Chapter 15 anti slavery


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Anti-Slavery Movement in American in the 1800's, also deals with Uncle Toms Cabin, Abolitionists such as Douglass and Garrison.

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Chapter 15 anti slavery

  1. 1. Chapter 15 Anti- Slavery/ California
  2. 2. Americans Oppose Slavery  In the 1830’s Americans took a more organized action supporting abolition o Abolition : A complete end to slavery
  3. 3.  Though many wanted to see the African American set free many would argue about how much freedom they should have. o Some thought they should have the same as the white Americans o Some were against full political and social equality o Some wanted to send them back to Africa to set up colonies.
  4. 4. Thought this would prevent conflicts between the races in the U.S. American Colonization Society  An organization dedicated to establishing colonies of freed slaves in Africa  Founded the colony of Liberia on the west coast of Africa.
  5. 5. Spreading the Word • William Lloyd Garrison  Published an abolitionist newspaper, the Liberator beginning in 1831.  Garrison helped start the American Anti- Slavery Society its member wanted immediate emancipation and racial equality for African Americans. o Both the Liberator and the American Anti-Slavery Society members spread antislavery literature and petitioned Congress to end federal support of slavery.
  6. 6. Angelina and Sarah Grimke  Two white southern women, who came from a South Carolina Slave holding family but disagreed with their parents support of slavery o Wrote American Slavery As It Is in 1839 and the book was one of the most important antislavery works of its time.
  7. 7. Frederick Douglass  Douglass escaped from slavery when he was 20 and went on to become one the most important leaders in the 1800s. o He had secretly learned to read and write as a boy (despite the law against it)
  8. 8. o His public speaking skills were impressive and members of the Anti-Slavery Society would ask him to give regular lectures. o He also published a newspaper called the North Star and wrote several autobiographies.
  9. 9. The Underground Railroad  By the 1830s a loosely organized group had begun helping slaves escape from the south. o Free African Americans, former slaves and a few white abolitionists worked together.
  10. 10.  The Underground Railroad: was not an actual railroad but was a network of people who arranged transportation and hiding places for fugitives or escaped slaves. o Fugitives would travel along “freedom trails” to northern state or Canada.
  11. 11. o There was never a central leadership o The people who led the groups to freedom were called “conductors” ( one of the most famous conductors was Harriet Tubman) o Places they stopped were called “stations” o People who owned the places that they stopped at were called “ Station masters”
  12. 12. Not All People in the North Opposed Slavery  Newspapers and politicians warned that freed slaves would move north and take jobs from white workers.  Abolitionist leaders were threaten with violence ( a mob even killed one abolitionist leader Elijah Lovejoy)
  13. 13.  Congress used the “gag rule”: is a rule that limits or forbids the raising, consideration or discussion. o North saw it as too touchy as a subject o South did not want to debate it
  14. 14. New Land Renews Slavery Disputes  After winning the Mexican American war in 1848, the United States added 500,000 square miles of land. o The addition of land brought up the debate of slavery o The Missouri Compromise of 1820 divided the Louisiana Purchase, prohibiting slavery north of 36 degrees 30’ line latitude.
  15. 15. Polk wanted to extend this line to the west coast Others wanted to extend Popular Sovereignty  The idea that political power belongs to the people. oThe people should decide on banning or allowing slavery.
  16. 16. California Question o The gold rush had caused such a rapid population growth, that California applied to join the Union as a state instead of as a territory.  But would it be a free state or a slave state?
  17. 17.  It looked as though it was leaning towards free, slavery was illegal when it was under the control of Mexico and most of the settlers were from free states. • the South was upset that it looked like there would be in imbalance between the states if California entered as a free state
  18. 18. Compromise of 1850 “The Great Compromiser” Henry Clay had a plan again.  California would enter the Union as a free state  The rest of the Mexican Cession would be federal land, and popular sovereignty would decide on slavery
  19. 19.  Texas would give up land on the east of the upper Rio Grande, so that the government would pay Texas debts from when it was an independent republic.  The slave trade…. But not slavery would in the capital  A more effective fugitive slave law would be passed.
  20. 20. • Not everyone was happy with this compromise, John C. Calhoun of South Carolina didn’t want California entering as a free state because it would destroy the balance, he would asked that the slave states be allowed to secede or formally withdraw from the union.
  21. 21. Fugitive Slave Act o Newly passed, made it a crime to help runaway slaves and allowed officials to arrest those slaves in free areas.  Slaveholders could use testimony from white witnesses, but enslaved African Americans accused of being fugitives could not testify.  Commissioners who rejected a slaveholders claim earned $5 while those who returned a suspected fugitive to slaveholders earned $10
  22. 22.  Northerners disliked the idea of a trial without a jury, also they disapproved of the commissioners higher fees for the returning slaves.  The most horrifying part was that some free African Americans had been captured and sent to the south.
  23. 23. Anti-Slavery Literature o Uncle Tom’s Cabin  Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe  Spoke out powerfully against slavery  She was a daughter of a preacher who had met fugitive slaves and learned about the cruelties of slavery  It was published in 1852, within a decade it sold more than 2 million copies.
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