Solution Chemistry

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Discusses the properties of electrolytes and non electrolytes. Also freezing point depression and boiling point elevations. Solved problems are included.
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Solution Chemistry

  1. 1. Copyright Sautter 2015
  2. 2. SOLUTIONS & CONCENTRATIONS • WHAT IS A SOLUTION ? • WHAT IS CONCENTRATION & HOW IS IT MEASURED ? 2
  3. 3. IS DISSOLVING A CHEMICAL OF A PHYSICAL PROCESS ? • IF SUGAR IS DISSOLVED IN WATER IS ITS CHEMICAL NATURE CHANGED ? • NO !! • IF THE SOLUTION IS DRIED, A WHITE, SWEET CRYSTALLINE SUBSTANCE (SUGAR) IS OBSERVED. • THEREFORE DISSOLVING IS A PHYSICAL CHANGE. THE CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF A SUBSTANCE MUST BE CHANGED IN ORDER FOR A CHEMICAL CHANGE TO OCCUR ! 3
  4. 4. A SOLUTION THEN IS THE RESULT OF THE PHYSICAL CHANGE CALLED DISSOLVING, BUT PRECISELY, WHAT IS A SOLUTION? • THE OPPPOSITE OF A SOLUTION IS A SUSPENSION. • MUDDY WATER IS A SUSPENSION. • SUGAR DISSOLVED IN WATER IS A SOLUTION. • CAN YOU NAME SOME DIFFERENTS BETWEEN THEM? 4
  5. 5. SOME OBSERVED DIFFERENCES • DIFFERENCES IN CLARITY ! • DIFFERENCES IN UNIFORMITY ! • DIFFERENCES IN SETTLING ! • DIFFERENCES IN FILTRATION ! 5
  6. 6. CLARITY • SOLUTIONS ARE TRANSPARENT * • SUSPENSIONS ARE OPAQUE * • * ALTHOUGH SOLUTIONS ARE TRANSPARENT (YOU CAN SEE THROUGH THEM) THEY MAY BE COLORED • * OPAQUE MEANS CLOUDLY 6
  7. 7. UNIFORMITY • UNFORMITY OR HOMOGENOUS MEANS THE SAME THROUGHOUT • SOLUTIONS ARE HOMOGENOUS ( THE SAME AMOUNT OF DISSOLVED SUBSTANCE FOR THE SAME AMOUNT OF SOLUTION EVERYWHERE IN THE SYSTEM) • SUSPENSIONS ARE HETEROGENOUS (THE AMOUNT OF SUSPENSED MATERIAL DIFFERS FROM PLACE TO PLACE) • FOR EXAMPLE, THE AMOUNT OF MUD IS MORE CONCENTRATED AT THE BOTTOM THAN AT THE TOP 7
  8. 8. SETTLING OUT • SOLUTIONS NEVER SETTLE. THE DISSOLVED MATERIAL WILL NOT FALL OUT OF THE SOLUTION (UNLESS THE TEMPERATURE IS CHANGED) • IN SUSPENSIONS, EVENTUALLY THE SUSPENDED MATERIAL WILL FALL TO THE BOTTOM OF THE CONTAINER ! 8
  9. 9. FILTRATION • THE DISSOLVED MATERIAL IN A SOLUTION CANNOT BE FILTERED OUT BY ORDINARY MEANS (FOR EXAMPLE THE SALT CANNOT BE FILTERED FROM SEA WATER WITH FILTER PAPER) • IN A SUSPENSION SUCH A MUDDY WATER, THE SUSPENDED SUBSTANCE CAN BE FILTERED LEAVING A CLEAR LIQIUD 9
  10. 10. SOLUTIONS VS. SUPSENSIONS • SOLUTIONS • (1) TRANSPARENT • (2) HOMOGENOUS • (3) WILL NOT SETTLE OUT • (4) CANNOT BE FILTERED • SUSPENSIONS • (1) OPAQUE • (2) HETEROGENOUS • (3) WILL SETTLE OUT • (4) CAN BE FILTERED FOG COLLOIDAL SUSPENSION 10
  11. 11. WHAT IS A SOLUTION ? • DEFINITION: A SOLUTE DISSOLVED IN A SOLVENT (FOR EXAMPLE A SUGAR / WATER SOLUTION) • SOLUTE IS THE DISSOLVED SUBSTANCE (THE SUGAR) • SOLVENT IS THE DISSOLVING MEDIUM IN WHICH THE SOLUTE IS DISSOLVED (THE WATER) 11
  12. 12. WHAT COMBINATION OF PHASES CAN FORM SOLUTIONS ? • THINK OF SOME DIFFERENT KINDS OF SOLUTIONS. THEY MUST HAVE THE PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS TO BE CONSIDERED. • SOME COMMON COMBINATIONS: SOLID SOLUTE / LIQUID SOLVENT (SUGAR DISSOLVED IN WATER) • LIQUID SOLUTE / LIQUID SOLVENT (ANTIFREEZE DISSOLVED IN WATER) • GAS SOLUTE / LIQUID SOLVENT (SODA WATER – CARBON DIOXIDE DISSOLVED IN WATER) • GAS SOLUTE / GAS SOLVENT ( AIR – OXYGEN DISSOLVED IN NITROGEN) 12
  13. 13. WHAT ARE THE GENERAL CLASSIFICATIONS OF SOLUTIONS ? • THERE ARE GENERALLY TWO TYPES: ELECTROLYTES AND NON ELECTROLYTES • ELECTROLYTIC SOLUTIONS ARE ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTIVE. THEY CONSIST OF IONIC SOLUTES DISSOLVED IN POLAR SOLVENTS • NON ELECTROLYTIC SOLUTIONS ARE NON CONDUCTIVE AND THEY CONSIST OF MOLECULAR SOLUTES DISSOLVED IN NON POLAR SOLVENTS. 13
  14. 14. 14
  15. 15. TYPES OF ELECTROLYTIC SOLUTIONS • STRONG ELECTROLYTES • SOLUTIONS IN WHICH ALL OF THE DISSOLVED SOLUTE FORMS IONS • WEAK ELECTROLYTES • SOLUTIONS IN WHICH ONLY A PERCENTAGE OF THE DISSOLVED SOLUTE FORMS IONS 15
  16. 16. OTHER WAYS TO CLASSIFY SOLUTIONS • SATURATED SOLUTIONS • NO MORE SOLUTE CAN BE DISSOLVED (SOLUBILITY LIMIT HAS BEEN REACHED) • UNSATURATED SOLUTIONS • ADDITIONAL SOLUTE CAN STILL BE DISSOLVED 16
  17. 17. WHAT DETERMINES THE SATURATION POINT OF A SOLUTION ? • (1) THE TYPE OF SOLUTE AND SOLVENT USED • (2) THE TEMPERATURE OF THE SOLUTION (Generally solids dissolve better at higher temperatures while gases dissolve more poorly) • (3) GAS PRESSURE WHEN A GAS IS THE SOLUTE (HENRY’S LAW)* • *THE SOLUBILITY OF A GAS IS DIRECTLY RELATED TO THE PRESSURE OF THAT GAS ABOVE THE SOLUTION • Solubility = a constant x Pressure of the gas 17
  18. 18. How Temperature Effects Solubility Note that all substances (even solids), do not dissolve better at higher temperatures although most do. 18
  19. 19. HOW CAN THE SOLUTIONS COMPOSED OF THE SAME SUBSTANCES BE DIFFERENT ? • FOR EXAMPLE, HOW CAN ONE AQUEOUS* SUGAR SOLUTION BE DIFFERENTIATED FROM ANOTHER ? • DIFFERENT SOLUTIONS CONSISTING OF THE SAME SOLUTE / SOLVENT COMBINATIONS MAY BE DIFFERENT IN CONCENTRATION ! • WHAT DOES CONCENTRATION MEAN ?? • * AQUEOUS MEANS THAT WATER IS THE SOLVENT MEDIUM IN THE SOLUTION 19
  20. 20. CONCENTRATION • CONCENTRATION REFERS TO A RATIO OF SOLUTE AMOUNT TO SOLVENT OR SOLUTION AMOUNT. • FOR EXAMPLE, CONCENTRATED ORANGE JUICE MEANS THAT THE SOLUTE (THE ORANGE COMPONENT) IS PRESENT IN LARGE QUANTITY RELATIVE TO THE SOLVENT (THE WATER COMPONENT). 20
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