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Chapter 15 a divided nation
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Chapter 15 a divided nation

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Events leading up to the south seceding from the Union. Kansas-Nebraska Act, John Brown, Bleeding Kansas, Election of 1860

Events leading up to the south seceding from the Union. Kansas-Nebraska Act, John Brown, Bleeding Kansas, Election of 1860

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  • 1. Election of 1852  Democrat: Franklin Pierce, little known political from New Hampshire o Promised to honor the Compromise of 1850 and the Fugitive Slave Act  Southerners trusted Pierce on the issue of slavery  Whig: Winfield Scott, a Mexican War hero o Southerners did not trust because he did not fully support the Compromise of 1850  Pierce won the election
  • 2. Douglas and the Railroad  Stephen Douglas had supported the idea of building a railroad to the Pacific Ocean, since being elected to Congress in the mid- 1840s. o Wanted the line to start in Chicago o Needed to organize what remained of the Louisiana Purchase into federal territory  The Missouri Compromise required that this land be free territory.
  • 3. o Southerners did not support Douglas’s plan and preferred a southern route instead, which would start in New Orleans. o Douglas was determined to have the railroad start in Chicago and had to ask a few key southern senators to support his plan, they agreed if the new territory west of Missouri was opened to slavery.
  • 4. Kansas- Nebraska Act  January 1854: Douglas introduced what would become known as the Kansas- Nebraska Act o A plan that would divide the remainder of the Louisiana Purchase into two territories- Kansas and Nebraska and allow the people in each territory to decide on the question of slavery.  The act would eliminate the Missouri Compromise
  • 5.  Anti-slavery northerners are outraged but the implications, believing that proposal was part of some terrible plot to turn free territory into a region of masters and slaves. o Many anti- Nebraska petitions were sent to Congress  The Act was passed on May 30, 1854 o However, Douglas’s railroad would not be approved by Congress until 1862.
  • 6. Kansas Divided  Both anti-slavery and pro-slavery groups rushed to Kansas o Elections were held in March 1855, almost 5,000pro-slavery voters crossed the border from Missouri and voted in Kansas.  The Kansas legislature thus had a large pro-slavery majority, and passed strict laws that made it a crime to question slaveholders rights  In protest an anti-slavery group formed their own legislature 25 miles away.
  • 7. Bleeding Kansas o In April 1856 a congressional committee arrived in Kansas to decide which government was legitimate.  Decided that the election was unfair…. Federal government didn’t care.
  • 8. o Violence broke out in May 1856  A proslavery grand jury charged the leaders of the anti-slavery leader’s government with treason.  800 men rode in to the city of Lawrence to arrest the antislavery leaders but they at already fled, they took their anger out on Lawrence by setting fires, looting buildings and destroying presses used to print antislavery newspapers.
  • 9. John Brown  May 24, 1856, Brown and his men killed five pro- slavery men in Kansas in what became known as the Pottawatomie Massacre.  Kansas would collapse into civil war and about 200 people were killed. o Bleeding Kansas
  • 10. Political Parties Undergo Change  After the Kansas-Nebraska Act slavery was back into the national spotlight. oWhigs, Democrats, Free-Soilers, and abolitionists joined in 1854 to form the Republican Party  A political Party united against the spread of slavery in the west.  John C. Fremont was their Candidate in 1856
  • 11. oDemocrats knew they could choose a strong supporter of the Kansas- Nebraska Act  James Buchanan of Pennsylvania  Was Polks Secretary of State, and was in Great Britain as an ambassador during the Kansas Nebraska Act.
  • 12. James Buchanan Won the election
  • 13. Dred Scott Decision  Dred Scott was a slave for Dr. John Emerson an army surgeon who lived in St. Louis Missouri. o Scott would accompany Dr. Emerson on tours of duty in Illinois and Wisconsin Territory. o When they returned to Missouri, the doctor died. o Scott become the slave of Emerson’s Widow
  • 14. o In 1846 Scott sued for his freedom in the Missouri state courts, arguing that he had become free when he lived in the free territory.  A lower court ruled in his favor, however the Missouri Supreme Court over turned it.  11 years later the case reached the U.S. Supreme Court
  • 15.  The court had three issue to look at o Was Scott a citizen? o Did his time on free soil make him free? o The court had to determine the constitutionality of prohibiting slavery in parts of the Louisiana Purchase.
  • 16.  The court was had a majority of southern justices on it.  Chief Justice Roger B. Taney (A slaveholding family in Maryland)
  • 17. oIssue #1: Citizenship  Said that the nation’s founders believed that African Americans “had no rights which white man was bound to respect”  Therefore all African American whether free or slave, were not citizens under the U.S. Constitution.
  • 18. oIssue #2: Free Soil  Residence on free soil did not make him free because he returned to the slave state of Missouri.
  • 19. o Issue #3: Slavery in Louisiana Purchase  Declared that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional, using the fifth amendment no one can “ be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of the law”  Because slaves were considered property
  • 20.  Southerners cheered this decision it “covers every question regarding slavery and settles it in favor of the south”  Northerners were stunned, Republicans were particularly upset because they stated in 1856 that Congress had the right to ban slavery in Federal territories and now the highest court is saying they don’t.
  • 21. Lincoln-Douglas Debates  Abraham Lincoln vs. Stephen Douglas for the Illinois U.S. Senate o Central issue of the campaign was the spread of slavery in the West. o Douglas would win the Senate seat, but Lincoln would become an important leader in the Republican Party.
  • 22. Raid on Harpers Ferry  October 16, 1858 John Brown tried to start an uprising by attacking the federal arsenal in Virginia and seizes weapons. o He planned to arm local slaves o Expected to kill or take hostage white southern who stood in his way.
  • 23. o No African Americans came to join him and the local white southerners attacked him instead. o The next night federal troops arrived and Colonel Robert E. Lee ordered a squad of marines to storm the building and captured Brown.  Brown was convict of treason, murder and conspiracy and was hanged on December 2. 1859.
  • 24. Election 1860  Northern and southern Democrats could not agree on a candidate o Northern Democrats chose Senator Stephen Douglas o Southern Democrats chose Vice President John C. Breckinridge  Supported slavery in the territories
  • 25.  Constitutional Union Party – New political Party : recognized “ no political principles other than the Constitution of the country, the Union of the states and the enforcement of the laws” o Supported John Bell  Slaveholder who opposed the Kansas- Nebraska Act.
  • 26.  Republican Party o Supported Abraham Lincoln  A moderate who was against the spread of slavery, but promised not to abolish slavery where it already existed.
  • 27. Winner….  Lincoln won only 40 % of the popular vote but won 180 of the 183 electoral votes in the Free states.
  • 28. o The southerners were angered; Lincoln did not campaign in the south, and did not win one southern state.  Signaled that the south was losing its national political power.
  • 29. South Secedes  Within a week of Lincolns election, South Carolina’s legislature called for a special convention o Some wanted to secede  They argued that each of the original states had voluntarily joined the Union by holding a special convention that had ratified the Constitution  Why couldn’t they leave by the same process?
  • 30.  Senator John J. Crittendon was working hard on a plan to save the Union o He proposed a series of constitutional amendments that he believed would satisfy the south by protecting slavery  Lincoln disagreed with Crittenden, saying there could be no compromise about the extension of slavery
  • 31.  On December 20, 1860 South Carolina elected to dissolve from the union.  Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas soon followed
  • 32. oJefferson Davis of Mississippi was elected President of the newly formed Confederate States of America  Its new constitution guaranteed citizens the right to own slaves.