Periodic Trends of the Elements

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Shows the trends in atomic size, ion size, electronegativity, ionization energy, electron affinity and metal vs. non metal properties.
**More good stuff available at:
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Periodic Trends of the Elements

  1. 1. Copyright Sautter 2015
  2. 2. PERIODIC TRENDS OF THE ELEMENTS • CHEMICAL PROPERTIES • PHYSICAL PROPERTIES • ATOMIC RADII • IONIC RADII • IONIZATION ENERGY • ELECTRON AFFINITY • ELECTRONEGATIVITY • METALLIC & NONMETALLIC CHARACTER PERIODIC TABLE ? I INVENTED IT ! MENDELEYEV 2
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS OF PERIODIC PROPERTIES • CHEMICAL PROPERTIES REFERS TO THE TENDENCY OF ATOMS TO COMBINE WITH OTHER ELEMENTS AND/ OR MOLECULES TO FORM COMPOUNDS. • PHYSICAL PROPERTIES REFERS TO CHARACTERISTICS SUCH AS DENSITY, PHYSICAL STATE (SOLID, LIQUID OR GAS), ELECTRICAL AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY, MALLEABILITY (CAN BE HAMMERED INTO SHAPE), DUCTILITY (CAN BE STRETCHED), COLOR, LUSTER (SHININESS), BRITTLENESS, ETC. 3
  4. 4. DEFINITIONS OF PERIODIC PROPERTIES (CONT’D) • ATOMIC RADII IS MEASURED AS ONE HALF OF THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE NUCLEI OF TWO ADJACENT SIMILAR ATOMS (IT MEASURES ATOMIC SIZE) • IONIC RADII IS MEASURED AS ONE HALF OF THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE NUCLEI OF TWO ADJACENT SIMILAR IONS (IT MEASURES ION SIZE) • IONIZATION ENERGY MEASURES THE ENERGY NEEDED TO REMOVE AN ELECTRON FROM A FREE ATOM IN THE GAS STATE (IT MEASURES HOW TIGHTLY ELECTRONS ARE BOUND TO AN ATOM) • ELECTRON AFFINITY MEASURES THE ENERGY RELEASED WHEN AN ELECTRON IS ADDED TO A FREE ATOM IN THE GAS STATE ( IT MEASURES HOW WELL ATOMS ATTRACT ELECTRONS) 4
  5. 5. DEFINITIONS OF PERIODIC PROPERTIES (CONT’D) • ELECTRONEGATIVITY MEASURES THE ELECTRON ATTRACTING ABILITY OF AN ATOM WHEN IT IS BONDED TO ANOTHER ATOM • METALLIC CHARACTER MEASURES THE TENDENCY OF AN ELEMENT TO ACT AS A METAL IN THINGS SUCH AS CONDUCTIVITY, TENDENCY TO LOSE ELECTRONS, SHININESS, MAEBILITY AND DUCTILITY • NONMETALLIC CHARACTER MEASURES THE TENDENCY OF AN ELEMENT TO ACT AS A NONMETAL IN THINGS SUCH NONCONDUCTIVITY, TENDENCY TO GAIN ELECTRONS, LOW LUSTER AND BRITTLENESS. 5
  6. 6. GENERAL ORGANIZATION OF THE PERIODIC TABLE • COLUMNS (FAMILIES) CONTAIN ELEMENTS WITH SIMILAR VALENCE ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS (ns1, ns2, ns2 np3, ETC.) AND SIMILAR CHEMICAL PROPERTIES • ROWS (PERIODS) CONTAIN ELEMENTS WITH VALENCE ELECTRONS AT THE SAME ENERGY LEVEL (n=1, n=2, n=3, ETC.) • BLOCKS OF ELEMENTS CONTAIN ATOMS WITH THE SAME VALENCE ELECTRON ORBITAL TYPE (s, p, d OR f) 6
  7. 7. s B L O C K d BLOCK p BLOCK I N E R T G A S f BLOCK metals non metals METALLOIDS Orbital Blocks on the Periodic Table 7
  8. 8. COMMON CHEMICAL FAMILES & THEIR PROPERTIES COLUMN I (ALKALI METALS) Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs AND Fr • FORM +1 CATIONS • ARE HIGHLY METALLIC • REACTION READILY AND RAPIDLY WITH WATER TO FORM HYDROXIDES AND HYDROGEN GAS • REACT WITH THE HALOGENS (COLUMN VII) TO FORM SALTS WITH FORMULA TYPE MX (FOR EXAMPLE NaCl OR KBr) • VALENCE ELECTRONS ARE ns1 • COLUMN II (ALKALINE EARTH METALS) Be, Mg, Ca, Ba, Sr AND Ra • FORM +2 CATIONS • ARE HIGHLY METALLIC • REACTION READILY AND RAPIDLY WITH WATER TO FORM HYDROXIDES AND HYDROGEN GAS • REACT WITH THE HALOGENS TO FORM SALTS WITH FORMULA TYPE MX2 (FOR EXAMPLE MgBr2 OR BaCl2) • VALENCE ELECTRONS ARE ns2 8
  9. 9. COMMON CHEMICAL FAMILES & THEIR PROPERTIES (CONT’D) • COLUMN VII (COLUMN 17 ON SOME PERIODIC TABLES) HALOGENS F2,Cl2, Br2, I2 AND At2 • ALL ARE DIATOMIC ELEMENTS (OCCUR AS A MOLECULE CONSISTING OF TWO ATOMS • ARE HIGHLY NONMETALLIC • REACT READY AND RAPIDLY WITH METALS TO FORM SALTS • OCCUR IN ALL THREE PHASES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE F2 AND Cl2 ARE GASES, Br2 IS A LIQUID AND I2 IS A SOLID • VALENCE ELECTRONS ARE ns2 np5 9
  10. 10. COMMON CHEMICAL FAMILES & THEIR PROPERTIES (CONT’D) • COLUMN VIII (COLUMN 18 ON SOME PERIODIC TABLES) INERT GASES, ALSO CALLED NOBLE GASES OR RARE GASES • ALL ARE UNREACTIVE UNDER ORDINARY CONDITIONS • ALL HAVE COMPLETED OUTER ENERGY LEVELS • ALL ARE GASES AT ROOM TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE • THEIR ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS ( ns2 np6 ) SET THE STANDARD FOR CHEMICAL STABILITY WHICH MOST OTHER ELEMENTS ATTEMPT TO ACHIEVE THROUGH CHEMICAL REACTION. 10
  11. 11. C C O O L L M M U U N N I II Transitional Metals C O L M U N V I I I N E R T G A S E S LANTHANIDE SERIES ACTINIDE SERIES Alkali metals Alkaline Earth Metals Halogens CHEMICAL FAMILIES 11
  12. 12. ns1 np ns2 np1 np2np3 np4 np5 np6 Li thru Cs Be thru Ra B thru Ti C thru Pb N thru Bi O thru Po F thru At Ne thru Rn 12
  13. 13. WHAT FACTORS DETERMINE THE PERIODIC TRENDS OF THE ELEMENTS ? (1) THE NUMBER OF PROTONS AND ELECTRONS AN ATOM CONTAINS (MORE PROTONS CREATE A GREATER NUCLEAR CHARGE WHICH ATTRACTS ELECTRONS MORE STRONGLY (2) DISTANCE SEPARATING THE OUTER ELECTRONS (VALENCE ELECTRONS) AND THE NUCLEUS (WHEN ELECTRONS ARE CLOSER TO THE NUCLEUS THEY ARE HELD MORE TIGHTLY) (3) PAIRING OF ELECTRONS IN THE OUTER ENERGY LEVEL ORBITALS (PAIRED ELECTRONS ARE MORE STABLE THAN UNPAIRED ELECTRONS) 13
  14. 14. FACTORS WHICH DETERMINE THE PERIODIC TRENDS OF THE ELEMENTS (CONT’D) •(4) THE SYMMETRY OF OUTER ENERGY LEVEL ORBITAL POPULATIONS (GREATER SYMMETRY OF ELECTRON POPULATIONS GIVES MORE STABILITY) •(5) PROXIMITY OF OUTER ENERGY LEVEL ORBITALS TO EACHOTHER (WHEN ORBITALS ARE CLOSE TO EACHOTHER IN ENERGY THE ORDER OF ORBITAL FILLING MAY CHANGE. THIS IS ESPECIALLY TRUE FOR THE TRANSITATIONAL ELEMENTS) •(6) THE EXTENT TO WHICH THE OUTER ENERGY LEVEL IS FILLED (ATOMS ATTEMPT TO BECOME ISOELECTRONIC WITH THE NEAREST INERT GAS BY GAINING OR LOSING ELECTRONS, WHICH EVER IS EASIEST) 14
  15. 15. FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE PERIODIC TRENDS – ATOMIC RADII •AAS WE MOVE ACROSS A ROW (PERIOD) FROM LEFT TO RIGHT ON THE PERIODIC TABLE, ATOMS BECOME SMALLER AS THE ATOMIC NUMBER BECOMES LARGER. THIS INCREASE IN NUCLEAR CHARGE ALLOWS THE NUCLEUS TO PULL IN THE ELECTRONS MORE TIGHTLY AND THEREBY REDUCE ATOMIC SIZE (RADIUS). •AAS WE MOVE DOWN A COLUMN ON THE PERIODIC TABLE, ELEMENTS CONTAIN MORE ELECTRONS AND MORE ENERGY LEVELS BECOME POPULATED RESULTING IN AN INCREASE IN ATOMIC SIZE (RADIUS). REMEMBER THAT COMPLETING A PERIOD ON THE PERIODIC TABLE RESULTS IN A COMPLETED ENERGY LEVEL WITHIN THE ATOM ! 15
  16. 16. TRENDS OF THE ELEMENTS ONTHE PERIODIC TABLE (ATOMIC RADII) • SIZE OF ATOMS DECREASES S I Z E I N C R E A S E S 16
  17. 17. FACTORS THAT DETERMINE THE PERIODIC TRENDS – IONIC RADII •MMETAL ATOMS LOSE ELECTRONS TO BECOME ISOELECTRONIC WITH THE INERT GASES. ALKALI METALS (COLUMN I) FOR EXAMPLE NEED LOSE ONLY ONE ELECTRON TO BECOME ELECTRONICALLY LIKE THE NEAREST NOBLE GAS.THIS IS MUCH EASIER THAN GAINING SEVEN OR MORE ELECTRONS. ALKALINE EARTH METALS NEED TO LOSE ONLY TWO ELECTRONS TO ACHIEVE THE ISOELECTRONIC STATE.THIS IS MUCH EASIER THAN GAINING SIX OR MORE ELECTRONS •BBY CONSTRAST, NONMETALS GAIN ELECTRONS TO BECOME ISOELECTRONIC WITH THE INERT GASES. HALOGENS (COLUMN VII) NEED TO GAIN ONLY ONE ELECTRON TO ACHIEVE THE ISOELECTRONIC STATE. THIS IS MUCH EASIER THAN LOSING SEVEN OR MORE ELECTRONS. THE OXYGEN GROUP(COLUMN VI) NEEDS ONLY TO GAIN TWO ELECTRONS AGAIN EASIER THAN LOSING SIX OR MORE ELECTRONS. 17
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