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Light , Lenses and  Mirrors W. Sautter 2007
The next slide is a quick promo for my books  after which the presentation will begin Thanks for your patience! Walt S. [e...
Books available at: www. wsautter .com www.smashwords.com www.amazon.com www.bibliotastic.com www.goodreads.com Walt’s Boo...
Normal Line Normal Line  i    r    i    r   Glass n = 1.5 Air n =1.0  r   = angle of refraction  i   = angle of inci...
Diverging Lens (Double Concave) Virtual focus Focus =  - Can form only virtual, Erect and reduced images
Principle focus Parallel rays Converging Lens  (Double Convex) Focus = + Can form real images (enlarged or reduced & inver...
Normal Line  r    i   Incident ray Reflected ray Mirror surface Law of Reflection (Angle of Incidence = Angle Reflection...
Parallel rays Reflected rays Concave Mirrors (Converging Mirrors) Real Focus Focal length = + Forms real, inverted, Reduce...
Parallel rays Reflected rays Virtual focus Focal length =  - Forms only virtual, erect, reduced images between the virtual...
Waves from a Distant source = crest = trough Barrier with Two slits In phase waves Emerge from slits Constructive  interfe...
Wavelength  Frequency    Properties of Transverse Waves Velocity Wavelength  Frequency    Velocity v x =
VISIBLE AND INVISIBLE LIGHT <ul><li>MOST “LIGHT” IS NOT VISIBLE TO THE HUMAN EYE ! </li></ul><ul><li>ONLY ABOUT 7 % OF THE...
POTASSIUM METAL BATTERY VOLTMETER PHOTONS PICKUP WIRE ELECTRONS ONLY CERTAIN MINIMUM FREQUENCIES OF LIGHT FREE THE ELECTRO...
Ray Diagrams for Mirrors Parallel ray Focal ray Ray thru 2f focus (f) 2 f vertex Reflects thru The focus Reflects parallel...
Concave Mirror Object Beyond 2f Parallel ray Focal ray Ray thru 2f f 2 f Object beyond 2f Image is: Real Inverted Reduced ...
Concave Mirror Object at 2f Parallel ray Focal ray ray thru 2f f 2 f Object at 2f Image is: Real Inverted Same size Appear...
Concave Mirror Object Between f &  2f Parallel ray ray thru 2f Focal ray 2 f f Object between f and 2f Image is: Real Inve...
Concave Mirror Object Between  f &  Vertex Parallel ray ray thru 2f Focal ray 2 f f ray thru 2f Object inside  focus Image...
Reflections from a Plane Mirror Angle of incidence = Angle of Reflection  For each ray  Dotted lines  Shows the  Apparent ...
Parallel rays Reflected rays Virtual focus Focal length =  - Forms only virtual, erect, reduced images between the virtual...
Apparent  Convergence of rays 2 f (f) Focal ray Parallel ray Ray thru 2f Image in a Convex Mirror Image is: Virtual Erect ...
Rays Diagrams for Converging Lens  (Double Convex) Parallel ray Passes thru The focus Focal ray Refracts parallel To princ...
Object Beyond 2f Converging Lens  (Double Convex) Parallel ray Focal ray Image is: Real Inverted Reduced Appears between  ...
Focal ray Parallel ray Object at  2f Converging Lens  (Double Convex) Image is: Real Inverted Same size Appears between  f...
Focal ray Parallel ray Object Between  2f & fConverging Lens  (Double Convex) Image is: Real Inverted Enlarged Appears bey...
Image is: Virtual Erect Enlarged Appears on same Side as Object Object Between  f & Mirror Converging Lens  (Double Convex...
Rays Diagrams for Diverging Lens  (Double Convcave) focus (f) 2 f 2 f focus (f) Apparent ray convergence Is on same side a...
f 2 f f 2 f Focal ray Parallel ray Ray thru center Rays Diagrams for Diverging Lens  (Double Convcave) Image is: Virtual E...
Constructive interference Destructive interference Partially Constructive interference Interference of Waves Wave A Wave A...
Waves from a Distant source = crest = trough Barrier with Two slits In phase waves Emerge from slits Constructive  interfe...
Single Slit Diffraction Patterns Double Slit Diffraction Patterns
Interference of Waves Double Slit Diffraction m  =  d sin  
d  0 1 1 2 2 m S P E C T R A L O R D E R  Diffraction Variables
Double Slit Diffraction Variables <ul><li>m = spectral order  </li></ul><ul><li>The bright central band is zero and each b...
Single Slit Diffraction Each edge of the slit creates a new wave front. The two new waves then interfer creating a diffrac...
m  =  s  sin   Single Slit Diffraction <ul><li>m = spectral order  </li></ul><ul><li>The bright central band is zero and...
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Light, Lenses, and Mirrors

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Use principles of reflection and refraction to describe how lenses and mirrors work.
**More good stuff available at:
www.wsautter.com
and
http://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wnsautter&aq=f

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  • ALSO
    I have written six books
    'Sticks - A Golfer’s Tale' - A hacker’s dream comes true.
    'Fish Farm' - Revenge of the old people.
    'Coach' - A mystery in Old school football town in a rural, bigoted, fifties town.
    'The Three Dollar Phoenix' - A mystery set in Newark, New Jersey in the 1970s.
    'The Divine Comedy MMIX' - A humorous play about Jesus returning.
    'The Blood of Judas' - A horror story of revenge set in Nazi Germany.
    All are available at www.smashwords.com
    I have video trailers for 'Coach', 'Fish Farm' and 'The Blood of Judas' at:
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xXSD5Kz-fDY
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a9PTRb14ldc
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ToPp9k9Oq-o
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3eBhMZbsP-I
    Please take a look. Thanks.
    Walt Sautter - wsautter@optonline.net
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Transcript of "Light, Lenses, and Mirrors"

  1. 1. Light , Lenses and Mirrors W. Sautter 2007
  2. 2. The next slide is a quick promo for my books after which the presentation will begin Thanks for your patience! Walt S. [email_address] More stuff at: www. wsautter .com
  3. 3. Books available at: www. wsautter .com www.smashwords.com www.amazon.com www.bibliotastic.com www.goodreads.com Walt’s Books for Free!
  4. 4. Normal Line Normal Line  i  r  i  r Glass n = 1.5 Air n =1.0  r = angle of refraction  i = angle of incidence Refraction of Light Light travels more slowly in glass than air and bends towards the normal when entering glass from air Light moving from glass to air increases speed and bends away from the normal
  5. 5. Diverging Lens (Double Concave) Virtual focus Focus = - Can form only virtual, Erect and reduced images
  6. 6. Principle focus Parallel rays Converging Lens (Double Convex) Focus = + Can form real images (enlarged or reduced & inverted) or Enlarged virtual images
  7. 7. Normal Line  r  i Incident ray Reflected ray Mirror surface Law of Reflection (Angle of Incidence = Angle Reflection) Angles are ALWAYS measured from the NORMAL LINE
  8. 8. Parallel rays Reflected rays Concave Mirrors (Converging Mirrors) Real Focus Focal length = + Forms real, inverted, Reduced or enlarged Image. Also forms Virtual, erect, Enlarged images.
  9. 9. Parallel rays Reflected rays Virtual focus Focal length = - Forms only virtual, erect, reduced images between the virtual focus and the mirror. Convex Mirrors (Diverging Mirrors)
  10. 10. Waves from a Distant source = crest = trough Barrier with Two slits In phase waves Emerge from slits Constructive interference Destructive interference Interference of Waves
  11. 11. Wavelength  Frequency  Properties of Transverse Waves Velocity Wavelength  Frequency  Velocity v x =
  12. 12. VISIBLE AND INVISIBLE LIGHT <ul><li>MOST “LIGHT” IS NOT VISIBLE TO THE HUMAN EYE ! </li></ul><ul><li>ONLY ABOUT 7 % OF THE KNOWN KINDS OF LIGHT CAN BE SEEN WITHOUT SPECIAL INSTRUMENTATION. </li></ul>
  13. 13. POTASSIUM METAL BATTERY VOLTMETER PHOTONS PICKUP WIRE ELECTRONS ONLY CERTAIN MINIMUM FREQUENCIES OF LIGHT FREE THE ELECTRONS FROM THE METAL (ONLY PHOTONS WITH ENOUGH ENERGY) THE PHOTOELECTRIC EFFECT EXPERIMENT
  14. 14. Ray Diagrams for Mirrors Parallel ray Focal ray Ray thru 2f focus (f) 2 f vertex Reflects thru The focus Reflects parallel To principal axis Principal axis Reflects Back Into itself
  15. 15. Concave Mirror Object Beyond 2f Parallel ray Focal ray Ray thru 2f f 2 f Object beyond 2f Image is: Real Inverted Reduced Appears between f & 2f
  16. 16. Concave Mirror Object at 2f Parallel ray Focal ray ray thru 2f f 2 f Object at 2f Image is: Real Inverted Same size Appears at 2f
  17. 17. Concave Mirror Object Between f & 2f Parallel ray ray thru 2f Focal ray 2 f f Object between f and 2f Image is: Real Inverted Enlarged Appears beyond 2f
  18. 18. Concave Mirror Object Between f & Vertex Parallel ray ray thru 2f Focal ray 2 f f ray thru 2f Object inside focus Image is: Virtual Erect Enlarged Appears behind the mirror Apparent Convergence Of rays
  19. 19. Reflections from a Plane Mirror Angle of incidence = Angle of Reflection For each ray Dotted lines Shows the Apparent Ray source
  20. 20. Parallel rays Reflected rays Virtual focus Focal length = - Forms only virtual, erect, reduced images between the virtual focus and the mirror. Image in a Convex Mirror Dotted lines Shows the Apparent Ray focus
  21. 21. Apparent Convergence of rays 2 f (f) Focal ray Parallel ray Ray thru 2f Image in a Convex Mirror Image is: Virtual Erect Reduced Appears behind the mirror
  22. 22. Rays Diagrams for Converging Lens (Double Convex) Parallel ray Passes thru The focus Focal ray Refracts parallel To principal axis A ray thru the Center of the lenses Remains unbent focus (f) focus (f) 2 f 2 f x x x x
  23. 23. Object Beyond 2f Converging Lens (Double Convex) Parallel ray Focal ray Image is: Real Inverted Reduced Appears between f and 2f Object beyond 2f focus (f) focus (f) 2 f 2 f x x x x
  24. 24. Focal ray Parallel ray Object at 2f Converging Lens (Double Convex) Image is: Real Inverted Same size Appears between f and 2f Object at 2f focus (f) focus (f) 2 f 2 f x x x x
  25. 25. Focal ray Parallel ray Object Between 2f & fConverging Lens (Double Convex) Image is: Real Inverted Enlarged Appears beyond 2f Object between f and 2f focus (f) focus (f) 2 f 2 f x x x x
  26. 26. Image is: Virtual Erect Enlarged Appears on same Side as Object Object Between f & Mirror Converging Lens (Double Convex) Object Inside focus focus (f) focus (f) 2 f 2 f x x x x Apparent Convergence Of rays
  27. 27. Rays Diagrams for Diverging Lens (Double Convcave) focus (f) 2 f 2 f focus (f) Apparent ray convergence Is on same side as object
  28. 28. f 2 f f 2 f Focal ray Parallel ray Ray thru center Rays Diagrams for Diverging Lens (Double Convcave) Image is: Virtual Erect Reduced Appears on same Side as object
  29. 29. Constructive interference Destructive interference Partially Constructive interference Interference of Waves Wave A Wave A Wave A Wave B Wave B Wave B
  30. 30. Waves from a Distant source = crest = trough Barrier with Two slits In phase waves Emerge from slits Constructive interference Destructive interference Interference of Waves Double Slit Diffraction
  31. 31. Single Slit Diffraction Patterns Double Slit Diffraction Patterns
  32. 32. Interference of Waves Double Slit Diffraction m = d sin  
  33. 33. d  0 1 1 2 2 m S P E C T R A L O R D E R  Diffraction Variables
  34. 34. Double Slit Diffraction Variables <ul><li>m = spectral order </li></ul><ul><li>The bright central band is zero and each bright band </li></ul><ul><li>to the right or left is counted by consecutive </li></ul><ul><li>integers 1,2,3 etc. </li></ul><ul><li>d = distance separating the slits (meters) </li></ul><ul><li>= wavelength of light in meters </li></ul><ul><li> = angle between the zero band and the spectral band m </li></ul>
  35. 35. Single Slit Diffraction Each edge of the slit creates a new wave front. The two new waves then interfer creating a diffraction pattern
  36. 36. m = s sin   Single Slit Diffraction <ul><li>m = spectral order </li></ul><ul><li>The bright central band is zero and each dark band </li></ul><ul><li>to the right or left is counted by consecutive </li></ul><ul><li>integers 1,2,3 etc. </li></ul><ul><li>s= slit width (meters) </li></ul><ul><li>= wavelength of light in meters </li></ul><ul><li> = angle between the zero band and the spectral band m </li></ul>
  37. 37. THE END
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