Lesson2 skeletal
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Lesson2 skeletal

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Lesson2 skeletal Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Skeletal System
  • 2. Functions of the Skeleton
    • Movement: muscles act on the bones
    • Supports and protects vital organs
    • Storage centers for vital minerals
      • Calcium
    • Produce red blood cells
      • Bone marrow
  • 3. Structure of the Skeleton
    • Axial Skeleton – 80 bones
      • Skull, Spine, Ribs and sternum
  • 4. Axial Skeleton in blue
  • 5. Structure of the Skeleton
    • Appendicular Skeleton – 126 bones
      • Shoulders, arms, hands, hips, legs and feet
  • 6.  
  • 7. Types of Bones
    • Long bones: Arms and Legs (femur & humerus)
      • Shaft – diaphyses
      • End – epiphyses
        • Form joints
        • Produce red blood cells, most of the white blood cells, and platelets
  • 8. Types of Bones
    • Short Bones: wrist and hands (Metacarpals and Phalanges)
      • Mostly in the hands and feet
  • 9. Types of Bones
    • Flat Bones: Ribs and Skull
      • Thin and flat shape
      • Protect vital organs such as heart, lungs and brain
  • 10. Types of Bones
    • Irregular Bones: Shaped irregularly (vertebrae)
  • 11.  
  • 12. Types of Vertebrae C1: Atlas Holds the Head up C2: Axis Allows for rotation of the head
  • 13. Kevin Everett Injury
    • Dislocation between c3 and c4
    • Cold therapy was used to reduce swelling
  • 14. On the ride to the hospital, Cappuccino began cold therapy treatment. He had the ambulance air-conditioning set at the lowest temperature, as Everett received two liters (about two quarts) of ice-cold saline solution intravenously, and called the hospital to prepare a cooling blanket. “ There is no specific written protocol” for cold therapy, Cappuccino said. But he said the goal was to lower a patient’s body temperature to reduce inflammation and the destruction of cells in the spinal cord, which can lead to further damage. NY TIMES
  • 15. Cartilage
    • Strong flexible connective tissue
      • Where is cartilage found???
        • Ribs
        • Nose
        • Ears
        • Between vertebra
        • Knees
        • Basically any joints
  • 16. Cartilage
    • Functions:
      • Line surfaces of joints
      • Allow joints to move smoothly
      • Prevent bone on bone
      • Cushion joints especially vertebra
    • New born skeleton is mostly cartilage
      • Ossification: Process by which bone is formed, renewed and repaired
  • 17. Ligaments
    • Tough bands of fibrous, slightly elastic tissue that connect one bone to another.
    • Prevent excessive movement of the joint
    • Example: Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) attaches femur to the tibia
  • 18. Tendons
    • Fibrous cords that attach muscle to bone or muscle to muscle
    • Allow the muscles to act on bones
    • Example: Achilles tendon attaches the calcaneous
  • 19. Joints
    • Ball-and-socket: allows movement backward, forward, sideways, and in a circle.
      • Shoulder and hip
    • Joint with the largest range of motion
  • 20. Joints
    • Pivot: Allows for rotation
      • Between the first two vertebrae
      • Allows for rotation of the neck and head
  • 21. Joints
    • Hinge: Bending and straightening in one direction
      • Knees
      • Fingers
      • Elbow
    • Allow for some degree of rotation
  • 22. Injuries of the Joints
    • Dislocation:
      • Bone slips out of the joint
      • Usually accompanied by ligament or cartilage damage
      • Needs to be fixed by a Doctor
      • Joint needs to be immobilized so tissue can heal
  • 23.  
  • 24.  
  • 25. Injuries of the Joints
    • Torn Cartilage:
      • Sharp blow or severe twisting
      • Can be repaired with arthroscopic surgery
  • 26.  
  • 27. Injuries of the Joints
    • Bunion:
      • Swelling of the bursa in the joint of a big toe
      • Caused by wearing shoes that are to tight
      • Might require surgery
  • 28.  
  • 29. Injuries of the Joints
    • Arthritis:
      • Inflammation
      • Stiffness
      • Pain
      • Deformity of the joint
  • 30. Rheumatoid arthritis
  • 31.  
  • 32. Problems of Skeletal system
  • 33. Fractures
    • Hairline:
      • Incomplete
      • Parts of the bone do not separate
  • 34.  
  • 35. Fractures
    • Transverse:
      • Completely across the bone
      • Sharp or direct blow
      • Prolonged use of a damaged bone
  • 36.  
  • 37. Fractures
    • Comminuted fracture:
      • Bone shatters
      • Usually more than two pieces
  • 38.  
  • 39. Osteoporosis
    • Loss of bone mass
    • Bone density decreases
    • Bones break easily
    • Women are more vulnerable to this after menopause
      • Stop producing estrogen
  • 40.  
  • 41. Scoliosis
    • Lateral curvature of the spine
    • Treatment:
      • Exercise
      • Brace
      • Surgery
  • 42.  
  • 43. Repetitive Motion Injury
    • Damaged tissue caused by prolonged, repeated movements.
      • often job related
      • Carpal tunnel (weakness, tingling, burning)
  • 44.
    • Bones you need to know:
    • Clavicle
    • Scapula
    • Humerus
    • Pelvis
    • Femur
    • Radius
    • Ulna
    • Petella
    • Tibia
    • Fibula
    • Mandible
    • Phalanges