Molecular Shapes
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Molecular Shapes

on

  • 4,866 views

Shows molecular shapes and how to predict them. Also,how shape effects molecular properties. ...

Shows molecular shapes and how to predict them. Also,how shape effects molecular properties.
**More good stuff available at:
www.wsautter.com
and
http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wnsautter&aq=f

Statistics

Views

Total Views
4,866
Views on SlideShare
4,861
Embed Views
5

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
56
Comments
1

3 Embeds 5

http://www.slideshare.net 3
http://nclc.blackboard.com 1
http://blackboard.cpsb.org 1

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel

11 of 1

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
  • ALSO
    I have written six books
    'Sticks - A Golfer’s Tale' - A hacker’s dream comes true.
    'Fish Farm' - Revenge of the old people.
    'Coach' - A mystery in Old school football town in a rural, bigoted, fifties town.
    'The Three Dollar Phoenix' - A mystery set in Newark, New Jersey in the 1970s.
    'The Divine Comedy MMIX' - A humorous play about Jesus returning.
    'The Blood of Judas' - A horror story of revenge set in Nazi Germany.
    All are available at www.smashwords.com
    I have video trailers for 'Coach', 'Fish Farm' and 'The Blood of Judas' at:
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xXSD5Kz-fDY
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a9PTRb14ldc
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ToPp9k9Oq-o
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3eBhMZbsP-I
    Please take a look. Thanks.
    Walt Sautter - wsautter@optonline.net
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Molecular Shapes Molecular Shapes Presentation Transcript

    • MOLECULAR GEOMETRY AND PROPERTIES Copyright Sautter 2003
    • The next slide is a quick promo for my books after which the presentation will begin Thanks for your patience! Walt S. [email_address] More stuff at: www.wsautter.com
    • Books available at: www. wsautter .com www.smashwords.com www.amazon.com www.bibliotastic.com www.goodreads.com Walt’s Books for Free!
    • MOLECULAR GEOMETRY (SHAPES)
      • SHAPES OF VARIOUS MOLECULES DEPEND ON THE BONDING TYPE, ORBITAL HYBRIDIZATIONS AND THE NUMBER OF BONDS THAT OCCUR IN THE BONDING ATOMS OF THE MOLECULE.
      • THREE FUNDAMENTAL RULES RELATE TO THE POSITIONING OF ATOMS IN MOLECULES.
      • (1) BONDED ATOMS TEND TO MOVE AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE CENTRAL ATOM OF A MOLECULE
      • (2) ATOMS WHICH ARE BONDED TO THE CENTRAL ATOM TEND TO STAY AS FAR FROM EACHOTHER AS POSSIBLE.
      • (3) LONE ELECTRON PAIRS IN A MOLECULE TEND TO REPEL OTHER LONE PAIRS AND OTHER BONDING ELECTRON PAIRS.
    • BONDING ACROSS THE PERIODIC TABLE BOND TYPES AND GEOMETRIES
    • ELECTRONEGATIVITY VALUES OF ATOMS IN THE MOLECULE.  EN = DIFFERENCE IN ELECTRONEGATIVITY. AS  EN INCREASES, BOND POLARITY INCREASES. ELECTRONS MOVE CLOSER TO THE MORE ELECTRONEGATIVE ATOM IN THE BOND. COLUMN # AND BONDING TYPE MOLECULAR SHAPE AND FORMULA TELLS IF A POLAR OR NONPOLAR MOLECULE IS FORMED SHOWS MOLECULAR SHAPE AND POLARITY OF BONDS  MEANS PARTIALLY + OR – DUE TO ELECTRON SHIFTS IN THE BOND FRAME FORMAT
    • LINEAR - LiCl ELECTRONS TRANSFER TO Cl FROM Li & LiCl IS IONIC COLUMN I - S BONDING + -
      • ELECTRONEGATIVITIES
      • Li = 1.0
      • Cl = 3.0
      • EN = 2.0
      • ELECTRONS TRANSFER
      • TO THE CHLORINE
    • - + + - + - - + - - + + + - + - + + - - + - - 3D IONIC CRYSTAL LATTICE
    • LINEAR - BeCl 2  -  +  - POLAR BONDS CANCEL & BeCl 2 IS A NONPOLAR MOLECULE COLUMN II - SP BONDING
      • ELECTRONEGATIVITIES
      • Be = 1.5
      • Cl = 3.0
      • EN = 1.5
      • ELECTRONS SHIFT
      • TOWARD CHLORINE
    • TRIGONAL PLANAR - BCl 3 (FLAT TRIANGLE)  -  +
      • ELECTRONEGATIVITIES
      • B= 2.0
      • Cl = 3.0
      • EN = 1.0
      • ELECTRONS SHIFT
      • TOWARD CHLORINE
       -  - POLAR BONDS CANCEL & BCl 3 IS A NONPOLAR MOLECULE COLUMN II - SP 2 BONDING
    • TETRAHEDRAL - CCl 4  -  +
      • ELECTRONEGATIVITIES
      • C = 2.5
      • Cl = 3.0
      • EN = 0.5
      • ELECTRONS SHIFT
      • TOWARD CHLORINE
       -  -  - POLAR BONDS CANCEL & CCl 4 IS A NONPOLAR MOLECULE COLUMN IV - SP 3 BONDING
    • PYRAMIDAL – NH 3 1 LONE e- PAIR  -  +  +  +
      • ELECTRONEGATIVITIES
      • H = 2.1
      • N = 3.0
      • EN = 0.9
      • ELECTRONS SHIFT
      • TOWARD NITROGEN
      POLAR BONDS DO NOT CANCEL & NH 3 IS A POLAR MOLECULE COLUMN V - SP 3 BONDING
    • ANGULAR (BENT) - H 2 O  -  +
      • ELECTRONEGATIVITIES
      • H = 2.1
      • O = 3.5
      • EN = 1.4
      • ELECTRONS SHIFT
      • TOWARD OXYGEN
       + POLAR BONDS DO NOT CANCEL & H 2 O IS A POLAR MOLECULE 2 LONE e- PAIRS COLUMN VI - SP 3 BONDING
    • LINEAR - Cl 2
      • ELECTRONEGATIVITIES
      • Cl = 3.0
      • N = 3.0
      • EN = 0
      • NO ELECTRON SHIFT
      Cl 2 HAS NO POLAR BONDS & IS A NONPOLAR MOLECULE COLUMN VII - SP 3 BONDING
    • THE POLARITY OF A MOLECULE IS DETERMINED BY THE PRESENCE OF POLAR BONDS, MOLECULAR SHAPE AND MOLECULAR SYMMETRY GENERALLY, ASSYMETRIC MOLECULES ARE LIKELY TO BE POLAR WHILE SYMMETRICAL MOLECULES TEND TO BE NONPOLAR MOLECULES ARE POLAR WHEN ELECTRONS WITHIN THE MOLECULE SHIFT TOWARDS ONE END OF THE MOLECULE MAKING THAT END NEGATIVE AND LEAVING THE OTHER END POSITIVE
    • ASSYMETRIC TETRAHEDRAL - CH 3 Cl  + ELECTRONEGATIVITIES H = 2.1 C = 2.5 Cl = 3.0 ELECTRONS SHIFT TOWARD CHLORINE  +  +  - ELECTRONS SHIFT TOWARDS THE MORE ELECTRONEGATIVE Cl & MOLECULE IS POLAR COLUMN IV - SP 3 BONDING
    • POLAR MOLECULES HAVE PROPERTIES DISTINCTLY DIFFERENT FROM NONPOLAR MOLECULES. POLAR MOLECULES ATTRACT EACHOTHER WELL AND HAVE HIGHER MELTING POINTS AND BOILING POINTS AS WELL AS LOWER VAPOR PRESSURES POLAR SOLVENTS DISSOLVE OTHER POLAR COMPOUNDS AND IONIC SUBSTANCES WELL. NONPOLAR SOLVENTS DISSOLVE OTHER NONPOLAR COMPOUNDS WELL. COMBINATIONS OF POLAR AND NONPOLAR SUBSTANCES DONOT DISSOLVE WELL
    •  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  +  +  +  +  +  +  +  + INTERACTION OF POLAR MOLECULES STRONG INTERMOLECULAR ATTRACTION
    • NONPOLAR MOLECULES LITTLE INTERACTION BETWEEN MOLECULES
    • LONDON FORCES – NONPOLAR MOLECULES PROTONS OF ONE ATOM WEAKLY ATTRACT THE ELECTRONS OF ADJACENT ATOMS AND VISE VERSA + - - + - + - - - He He He
    • AN EXCEPTIONALLY STRONG TYPE OF POLAR MOLECULE INTERACTION IS CALLED HYDROGEN BONDING. HYDROGEN BONDING INVOLVES POLAR MOLECULES THAT CONTAIN F-H, O-H OR N-H BONDS. THE STRONG SHIFT IN BONDING ELECTRON PAIRS BETWEEN THESE ATOMS GIVES A VERY HIGH DEGREE OF BOND POLARITY AND GREATLY INCREASES THE DIPOLE NATURE OF THE MOLECULE.
    • HYDROGEN BONDING IN H 2 O = HYDROGEN BONDING STRONG COHESIVE FORCES  -  +  +  -  +  +  -  +  +  -  +  +  -  +  +  -  +  +
    • THE END