Aristotle, the rhetoric, book ii the topics

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Aristotle, the rhetoric, book ii the topics

  1. 1. The Rhetoric, Book II: The Topics
  2. 2. The Rhetoric, Book II: The Topics TOPIC: from the Greek topos (plural: topoi), meaning “place.” According to Aristotle, a topic is a general argumentative pattern out of which arguments about specific subjects can be generated.
  3. 3. The Rhetoric, Book II: The Topics In its most basic form, that general argumentative pattern consists of a kind of conceptual “intersection,” i.e., a pair of complementary and/or conflicting terms that we can use to locate and define our subject. TOPIC: from the Greek topos (plural: topoi), meaning “place.” According to Aristotle, a topic is a general argumentative pattern out of which arguments about specific subjects can be generated. In more developed forms, intersections intersect with other intersections to create the kinds of highly complex, multifaceted patterns that generate highly complex, multifaceted arguments.
  4. 4. The Rhetoric, Book II: The Topics Some topoi •Definition: General / Specific TOPIC: from the Greek topos (plural: topoi), meaning “place.” According to Aristotle, a topic is a general argumentative pattern out of which arguments about specific subjects can be generated. Our first subject
  5. 5. The Rhetoric, Book II: The Topics Some topoi •Definition: General / Specific •Division: Whole / Parts TOPIC: from the Greek topos (plural: topoi), meaning “place.” According to Aristotle, a topic is a general argumentative pattern out of which arguments about specific subjects can be generated. Our first subject
  6. 6. The Rhetoric, Book II: The Topics Some topoi •Definition: General / Specific •Division: Whole / Parts •Comparison: Similarity / Difference, or Degree TOPIC: from the Greek topos (plural: topoi), meaning “place.” According to Aristotle, a topic is a general argumentative pattern out of which arguments about specific subjects can be generated. Our first subject
  7. 7. The Rhetoric, Book II: The Topics Some topoi •Definition: General / Specific •Division: Whole / Parts •Comparison: Similarity / Difference, or Degree •Relationship: Cause / Effect; Contraries; Contradictions TOPIC: from the Greek topos (plural: topoi), meaning “place.” According to Aristotle, a topic is a general argumentative pattern out of which arguments about specific subjects can be generated. Our first subject
  8. 8. The Rhetoric, Book II: The Topics Some topoi •Definition: General / Specific •Division: Whole / Parts •Comparison: Similarity / Difference, or Degree •Relationship: Cause / Effect; Contraries; Contradictions •Circumstances: Possible / Impossible; Past Fact / Future Fact TOPIC: from the Greek topos (plural: topoi), meaning “place.” According to Aristotle, a topic is a general argumentative pattern out of which arguments about specific subjects can be generated. Our first subject
  9. 9. The Rhetoric, Book II: The Topics Some topoi •Definition: General / Specific •Division: Whole / Parts •Comparison: Similarity / Difference, or Degree •Relationship: Cause / Effect; Contraries; Contradictions •Circumstances: Possible / Impossible; Past Fact / Future Fact •Testimony: Authorities; Witnesses; Maxims; Rumors; Oaths; Documents; etc. TOPIC: from the Greek topos (plural: topoi), meaning “place.” According to Aristotle, a topic is a general argumentative pattern out of which arguments about specific subjects can be generated. Our first subject
  10. 10. The Rhetoric, Book II: The Topics Some topoi •Definition: General / Specific •Division: Whole / Parts •Comparison: Similarity / Difference, or Degree •Relationship: Cause / Effect; Contraries; Contradictions •Circumstances: Possible / Impossible; Past Fact / Future Fact •Testimony: Authorities; Witnesses; Maxims; Rumors; Oaths; Documents; etc. TOPIC: from the Greek topos (plural: topoi), meaning “place.” According to Aristotle, a topic is a general argumentative pattern out of which arguments about specific subjects can be generated. Our second subject

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