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Chemical Formulae
 

Chemical Formulae

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How write correct chemical formula.

How write correct chemical formula.
**More good stuff available at:
www.wsautter.com

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    Chemical Formulae Chemical Formulae Presentation Transcript

    • Writing Chemical Formulae Copyright Sautter 2003
    • The next slide is a quick promo for my books after which the presentation will begin Thanks for your patience! Walt S. [email_address] More stuff at: www.wsautter.com
    • Books available at: www. wsautter .com www.smashwords.com www.amazon.com www.bibliotastic.com www.goodreads.com Walt’s Books for Free!
    • CHEMICAL FORMULAE* HOW TO WRITE FORMULAS FROM NAMES AND NAMES FROM FORMULAS* * SOME BOOKS USE FORMULAE ENDING IN AE WHICH IS THE LATIN PLURAL INSTEAD OF FORMULAS
    • TYPE OF COMPOUNDS
      • (1) IONIC COMPOUNDS – THOSE CONSISTING PRIMARILY OF METALS COMBINED WITH NONMETALS
      • (A METAL COMBINED WITH A NONMETAL IS CALLED A SALT. SODIUM CHLORIDE OR “TABLE SALT” IS NOT THE ONLY SALT, THERE ARE MANY DIFFERENT KINDS OF SALTS. IT HOWEVER IS ONE OF THE MOST COMMON SALTS.)
      • (2) MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS – THOSE CONSISTING OF NONMETALS
    • WHAT ARE IONS? CHARGED ATOMS OR GROUPS OF ATOMS THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF IONS, POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE
      • POSITIVE IONS ARE ATOMS OR GROUPS OF ATOMS WITH MISSING ELECTRONS
      • THESE IONS USUALLY CONSIST OF METALS
      • THEY ARE ALSO CALLED CATIONS
      • NEGATIVE ION ARE ATOMS OR GROUPS OF ATOMS WITH EXTRA ELECTRONS
      • THESE IONS USUALLY CONSIST OF NONMETALS
      • THEY ARE ALSO CALLED ANIONS (NOT DOG IONS AS YOU MIGHT EXPECT !!)
    • SOME COMMON CATIONS (POSITIVE IONS)
      • NAME
      • SODIUM
      • ZINC
      • POTASSIUM
      • CALCIUM
      • MAGNESIUM
      • COPPER II (CUPRIC)
      • IRON II (FERROUS)
      • IRON III (FERRIC)
      • AMMONIUM *
      • *ONE OF THE FEW POLYATOMIC CATIONS
      • FORMULAS
      • Na +1
      • Zn +2
      • K +1
      • Ca +2
      • Mg +2
      • Cu +2
      • Fe +2
      • Fe +3
      • NH 4 +1
    • SOME COMMON ANIONS (NEGATIVE IONS)
      • NAMES
      • CHLORIDE
      • SULFIDE
      • BROMIDE
      • SULFATE
      • SULFITE
      • NITRATE
      • NITRITE
      • CARBONATE
      • CHROMATE
      • FORMULAS
      • Cl -1
      • S -2
      • Br -1
      • SO 4 -2
      • SO 3 -2
      • NO 3 -1
      • NO 2 -1
      • CO 3 -2
      • CrO 4 -2
    • SOME RULES REGARDING CATIONS (POSITIVE IONS)
      • IONS FROM COLUMN I (ALKALI METALS) ON THE PERIODIC TABLE ARE ALWAYS +1
      • IONS FROM COLUMN II (ALKALINE EARTH METALS) ON THE PERIODIC TABLE ARE ALWAYS +2
      • IONS FROM COLUMN II (THE ALUMINIUM GROUP) ON THE PERIODIC TABLE ARE +3
      • THE TRANSITIONAL METALS HAVE VARIABLE CHARGES RANGING FROM +1 TO +5
      • EXAMPLES:
      • COLUMN I COLUMN II
      • Na +1 Ca +2
      • K +1 Mg +2
      • etc. etc.
      • COLUMN III
      • Al +3
      • Ga +3
      • TRANSITIONAL METALS
      • Cu +2
      • Fe +2
      • Cr +3
    • TRANSITIONAL METALS WITH VARIABLE CHARGE STATES
      • SOME TRANSITIONAL METALS CAN EXSIST AS IONS IN TWO DIFFERENT CHARGE STATES. SOME OF THESE ELEMENTS ARE COPPER, TIN, IRON, COBALT, LEAD, MERCURY, CHROMIUM AND MANGANESE.
      • * THESE VARIABLE CHARGES HAVE NO PATTERN AND MUST BE MEMORIZED
      • EXAMPLES:
      • COPPER +1 OR +2
      • TIN +2 OR +4
      • IRON +2 OR +3
      • COBALT +2 OR +3
      • LEAD +2 OR +4
      • MERCURY +1 OR +2
      • CHROMIUM +2 OR +3
      • MANGANESE +2 OR +3
      • * THE SAME ATOM WITH DIFFERENT CHARGE STATES ARE DESIGNATED USING ROMAN NUMERIALS SUCH AS COPPER I FOR Cu +1 OR LEAD II FOR Pb +2
    • RULES REGARDING FORMULAS AND NAMES FOR ANIONS (NEGATIVE IONS)
      • ANIONS FROM COLUMN VII (HALOGENS) ARE CHARGED –1
      • ANIONS FROM COLUMN VI (OXYGEN GROUP) ARE CHARGED –2
      • ANIONS FROM COLUMN V (NITROGEN GROUP) ARE CHARGED –3 WHEN THE IONS ARE SINGLE ATOMS (MONATOMIC)
      • EXAMPLES:
      • COLUMN VII
      • Cl -1
      • Br -1
      • COLUMN VI
      • S -2
      • O -2
      • COLUMN V
      • N -3
      • P -3
    • NAMING MONATOMIC (SINGLE ATOM) ANIONS
      • ANIONS THAT CONSIST OF ONLY ONE ATOM END IN ALWAYS “IDE”.
      • ANIONS THAT CONSIST OF MORE THAN ONE ATOM BUT CONTAIN NO OXYGEN ALSO END IN “IDE”
      • THE HYROXIDE ION IS AN EXCEPTION IN THAT IT CONTAINS OXYGEN AND POLYATOMIC BUT ENDS IN “IDE”
      • CHLORIDE Cl -1
      • SULFIDE S -2
      • NITRIDE N -3
      • CYANIDE CN -1
      • THIOCYANIDE SCN -1
      • HYDROXIDE OH -1
    • POLYATOMIC IONS ARE THOSE THAT CONSIST OF MORE THAN ONE ATOM. MOST ARE ANIONS.
      • POLYATOMIC IONS THAT CONTAIN OXYGEN END IN “ATE” OR “ITE”
      • ONCE POLYATOMIC IONS ENDING IN “ATE” ARE KNOWN, IONS OF SIMILAR COMPOSITION BUT DIFFERING BY ONE LESS OXYGEN ATOM END IN “ITE”
      • EXAMPLES:
      • SULFATE
      • SO 4 -2
      • SULFITE HAS ONE LESS OXYGEN ATOM
      • SO 3 -2
      • NITRATE
      • NO 3 -1
      • NITRITE HAS ONE LESS OXYGEN ATOM
      • NO 2 -1
    • POLYATOMIC IONS ARE THOSE THAT CONSIST OF MORE THAN ONE ATOM. MOST ARE ANIONS.
      • Polyatomic anions which contain one more oxygen than the “ate” form are given the prefix “per”
      • ClO 3 -1 is chlorate, ClO 4 -1 is perchlorate
      • Polyatomic anions which contain one less oxygen than the “ite” form are given the prefix “hypo”
      • ClO 2 -1 is chlorite, ClO -1 is hypochlorite
    • FORMULAS OF IONIC COMPOUNDS ( CATIONS ARE ALWAYS NAMED FIRST FOLLOWED BY THE NAME OF THE ANION IN THE COMPOUND)
      • IONIC SALTS ARE FORMED WHEN CATIONS COMBINE WITH ANIONS
      • THE NET CHARGE ON ALL SALTS MUST BE ZERO WHICH MEANS ALL THE POSITIVE CHARGES ON THE CATIONS MUST BALANCE ALL THE NEGATIVE CHARGE ON THE ANIONS
      • EXAMPLE:
      • WHEN SODIUM CHLORIDE IS FORMED FROM A POSITIVE SODIUM ION AND A NEGATIVE CHLORIDE ION, JUST ONE SODIUM WITH A +1 CHARGE IS REQUIRED TO BALANCE JUST ONE CHLORIDE WITH A –1 CHARGE. SO THE FORMULA IS JUST NaCl.
    • WHAT ABOUT FORMULAS FOR COMPOUNDS WHEN THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CHARGES DON’T EXACTLY BALANCE
      • ZINC CHLORIDE CONSISTS OF ZINC WITH A +2 CHARGE AND CHLORIDE WITH A –1 CHARGE.
      • IN ORDER TO BALANCE THE CHARGES, ONE ZINC MUST COMBINE WITH TWO CHLORIDES. THE FORMULA FOR ZINC CHLORIDE IS ZnCl 2 .
      • (+2) + ( 2 x (-1)) = 0
      • IRON III SULFIDE CONSISTS OF TWO IRON ATOMS AND THREE SULFUR ATOMS.
      • EACH IRON III ION HAS A +3 CHARGE AND EACH SULFIDE ION HAS A –2 CHARGE. THE FORMULA FOR IRON III SULFIDE IS Fe 2 S 3 .
      • (2 x ( +3)) + (3 x (-2)) = 0
    • IONIC COMPOUNDS CONTAINING POLYATOMIC IONS (CATIONS AND ANIONS)
      • LEAD II NITRATE CONSISTS OF ONE LEAD II ION WITH A +2 CHARGE AND TWO NITRATE IONS EACH WITH A –1 CHARGE.
      • IN ORDER TO BALANCE THE CHARGES, ONE LEAD II MUST COMBINE WITH TWO NITRATES. THE FORMULA FOR LEAD II NITRATE IS Pb(NO 3 ) 2.
      • ( +2) + (2 x (-1)) = 0
      • AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE CONSISTS OF THREE AMMONIUM IONS EACH WITH A +1 CHARGE AND ONE PHOSPHATE WITH A –3 CHARGE.
      • IN ORDER TO BALANCE THE CHARGES, THREE AMMONIUM IONS MUST COMBINE WITH ONE PHOSPHATE. THE FORMULA FOR AMMONIUM PHOSPHATE IS (NH 4 ) 3 PO 4.
      • (3 x (+1)) + (-3) = 0
    • The Crisscross Method of Writing Formulae Aluminum Nitrate Aluminum = Al Nitrate = NO +3 3 -1 Al NO +3 3 -1 Al ( NO ) 3 3 The positive ion charge without its sign becomes the subscript of the negative ion The negative ion charge without its sign becomes the subscript of the positive ion 1 (+3) + 3(-1) = 0
    • FORMULAS AND NAMES FOR MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS (COMPOUNDS CONSISTING OF ONLY NONMETALS, NOT IONS)
      • NONMETALS ARE THE ELEMENTS ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE PERIODIC TABLE.
      • WHEN NAMING COMPOUNDS, PREFIXES ARE USED TO TELL THE NUMBER OF EACH KIND OF ATOM.
      • PREFIXES USED
      • MONO = 1
      • DI = 2
      • TRI = 3
      • TETRA = 4
      • PENTA = 5
      • HEXA = 6
      • HEPTA = 7
      • OCTA = 8
      SIMPLE!
    • NAMES AND FORMULAS OF MOLECULAR COMPOUNDS
      • SULFUR DIOXIDE CONSISTS OF ONE SULFUR ATOM (NO PREFIX IS USED) AND TWO (DI) OXYGEN ATOMS. BOTH SULFUR AND OXYGEN ARE NONMETALS. THE FORMULA FOR SULFUR DIOXIDE IS SO 2
      • DINITROGEN PENTOXIDE CONSISTS OF TWO NITROGEN ATOMS (DI) AND FIVE OXYGEN ATOMS (PENTA). BOTH NITROGEN AND OXYGEN ARE NONMETALS. THE FORMULA FOR DINITROGEN PENTOXIDE IS N 2 O 5.
    • THE END