Molecular Shapes

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Shows molecular shapes and how to predict them. Also,how shape effects molecular properties.
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Molecular Shapes

  1. 1. Copyright Sautter 2015
  2. 2. MOLECULAR GEOMETRY (SHAPES) • SHAPES OF VARIOUS MOLECULES DEPEND ON THE BONDING TYPE, ORBITAL HYBRIDIZATIONS AND THE NUMBER OF BONDS THAT OCCUR IN THE BONDING ATOMS OF THE MOLECULE. • THREE FUNDAMENTAL RULES RELATE TO THE POSITIONING OF ATOMS IN MOLECULES. • (1) BONDED ATOMS TEND TO MOVE AS CLOSE AS POSSIBLE TO THE CENTRAL ATOM OF A MOLECULE • (2) ATOMS WHICH ARE BONDED TO THE CENTRAL ATOM TEND TO STAY AS FAR FROM EACHOTHER AS POSSIBLE. • (3) LONE ELECTRON PAIRS IN A MOLECULE TEND TO REPEL OTHER LONE PAIRS AND OTHER BONDING ELECTRON PAIRS.
  3. 3. ELECTRONEGATIVITY VALUES OF ATOMS IN THE MOLECULE. EN = DIFFERENCE IN ELECTRONEGATIVITY. AS EN INCREASES, BOND POLARITY INCREASES. ELECTRONS MOVE CLOSER TO THE MORE ELECTRONEGATIVE ATOM IN THE BOND. COLUMN # AND BONDING TYPE MOLECULAR SHAPE AND FORMULA TELLS IF A POLAR OR NONPOLAR MOLECULE IS FORMED SHOWS MOLECULAR SHAPE AND POLARITY OF BONDS  MEANS PARTIALLY + OR – DUE TO ELECTRON SHIFTS IN THE BOND FRAME FORMAT
  4. 4. LINEAR - LiCl ELECTRONS TRANSFER TO Cl FROM Li & LiCl IS IONIC COLUMN I - S BONDING ELECTRONEGATIVITIES Li = 1.0 Cl = 3.0 EN = 2.0 ELECTRONS TRANSFER TO THE CHLORINE
  5. 5. 3D IONIC CRYSTAL LATTICE
  6. 6. LINEAR - BeCl2 - + - POLAR BONDS CANCEL & BeCl2 IS A NONPOLAR MOLECULE COLUMN II - SP BONDING ELECTRONEGATIVITIES Be = 1.5 Cl = 3.0 EN = 1.5 ELECTRONS SHIFT TOWARD CHLORINE
  7. 7. TRIGONAL PLANAR - BCl3 (FLAT TRIANGLE) - + ELECTRONEGATIVITIES B= 2.0 Cl = 3.0 EN = 1.0 ELECTRONS SHIFT TOWARD CHLORINE - - POLAR BONDS CANCEL & BCl3 IS A NONPOLAR MOLECULE COLUMN II - SP2 BONDING
  8. 8. TETRAHEDRAL - CCl4 - + ELECTRONEGATIVITIES C = 2.5 Cl = 3.0 EN = 0.5 ELECTRONS SHIFT TOWARD CHLORINE - - - POLAR BONDS CANCEL & CCl4 IS A NONPOLAR MOLECULE COLUMN IV - SP3 BONDING
  9. 9. PYRAMIDAL – NH3 1 LONE e- PAIR - + + + ELECTRONEGATIVITIES H = 2.1 N = 3.0 EN = 0.9 ELECTRONS SHIFT TOWARD NITROGEN POLAR BONDS DO NOT CANCEL & NH3 IS A POLAR MOLECULE COLUMN V - SP3 BONDING
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