {!         // This executes when the XHR has completed (either success or failure)!         JIRA.trace("search.completed");"     });! }! // In production code JIRA.trace is a no-op // in my page object:! @Inject! TraceContext traceContext;!  ! public SearchResults doASearch() {!     Tracer snapshot = traceContext.checkpoint();!     getSearchButton().click(); // causes mySearchClickHandler to be invoked!     // This waits until the "search.completed"
 // event has been emitted, *after* previous snapshot    !     traceContext.waitFor(snapshot, "search.completed"); !     return pageBinder.bind(SearchResults.class);! }!
  • 63. Can we halve our build times? Speed
  • 64. Parallel Execution - Theory End of Build Batches Start of Build
  • 65. Parallel Execution End of Build Batches Start of Build
  • 66. Parallel Execution - Reality Bites End of Build Batches Start of Build Agent availability
  • 67. Dynamic Test Execution Dispatch - Hallelujah
  • 68. "You can't manage what you can't measure." not by W. Edwards Deming If you believe just in it you are doomed.
  • 69. You can't improve something if you can't measure it Profiler, Build statistics, Logs, statsd → Graphite
  • 70. Anatomy of Build* Compilation Packaging Executing Tests Fetching Dependencies *Any resemblance to maven build is entirely accidental SCM Update Agent Availability/Setup Publishing Results
  • 71. JIRA Unit Tests Build Compilation (7min) Packaging (0min) Executing Tests (7min) Fetching Dependencies (1.5min) SCM Update (2min) Agent Availability/Setup (mean 10min) Publishing Results (1min)
  • 72. Decreasing Test Execution Time to ZERRO alone would not let us achieve our goal!
  • 73. Agent Availability/Setup • starved builds due to busy agents building very long builds • time synchronization issue - NTPD problem
  • 74. • Proximity of SCM repo • shallow git clones are not so fast and lightweight + generating extra git server CPU load • git clone per agent/plan + git pull + git clone per build (hard links!) • Stash was thankful (queue) SCM Update - Checkout time 2 min → 5 seconds
  • 75. • Fix Predator • Sandboxing/isolation agent trade-off:
 rm -rf $HOME/.m2/repository/com/atlassian/*
 into
 find $HOME/.m2/repository/com/atlassian/ 
 -name “*SNAPSHOT*” | xargs rm • Network hardware failure found (dropping packets) Fetching Dependencies 1.5 min → 10 seconds
  • 76. Compilation • Restructuring multi-pom maven project and dependencies • Maven 3 parallel compilation FTW
 
 -T 1.5C
 *optimal factor thanks to scientific trial and error research
 7 min → 1 min
  • 77. Unit Test Execution • Splitting unit tests into 2 buckets: good and legacy (much longer) • Maven 3 parallel test execution (-T 1.5C) 7 min → 5 min 3000 poor tests (5min) 11000 good tests (1.5min)
  • 78. Functional Tests • Selenium 1 removal did help • Faster reset/restore (avoid unnecessary stuff, intercepting SQL operations for debug purposes - building stacktraces is costly) • Restoring via Backdoor REST API • Using REST API for common setup/ teardown operations
  • 79. Functional Tests
  • 80. Publishing Results • Server log allocation per test → using now Backdoor REST API (was Selenium) • Bamboo DB performance degradation for rich build history - to be addressed 1 min → 40 s
  • 81. Unexpected Problem • Stability Issues with our CI server • The bottleneck changed from I/O to CPU • Too many agents per physical machine
  • 82. JIRA Unit Tests Build Improved Compilation (1min) Packaging (0min) Executing Tests (5min) Fetching Dependencies (10sec) SCM Update (5sec) Agent Availability/Setup (3min)* Publishing Results (40sec)
  • 83. Improvements Summary Tests Before After Improvement % Unit tests 29 min 17 min 41% Functional tests 56 min 34 min 39% WebDriver tests 39 min 21 min 46% Overall 124 min 72 min 42% * Additional ca. 5% improvement expected once new git clone strategy is consistently rolled-out everywhere
  • 84. Better speed increases responsibility Fewer commits (authors) per single build vs.
  • 85. The Quality Follows
  • 86. But that's still bad We want CI feedback loop in a few minutes maximum
  • 87. Splitting The Codebase
  • 88. Inevitable Split - Fears • Organizational concerns - understanding, managing, integrating, releasing • Mindset change - if something worked for 10+ years why to change it? • Trust - does this library still work? • We damned ourselves with big buckets for all tests - where do they belong to?
  • 89. Splitting code base • Step 0 - JIRA Importers Plugin (3.5 years ago) • Step 1- New IssueView and Navigator • Step 2 - now everything else follows JIRA 6.0
  • 90. We are still escaping hell. Hell sucks in your soul.
  • 91. Conclusions • Visibility and problem awareness help • Maintaing huge testbed is difficult and costly • Measure the problem - to baseline • No prejudice - no sacred cows • Automated tests are not one-off investment, it's a continuous journey • Performance is a damn important feature
  • 92. Test performance is a damn important feature!
  • 93. XP vs Sad Reality CostofChange Time Waterfall XP - ideal Sad Reality
  • 94. Interested in such stuff? http://www.spartez.com/careers We are hiring in Gdańsk
  • 95. • Turtle - by Jonathan Zander, CC-BY-SA-3.0 • Loading - by MatthewJ13, CC-SA-3.0 • Magic Potion - by Koolmann1, CC-BY-SA-2.0 • Merlin Tool - by By L. Mahin, CC-BY-SA-3.0 • Choose Pills - by *rockysprings, CC-BY-SA-3.0 • Flashing Red Light - by Chris Phan, CC BY 2.0 • Frustration - http://www.flickr.com/photos/striatic • Broken window - http://www.flickr.com/photos/leeadlaf/ Images - Credits
  • 96. ThankYou!

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