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Chemical Formulae

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How write correct chemical formula. …

How write correct chemical formula.
**More good stuff available at:
www.wsautter.com

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

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  • really helpful from the mind of a student ...................... thanks for uploading it !
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  • 1. Writing Chemical Formulae Copyright Sautter 2003
  • 2. The next slide is a quick promo for my books after which the presentation will begin Thanks for your patience! Walt S. [email_address] More stuff at: www.wsautter.com
  • 3. Books available at: www. wsautter .com www.smashwords.com www.amazon.com www.bibliotastic.com www.goodreads.com Walt’s Books for Free!
  • 4. CHEMICAL FORMULAE* HOW TO WRITE FORMULAS FROM NAMES AND NAMES FROM FORMULAS* * SOME BOOKS USE FORMULAE ENDING IN AE WHICH IS THE LATIN PLURAL INSTEAD OF FORMULAS
  • 5. TYPE OF COMPOUNDS
    • (1) IONIC COMPOUNDS – THOSE CONSISTING PRIMARILY OF METALS COMBINED WITH NONMETALS
    • (A METAL COMBINED WITH A NONMETAL IS CALLED A SALT. SODIUM CHLORIDE OR “TABLE SALT” IS NOT THE ONLY SALT, THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT KINDS OF SALTS. IT HOWEVER IS ONE OF THE MOST COMMON SALTS.)
    • (2) MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS – THOSE CONSISTING OF NONMETALS
  • 6. WHAT ARE IONS? CHARGED ATOMS OR GROUPS OF ATOMS THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF IONS, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE
    • POSITIVE IONS ARE ATOMS OR GROUPS OF ATOMS WITH MISSING ELECTRONS
    • THESE IONS USUALLY CONSIST OF METALS
    • THEY ARE ALSO CALLED CATIONS
    • NEGATIVE ION ARE ATOMS OR GROUPS OF ATOMS WITH EXTRA ELECTRONS
    • THESE IONS USUALLY CONSIST OF NONMETALS
    • THEY ARE ALSO CALLED ANIONS (NOT DOG IONS AS YOU MIGHT EXPECT !!)
  • 7. SOME COMMON CATIONS (POSITIVE IONS)
    • NAME
    • SODIUM
    • ZINC
    • POTASSIUM
    • CALCIUM
    • MAGNESIUM
    • COPPER II (CUPRIC)
    • IRON II (FERROUS)
    • IRON III (FERRIC)
    • AMMONIUM *
    • *ONE OF THE FEW POLYATOMIC CATIONS
    • FORMULAS
    • Na +1
    • Zn +2
    • K +1
    • Ca +2
    • Mg +2
    • Cu +2
    • Fe +2
    • Fe +3
    • NH 4 +1
  • 8. SOME COMMON ANIONS (NEGATIVE IONS)
    • NAMES
    • CHLORIDE
    • SULFIDE
    • BROMIDE
    • SULFATE
    • SULFITE
    • NITRATE
    • NITRITE
    • CARBONATE
    • CHROMATE
    • FORMULAS
    • Cl -1
    • S -2
    • Br -1
    • SO 4 -2
    • SO 3 -2
    • NO 3 -1
    • NO 2 -1
    • CO 3 -2
    • CrO 4 -2
  • 9. SOME RULES REGARDING CATIONS (POSITIVE IONS)
    • IONS FROM COLUMN I (ALKALI METALS) ON THE PERIODIC TABLE ARE ALWAYS +1
    • IONS FROM COLUMN II (ALKALINE EARTH METALS) ON THE PERIODIC TABLE ARE ALWAYS +2
    • IONS FROM COLUMN II (THE ALUMINIUM GROUP) ON THE PERIODIC TABLE ARE +3
    • THE TRANSITIONAL METALS HAVE VARIABLE CHARGES RANGING FROM +1 TO +5
    • EXAMPLES:
    • COLUMN I COLUMN II
    • Na +1 Ca +2
    • K +1 Mg +2
    • etc. etc.
    • COLUMN III
    • Al +3
    • Ga +3
    • TRANSITIONAL METALS
    • Cu +2
    • Fe +2
    • Cr +3
  • 10. TRANSITIONAL METALS WITH VARIABLE CHARGE STATES
    • SOME TRANSITIONAL METALS CAN EXSIST AS IONS IN TWO DIFFERENT CHARGE STATES. SOME OF THESE ELEMENTS ARE COPPER, TIN, IRON, COBALT, LEAD, MERCURY, CHROMIUM AND MANGANESE.
    • * THESE VARIABLE CHARGES HAVE NO PATTERN AND MUST BE MEMORIZED
    • EXAMPLES:
    • COPPER +1 OR +2
    • TIN +2 OR +4
    • IRON +2 OR +3
    • COBALT +2 OR +3
    • LEAD +2 OR +4
    • MERCURY +1 OR +2
    • CHROMIUM +2 OR +3
    • MANGANESE +2 OR +3
    • * THE SAME ATOM WITH DIFFERENT CHARGE STATES ARE DESIGNATED USING ROMAN NUMERIALS SUCH AS COPPER I FOR Cu +1 OR LEAD II FOR Pb +2
  • 11. RULES REGARDING FORMULAS AND NAMES FOR ANIONS (NEGATIVE IONS)
    • ANIONS FROM COLUMN VII (HALOGENS) ARE CHARGED –1
    • ANIONS FROM COLUMN VI (OXYGEN GROUP) ARE CHARGED –2
    • ANIONS FROM COLUMN V (NITROGEN GROUP) ARE CHARGED –3 WHEN THE IONS ARE SINGLE ATOMS (MONATOMIC)
    • EXAMPLES:
    • COLUMN VII
    • Cl -1
    • Br -1
    • COLUMN VI
    • S -2
    • O -2
    • COLUMN V
    • N -3
    • P -3
  • 12. NAMING MONATOMIC (SINGLE ATOM) ANIONS
    • ANIONS THAT CONSIST OF ONLY ONE ATOM END IN ALWAYS “IDE”.
    • ANIONS THAT CONSIST OF MORE THAN ONE ATOM BUT CONTAIN NO OXYGEN ALSO END IN “IDE”
    • THE HYROXIDE ION IS AN EXCEPTION IN THAT IT CONTAINS OXYGEN AND POLYATOMIC BUT ENDS IN “IDE”
    • CHLORIDE Cl -1
    • SULFIDE S -2
    • NITRIDE N -3
    • CYANIDE CN -1
    • THIOCYANIDE SCN -1
    • HYDROXIDE OH -1
  • 13. POLYATOMIC IONS ARE THOSE THAT CONSIST OF MORE THAN ONE ATOM. MOST ARE ANIONS.
    • POLYATOMIC IONS THAT CONTAIN OXYGEN END IN “ATE” OR “ITE”
    • ONCE POLYATOMIC IONS ENDING IN “ATE” ARE KNOWN, IONS OF SIMILAR COMPOSITION BUT DIFFERING BY ONE LESS OXYGEN ATOM END IN “ITE”
    • EXAMPLES:
    • SULFATE
    • SO 4 -2
    • SULFITE HAS ONE LESS OXYGEN ATOM
    • SO 3 -2
    • NITRATE
    • NO 3 -1
    • NITRITE HAS ONE LESS OXYGEN ATOM
    • NO 2 -1
  • 14. POLYATOMIC IONS ARE THOSE THAT CONSIST OF MORE THAN ONE ATOM. MOST ARE ANIONS.
    • Polyatomic anions which contain one more oxygen than the “ate” form are given the prefix “per”
    • ClO 3 -1 is chlorate, ClO 4 -1 is perchlorate
    • Polyatomic anions which contain one less oxygen than the “ite” form are given the prefix “hypo”
    • ClO 2 -1 is chlorite, ClO -1 is hypochlorite
  • 15. FORMULAS OF IONIC COMPOUNDS ( CATIONS ARE ALWAYS NAMED FIRST FOLLOWED BY THE NAME OF THE ANION IN THE COMPOUND)
    • IONIC SALTS ARE FORMED WHEN CATIONS COMBINE WITH ANIONS
    • THE NET CHARGE ON ALL SALTS MUST BE ZERO WHICH MEANS ALL THE POSITIVE CHARGES ON THE CATIONS MUST BALANCE ALL THE NEGATIVE CHARGE ON THE ANIONS
    • EXAMPLE:
    • WHEN SODIUM CHLORIDE IS FORMED FROM A POSITIVE SODIUM ION AND A NEGATIVE CHLORIDE ION, JUST ONE SODIUM WITH A +1 CHARGE IS REQUIRED TO BALANCE JUST ONE CHLORIDE WITH A –1 CHARGE. SO THE FORMULA IS JUST NaCl.
  • 16. WHAT ABOUT FORMULAS FOR COMPOUNDS WHEN THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CHARGES DON’T EXACTLY BALANCE
    • ZINC CHLORIDE CONSISTS OF ZINC WITH A +2 CHARGE AND CHLORIDE WITH A –1 CHARGE.
    • IN ORDER TO BALANCE THE CHARGES, ONE ZINC MUST COMBINE WITH TWO CHLORIDES. THE FORMULA FOR ZINC CHLORIDE IS ZnCl 2 .
    • (+2) + ( 2 x (-1)) = 0
    • IRON III SULFIDE CONSISTS OF TWO IRON ATOMS AND THREE SULFUR ATOMS.
    • EACH IRON III ION HAS A +3 CHARGE AND EACH SULFIDE ION HAS A –2 CHARGE. THE FORMULA FOR IRON III SULFIDE IS Fe 2 S 3 .
    • (2 x ( +3)) + (3 x (-2)) = 0
  • 17. IONIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING POLYATOMIC IONS (CATIONS AND ANIONS)
    • LEAD II NITRATE CONSISTS OF ONE LEAD II ION WITH A +2 CHARGE AND TWO NITRATE IONS EACH WITH A –1 CHARGE.
    • IN ORDER TO BALANCE THE CHARGES, ONE LEAD II MUST COMBINE WITH TWO NITRATES. THE FORMULA FOR LEAD II NITRATE IS Pb(NO 3 ) 2.
    • ( +2) + (2 x (-1)) = 0
    • AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE CONSISTS OF THREE AMMONIUM IONS EACH WITH A +1 CHARGE AND ONE PHOSPHATE WITH A –3 CHARGE.
    • IN ORDER TO BALANCE THE CHARGES, THREE AMMONIUM IONS MUST COMBINE WITH ONE PHOSPHATE. THE FORMULA FOR AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE IS (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4.
    • (3 x (+1)) + (-3) = 0
  • 18. The Crisscross Method of Writing Formulae Aluminum Nitrate Aluminum = Al Nitrate = NO +3 3 -1 Al NO +3 3 -1 Al ( NO ) 3 3 The positive ion charge without its sign becomes the subscript of the negative ion The negative ion charge without its sign becomes the subscript of the positive ion 1 (+3) + 3(-1) = 0
  • 19. FORMULAS AND NAMES FOR MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS (COMPOUNDS CONSISTING OF ONLY NONMETALS, NOT IONS)
    • NONMETALS ARE THE ELEMENTS ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE PERIODIC TABLE.
    • WHEN NAMING COMPOUNDS, PREFIXES ARE USED TO TELL THE NUMBER OF EACH KIND OF ATOM.
    • PREFIXES USED
    • MONO = 1
    • DI = 2
    • TRI = 3
    • TETRA = 4
    • PENTA = 5
    • HEXA = 6
    • HEPTA = 7
    • OCTA = 8
    SIMPLE!
  • 20. NAMES AND FORMULAS OF MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS
    • SULFUR DIOXIDE CONSISTS OF ONE SULFUR ATOM (NO PREFIX IS USED) AND TWO (DI) OXYGEN ATOMS. BOTH SULFUR AND OXYGEN ARE NONMETALS. THE FORMULA FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE IS SO 2
    • DINITROGEN PENTOXIDE CONSISTS OF TWO NITROGEN ATOMS (DI) AND FIVE OXYGEN ATOMS (PENTA). BOTH NITROGEN AND OXYGEN ARE NONMETALS. THE FORMULA FOR DINITROGEN PENTOXIDE IS N 2 O 5.
  • 21. THE END