Prevention and control of diseases for third year mbbs students


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Prevention and control of diseases for third year mbbs students

  1. 1. Principal of Communicable DiseasesPrevention and ControlDr. Rajan Bikram RayamajhiSchool Of Public Health and Community MedicineB. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences06/21/13SPHCM 20131
  2. 2. The goal of medicine :o promote healtho preserve healtho restore health when it is impairedo minimize suffering and distress06/21/13SPHCM 20132
  3. 3. Control of disease:o To identify the weak points and break the weakest links in thechain of transmission.o Disease control involves - community participation,political support and inter sectoral co-ordination06/21/13SPHCM 20133
  4. 4. Preventive Medicineo Applied to healthy peopleo The concept of preventive medicine alsoincludes: Health promotion Specific protection Treatment Prevention of disability06/21/13SPHCM 20134
  5. 5. PreventionDiseases can be prevented by appropriate preventive measureswhich include:o Good site planningo Provision of basic clinical serviceso Provision of appropriate sheltero Clean water supplyo Sanitationo Mass vaccination against specific diseaseso Regular and sufficient food supplyo Control of vectors06/21/13SPHCM 20135
  6. 6. LEVELS OF PREVENTION1. Primordial preventionPrevention of the emergence or development of risk factors in countries or populationgroups in which they have not yet appeared.1. Primary preventionAction taken prior to the onset of disease, which removes the possibility that a diseasewill ever occur.1. Secondary preventionAction which halts the progress of a disease at its incipient stage and preventscomplication.1. Tertiary preventionAll measures available to reduce or limit impairments and disabilities, minimizesuffering caused by patients adjustment to irremediable conditions06/21/13SPHCM 20136
  7. 7. 06/21/13SPHCM 20137
  8. 8. MODES OF INTERVENTIONo Intervention can be defined as any attempt to intervene or interruptthe usual sequence in the development of disease in mano They are:1. Health promotion2. Specific protection3. Early diagnosis and treatment4. Disability limitation5. Rehabilitation06/21/13SPHCM 20138
  9. 9. Health Promotiono Health Educationo Environmental Modificationo Nutritional interventiono Lifestyle & behavioral changes06/21/13SPHCM 20139
  10. 10. Health Education06/21/13SPHCM 201310
  11. 11. Environmental Modification06/21/13SPHCM 201311
  12. 12. Nutritional intervention06/21/13SPHCM 201312
  13. 13. Lifestyle & behavioral changes06/21/13SPHCM 201313
  14. 14. Specific Protection06/21/13SPHCM 201314
  15. 15. Early Diagnosis & Treatment06/21/13SPHCM 201315
  16. 16. DISABILITY LIMITATIONImpairmentsImpairmentsDiseaseDiseaseorordisorderdisorderDisabilitiesDisabilities HandicapsHandicaps06/21/13SPHCM 201316
  17. 17. Impairment: Any loss or abnormality of psychological, physiological oranatomical structure or function.Ex: loss of foot, defective vision or mental retardation06/21/13SPHCM 201317
  18. 18. Disabilityo Any restriction or lack ofability to perform anactivity in the manner orwithin the range ofconsidered normal for ahuman beingo Ex: can not walk due toaccident06/21/13SPHCM 201318
  19. 19. Handicapo A disadvantage for a given individual, resulting from animpairment or a disability, that limits or prevents thefulfillment of a role that is normal (depending on age, sexand social and cultural factors) for that individual.o Reduction in a person’s capacity to fulfill a social roleo E.g., unemployed due injury or not being able to walk06/21/13SPHCM 201319
  20. 20. Disability Preventiono Reducing the occurrence ofimpairment ( primary prevention)Ex: immunization against polioo Disability limitation by appropriatetreatment (secondary prevention)o Preventing transition of disabilityinto handicap ( tertiary prevention)06/21/13SPHCM 201320
  21. 21. RehabilitationAim:o Reducing the impact of disabling andhandicapping conditionso Enabling the disabled and handicappedto achieve social integration (the activeparticipation of disabled andhandicapped people in the mainstreamof community life)06/21/13SPHCM 201321
  22. 22. Disability limitation by appropriate treatment06/21/13SPHCM 201322
  23. 23. Controlo To control a disease is “to exercise restraint or regulation, to correct orrestore to normalo In another word the term control describes(ongoing) operations aimedat reducing the prevalence of the disease to a level where it is not amajor public health problem06/21/13SPHCM 201323
  24. 24. Aim at reducing:o The incidence of diseaseo The duration of disease and consequently the risk oftransmissiono The effects of infection, including both the physical andpsychosocial complicationso The financial burden to the community06/21/13SPHCM 201324
  25. 25. o Control activities may focus on primary prevention orsecondary prevention, most control programmes combinethe two.o The concept of tertiary prevention is comparatively lessrelevant to control efforts.06/21/13SPHCM 201325
  26. 26. General measures for controlA) Measures directed against reservoir/ source:a. Extra human (Animal) reservoir: Testing of animal/ herd for infection Destruction Treatment of infected animals Avoidance of close contact Meat inspection Licensing, restraint and vaccination of pets06/21/13SPHCM 201326
  27. 27. b. Human reservoiro Active case detectiono Passive surveillanceo High index of suspiciono Early diagnosiso Isolationo Quarantineo Chemotherapyo Health educationo Management of potential sourceso Notification06/21/13SPHCM 201327
  28. 28. B) Measures for interrupting transmission:o Avoidance of physical contacto Disinfection/ disinfestationso Barrier nursingo Water disinfectiono Food hygieneo Pasteurization/ boiling milko Good housingo General ventilationo Avoidance of overcrowdingo Dust suppressiono Vector controlo Sterilization of syringes and needleso Safety of blood and blood productso Health education06/21/13SPHCM 201328
  29. 29. c) Measures to increase host resistance: Better health / nutritional status Immuno prophylaxis Chemoprophylaxis06/21/13SPHCM 201329
  30. 30. Thank You06/21/13SPHCM 201330