Ch. 13 hundred years war
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Ch. 13 hundred years war

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  • Image from Historical Stock Photos website: http://www.historicalstockphotos.com/images/xsmall/996_joan_of_arc.jpg
  • Break class into four groups. Each group will look at a different map (p. 393). They will list as much info and as many questions as they can for their map. Then share their information with the class the next day. Use Gale Resource Center or Power Library for research. May also need to use the Internet.
  • “ In northern Europe, France barely exists in the early fourteenth century but, by the end of the Hundred Years’ War, France expands to become a huge and dominant player in European affairs.” -- from Instructors’ Reference Manual, p. 191

Ch. 13 hundred years war Ch. 13 hundred years war Presentation Transcript

  • The Hundred Years’ War, 1337-1453
  • Beginnings of the War
    • In 1337, French king Philip VI took Guyenne, which had been held by the English.
    • Edward III countered by claiming the French throne, leading to more than 100 years of war.
    • The war was actually a series of war in four phases.
  • Edward III’s Claim to the Throne
    • On Feb. 1, 1328, Charles IV of France lay dying.
    • His wife was pregnant. He said that if she had a son, he would be king of France, but if she had a daughter, then Philip of Valois would be king.
    • She had a daughter, so Philip became king.
    • But Edward III thought he should be king, because his mother was Charles’s sister. But Edward was king of England.
  • Four phases:
    • First three phases characterized by:
      • Weakening French power
      • Stronger England
      • Creation of a new kingdom, Burgundy, which allied with England.
    • Fourth phase:
      • Henry V of England defeats the French at Agincourt
      • But the English are slowly driven out of France until they only hold Calais.
  • Answers & Questions
    • What kinds of answers (or information) can you get from this map?
    • What kinds of questions do you have about this map?
    • Where can you find the answers to those questions?
      • Your textbook
      • Some other source
  • Map 1: 1337 How did England get that territory in France in the first place? Why is the compass tilted? In 1337, English had Bordeaux and Guyenne. France had everything else except for Calais. How did they conquer the land in the first place? Why are the two areas the English owned so far away from each other? Why is Calais so much smaller?
  • Map 2: 1360 After the Battle of Poitiers, the English gained more ground in France. France gained more land in the HRE. England took over the Channel Islands. There were battles in Poitiers & Crecy. How do you pronounce that city? What happened to Southampton? Where were those battles in those locations? Why did the French move east into the HRE? England gained land and power. There were two battles: Poitiers and Crecy. Why did England gain so much land in France? Who won both those battles? How did England gain control of Crecy?
  • Map 3: 1429 The Battle of Agincourt took place in 1415. Burgundy and England became allies. Burgundy held a portion of England’s territory in France. Where did Joan of Arc’s route start? How did England gain territory in France during 1360-1429? How did England lose so much territory after 1429?
    • Why did Burgundy decide to ally with England?
      • B. was already allied with E. Had to choose which side to be on. Later chose France, which helped France win.
    • How did England gain land in the north, but lose land in the west?
      • French kings chipped away, and by beg. of 14th cent. Eng. Only had a small area, and King Philip declared England his land.
    • Why did Joan of Arc take that specific route and how did she gain control?
    • Why did the battle break out in Agincourt and what were the dates of it?
    6th period
  • Map 4: 1453 The English Channel separated the English territories from the French. How did Burgundy become part of France? Duchy of Burgundy became involved in the war and eventually sided with the French. What areas were held under French rule in 1453? All of France as we know it today. England? They lost all their land on the continent.
  •  
  • Joan of Arc
    • How did the French drive the English off the continent for good? Joan of Arc
    • Sixteen-year-old peasant girl inspired by visions from God to lead the war against the English.
    • She fought courageously at Orléans, and convinced the dauphin to go to Reims to be anointed king.
    • In 1431, she was captured in a failed attempt to take Paris.
    • Burned at the stake as a witch.
    6th period
  • Joan of Arc
    • Let’s discuss:
    • Four groups will discuss readings on p. 394-395, plus a handout.
    • First two questions are on p. 395.
    • 3. Which of the three descriptions of Joan was provided by someone who seems to have known her best?
    • 4. Which of the three descriptions best captures the Joan of Arc who led the French to victory at the Battle of Orleans?
    • 5. Is there anything in Joan’s background that accounts for her rise to prominence?
  • Hundred Years’ War as a World War
    • England & France drew other countries into the war by using mercenaries & through economic effects of the war.
    • Duchy of Burgundy became involved through marriage.
    • Burgundy became independent for a while and absorbed the Low Countries.
  • From Chivalry to Modern Warfare
    • Chivalry is the medieval code of refinement, fair play, and piety followed by knights on horseback.
    • One historian considered the Hundred Years’ War to be a “chivalric adventure.”
    • But the period saw a shift from chivalry to more modern warfare & mercenaries (hired soldiers).
    • During lulls in the war, “Free Companies” ravaged the countryside and terrorized peasants.
  • From Chivalry to Modern Warfare
    • The ideal chivalric knight fought on horseback, in armor.
    • But in much of the war, foot soldiers and archers were far more important.
    • Gunpowder, forged cannons, and handguns also appeared during this war.
    • Standing army established in France.
  • Ottoman Conquest of Constantinople, 1453
    • At end of Hundred Years’ War, Constantinople was conquered by Ottoman Turks.
    • Ottomans were converts to Islam; a tribal confederation in central Asia, lead by Osman I.
    • Ottomans began to wage war against the “infidels” in 14 th century.
    Link to Google Map of Istanbul Today
  • Ottoman Conquest of Constantinople, 1453
    • During next two centuries, Ottomans took over Balkans and Anatolia.
    • Reduced Byzantine Empire to just Constantinople; treated it as vassal state.
    • At Maritsa River in 1364, Murad defeated joint Hungarian-Serbian army.
    • In 1389, Murad’s forces won the battle of Kosovo, still invoked today as a great struggle between Christians & Muslims.
    Link to Google Map of Istanbul Today
  • Ottoman Conquest of Constantinople, 1453
    • Constantinople fell in March 1453, with cannons breaking through the city walls after a three-month siege.
    • Conquest of Constantinople marked the end of Byzantine Empire. But Mehmed saw himself as a successor to Roman emperors, even though he was Muslim.
    • Turned the great church Hagia Sophia into a mosque.
    • Like the French & English kings, the Ottoman sultans were central monarchs.
    • By 1500, the Ottoman Empire was a powerful state bridging Europe and the Middle East.
    Link to Google Map of Istanbul Today