Stephen Toulmin, who developed model for substantiating claims made by writers (2003). Toulmin begins from the position that the goal of every argument is to establish a claim and then support the claim through data, warrants and qualifiers. You need to be able to analyze the plausibility of the claim. When a teacher tells you that you need more support, he or she is suggested that you need more data. The sociology teacher can advise you on your paper of the causes of child abuse to qualify your conclusion. Your AP teacher can remind you to anticipate possible rebuttals to your argument about the war in Vietnam.
With this formula, claim seems not merely an assertion but rather the logical conclusion that must e reached after testing evidence that supports a belief. Because such an approach helps students understand the elements of an argument, it is therefore a valuable pedagogical technique, since greater understanding among our students is a desirable quality. You will notice the Toulmin model at work in that last sentence.
What is the Toulmin method of argumentation? Claim – Data - Warrant
He was a British philosopher who wrote a book called The Uses of Argument (1958). Toulmin was looking for a method that accurately described the way people make convincing and reasonable argument. Because Toulmin argument takes into account the complications in life— all those situations when people have to qualify their thoughts with words such as sometimes , often , presumably , unless , and almost — his method isn’t as airtight as formal logic. But for exactly that reason, Toulmin logic has become a powerful and, for the most part, practical tool for understanding and shaping argument.