Biodiesel Fuel Quality

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  • Revised 9 Aug 02 The ASTM system is the basis for defining product specifications and measurement methods for most segments of the fuels and industrial products market in the U.S. ASTM D 6751 – 02 sets forth the specifications that must be met for a fatty acid ester product to carry the designation “biodiesel fuel” or “B100”. Products that meet the specification, by implication, will perform properly as a compression ignition fuel either as B100 or in blends with any petroleum-derived diesel fuel defined by ASTM Specification D 975 Grades 1-D, 2-D, and low sulfur 1-D and 2-D. The instructional goals for this module are: Become familiar with the structure of ASTM Specification and Methods documents. Learn the Specifications for B 100 fuel. Introduce the Methods used to measure the performance parameters for B 100 fuel.
  • Note 2006 and 2007 Quality Surveys
  • Note 2006 and 2007 Quality Surveys
  • Making high quality biodiesel consistently is of utmost importance The biggest concerns in making high quality biodiesel completeness of conversion and presence of contaminants like soap, glycerol, water, methanol, or unreacted catalyst. Common factors affecting quality are feedstock (FFA concentration and moisture content), appropriate quantity of catalyst; adequate agitation, adequate reaction heat and time; and thorough washing.
  • Reagents and Reference Materials - Most tests use reagents to prepare samples and/or reference materials for comparison of test results. This section provides detailed instructions with respect to the sourcing, specifications and maintenance of these materials. Sampling – The Methods prescribed for the taking, preparing, and maintaining of the test samples are set forth in this section. Careful attention to the Sampling section is critical in the ASTM testing process. Preparation of the Apparatus – The goal of the ASTM procedures is reproducibility over time and among laboratories. For this reason, there are detailed instructions for ensuring that the measurement apparatus is functioning properly and reproducibly before each test. Calibration – As a final determinant of proper functioning, many of the test instruments employ measurement of the property in question using a reference material as a part of the test methodology. The calibration procedure is an assurance that systematic errors are identified before actual testing begins. Procedure – This section provides detailed step-by-step instructions on how to conduct the measurements. It is particularly important to document each step and the results as the test procedure is performed.
  • Biodiesel can contain up to 1500ppm of dissolved water which can show up with a Karl Fischer Titration but this water may not show up in the water & sediment test.
  • The fundamental principle behind it is based on the Bunsen Reaction between iodine and sulfur dioxide in an aqueous medium. Karl Fischer discovered that this reaction could be modified to be used for the determination of water in a non-aqueous system containing an excess of sulfur dioxide. He used a primary alcohol (methanol) as the solvent, and a base (pyridine) as the buffering agent. Water and iodine are consumed in a 1:1 ratio in the above reaction. Once all of the water present is consumed, the presence of excess iodine is detected voltametrically by the titrator’s indicator electrode. That signals the end-point of the titration. The amount of water present in the sample is calculated based on the concentration of iodine in the Karl Fisher titrating reagent (i.e., titer) and the amount of Karl Fisher Reagent consumed in the titration.
  • Determined by heating the fuel in the presence of air so that all organic materials are burned away & only inorganic materials are left. The ash is then treated with sulfuric acid to enhance sensitivity to sodium & potassium compounds that remain from the catalyst. “Bake & measure”
  • Some animal fats & recycled oils have high sulfur levels and may not meet S15. This fuel can be sold into the offroad markets under the 500ppm sulfur fuels.
  • Also function of feedstock The more saturated the fat, the higher the cloud point (50-60F)
  • Making high quality biodiesel consistently is of utmost importance The biggest concerns in making high quality biodiesel completeness of conversion and presence of contaminants like soap, glycerol, water, methanol, or unreacted catalyst. Common factors affecting quality are feedstock (FFA concentration and moisture content), appropriate quantity of catalyst; adequate agitation, adequate reaction heat and time; and thorough washing.
  • The InfraSpec can measure percent biodiesel in diesel fuel, ethanol in gasoline, water in ethanol as well as total glycerides during the biodiesel reaction process. Using the InfraSpec Spectrometer for making pass/fail determinations for total glycerides can significantly reduce analysis time and increase reactor throughput by as much as 20 percent. The InfraSpec VFA-IR Spectrometer is compact and portable and has a simplified software interface for non-technically trained personnel giving the user the capability to measure the blend ratio of biofuels or total glycerides on site or at a manufacturing facility.
  • Paradigm Sensors’ i-SPEC™ Q-100 handheld field unit is capable of testing total glycerin, acid number, and methanol as well as biodiesel concentration, between B0 to B100, correlating with current FTIR and GC reference methodology
  • ASTM Standards: - All biodiesel sold should meet the the ASTM standards BQ 9000 Certification: - Two types of certification: Accredited Producer and Certified Marketer - in its introductory stages, only a few producers are accredited
  • Biodiesel Fuel Quality

    1. 1. Biodiesel Fuel Quality & Technical Overview National Biodiesel Board Technician Outreach Program
    2. 2. Quality, Quality, Quality <ul><li>B100 must meet D 6751 prior to blending to insure trouble-free use of B20 and lower blends </li></ul><ul><li>BQ-9000 fuel quality program helps to promote high quality fuel from producers and marketers </li></ul><ul><li>B20 and lower blends are recommended since most of the research and successful use of the fuel has been with these blends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See NBB Toolkit document “Use of Biodiesel Blends Up to B20” for more information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blends over B20 require special precautions and should only be used by knowledgeable and experienced users </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See NBB document “Guidance on Biodiesel Blends Above B20” for more information: http://www.biodiesel.org/pdf_files/fuelfactsheets/Use_of_Biodiesel_Blends_above_%2020.pdf </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Why care about biodiesel quality? <ul><li>Off specification biodiesel can cause engine operability problems </li></ul><ul><li>Quality is critical to continue to grow the industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is NO room for off-specification fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customers need to receive consistent quality from lot to lot, batch to batch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be on-spec for tax credit and to be legal fuel </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Summary <ul><li>Biodiesel production review </li></ul><ul><li>Key elements in ASTM Specifications and Standard Test Methods </li></ul><ul><li>ASTM Specification D 6751 – 08, the specification of </li></ul><ul><li>B100 (biodiesel) fuel is described in detail. </li></ul><ul><li>Key properties of B 100 are discussed in terms of their tests and specifications. </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative testing procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Other issues affecting fuel quality </li></ul>
    5. 5. Review of the Production Process <ul><li>Biodiesel is produced by a chemical reaction between methanol (or ethanol) and an oil or fat, in the presence of a catalyst. </li></ul><ul><li>Requires a strong basic catalyst (NaOH or KOH) </li></ul><ul><li>The reaction is called “Transesterification” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing one ester (vegetable oil) into another ester (biodiesel) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oil + Alcohol yields Biodiesel + Glycerol </li></ul>
    6. 6. Transesterification (the biodiesel reaction) Fatty Acid Chain Glycerol Methanol (or Ethanol) One triglyceride molecule is converted into three mono alkyl ester (biodiesel) molecules Biodiesel Triglyceride
    7. 7. Potential Impurities: in Biodiesel <ul><li>Methanol – Degrades some plastics and elastomers, corrosive; Can lower flashpoint to unsafe levels (fire safety) </li></ul><ul><li>Unconverted/partly converted oils (bound glycerin) – Results in very poor cold flow properties, injector and in-cylinder deposits, potential engine failure </li></ul><ul><li>Free Glycerin – Results in injector deposits, clogged fuel filters, deposit at bottom of fuel storage tank </li></ul><ul><li>Catalyst (caustic, NaOH) – Excessive injector, fuel pump, piston, and ring wear, filter plugging, issues with lubricant </li></ul><ul><li>All are limited by ASTM D6751 specification </li></ul>
    8. 8. ASTM Specifications <ul><li>ASTM D 6751 – 08: </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Specification for Biodiesel Fuel (B 100) Blend Stock for Distillate Fuels </li></ul><ul><li>ASTM D 6751 has two grades </li></ul><ul><ul><li>S500 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S15 (Almost all biodiesel is already S15) </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. B100 Blending Component Specification <ul><li>Recent changes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidation stability added </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major steps forward for passage of biodiesel blend specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Critical for obtaining OEM approval </li></ul><ul><li>Critical for ensuring that biodiesel performs as advertised so market can grow </li></ul>D6751-07b Requirements McCormick, R.L, Westbrook, S.R. “Biodiesel and Biodiesel Blends” Standardization News , page 28, April 2007
    10. 10. ASTM Current Status <ul><li>ASTM D6751 is the approved standard for B100 to be used for blending up to B20 in the US </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several changes made to support blend specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B5 initially approved into the petrodiesel specifications: D975, D396 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No changes to D975, D396 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B100 must meet D6751 prior to blending </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B6 to B20 for on/off road diesel engines approved draft as a stand alone specification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Widest of #1/#2 specifications, T-90 5 º C increase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addition of stability and acid number for final blend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B100 must meet D6751 prior to blending </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. B6-B20 Blend Specification <ul><li>Oxidation Stability is 6 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Cold Soak Filtration Test included </li></ul><ul><li>Acid Number Reduction </li></ul>
    12. 12. 2004 B100 Quality Survey <ul><li>Under guidance of B20 Fleet Evaluation Team (OEM’s, NREL, NBB) </li></ul><ul><li>Samples obtained nationwide from biodiesel blenders (27 samples) </li></ul><ul><li>85% of samples tested met the ASTM D6751 specification </li></ul><ul><li>Four samples failed with high levels of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>phosphorus (lube oil contamination?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>total glycerin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>acid number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>acid number and total glycerin </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. 2006 B100 Quality Survey <ul><li>A subcontractor visited the site of a biodiesel blender, usually a terminal operator or jobber, to collect the B100 sample </li></ul><ul><li>32 B100s, 6 B99s, and 1 B50 </li></ul><ul><li>59% of B100 samples tested fail the D6751 specification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importantly, 30% fail total glycerin – immediate operational problems in cold weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other issue of concern is 20% failure rate for Na+K </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compares to 15% failure rate in 2004 survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samples were collected randomly, not on production volume basis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel, based on production volume, may have different failure rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poor quality batch may have contaminated larger fuel lot </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. 2007 B100 Quality Survey <ul><li>Collect B100 samples directly from producers and analyze for properties most likely to impact engine performance and emission control systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash point, oxidation stability, acid value, free and total glycerin, cloud point, Na+K, Ca+Mg, P, water & sediment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First survey that will link test results to production volume </li></ul><ul><li>Results presented at recent NBB meeting </li></ul>
    15. 15. Survey results <ul><li>56 out of 107 producers participated in 2007 survey or 70% of the 2007 US market –Reasons for not participating are likely due to lack of feedstock availability </li></ul><ul><li>Wide variety of feedstocks represented </li></ul><ul><li>Meeting the specification is independent of producer size or feedstock </li></ul><ul><li>Small producers failed specifications more often than medium or large producers </li></ul><ul><li>– Small producers: 28% of samples passed –Medium producers: 68% of samples passed –Large producers: 94% of samples passed </li></ul>
    16. 16. How do you ensure quality? <ul><li>Biodiesel Fuel Quality is determined by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Feedstock quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Production process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Post-Reaction monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Analytical Capability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Handling and Storage **CRITICAL </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Critical Parameters <ul><li>Flashpoint, °C </li></ul><ul><li>Acid Number, mg KOH/g </li></ul><ul><li>Total and Free Glycerin, % mass </li></ul><ul><li>Water and Sediment, volume % </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud point, °C </li></ul><ul><li>Oxidative Stability, hr </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur, ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Visual appearance </li></ul>
    18. 18. Flash Point <ul><li>Method ASTM D 93 </li></ul><ul><li>Changed 2007- Limit: 93ºC minimum </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>A sample is heated in a close vessel and ignited. When the sample burns, the temperature is recorded. </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol Control </li></ul><ul><li>One of the following must be met: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Methanol content EN 14110: </li></ul><ul><li>0.2 max % volume </li></ul><ul><li>2. Flash point D 93 : 130 min °C </li></ul>
    19. 19. Flash Point Testing
    20. 20. Water and Sediment <ul><li>Method D 2709 </li></ul><ul><li>Limit of 500ppm, examining the free water content </li></ul><ul><li>100 mL of sample are centrifuged at 800 rcf for 10 min at 21° to 32°C in calibrated tube. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Water and Sediment <ul><li>Biodiesel can absorb 1500 ppm of water while diesel only 50 ppm. </li></ul><ul><li>Free water can cause corrosion of fuel injection parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Housekeeping issue </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitates above cloud point </li></ul>
    22. 22. Karl Fischer : Moisture Determination
    23. 23. Acid Number <ul><li>Test Method ASTM D 664 </li></ul><ul><li>Limits: 0.5 mg KOH/g maximum </li></ul><ul><li>pH sensitive electrode </li></ul><ul><li>May also be determined using indicators </li></ul>
    24. 24. Sulfated Ash <ul><li>Test Method ASTM D 874 </li></ul><ul><li>Limits: 0.020 % mass maximum </li></ul><ul><li>Sample ignited and burned </li></ul><ul><li>Ash + carbon (C removed by H 2 SO 4 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Indication of concentration of metal additives (Ba, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Sn, Zn) </li></ul><ul><li>More than 0.020 % indicates residual soap & catalyst </li></ul>
    25. 25. Free and Total Glycerin <ul><li>Test Method ASTM D 6584 </li></ul><ul><li>Limits: 0.020 % mass free glycerin </li></ul><ul><li>0.240 % mass total glycerin </li></ul><ul><li>Gas Chromatography with FID detection </li></ul><ul><li>Quantifies glycerol, mono-, di- and triglycerides </li></ul>
    26. 27. Production Factors: Total Glycerol <ul><li>Measured with gas chromatograph (ASTM D6584) and requires a skilled operator. </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated monoglycerides have very low solubility in biodiesel. </li></ul><ul><li>If too high, there may be problems with fuel filter plugging and fuel stability. </li></ul>
    27. 28. Good conversion
    28. 29. Sulfur <ul><li>Test Method ASTM D 5453 </li></ul><ul><li>Limits: 0.05 % mass maximum </li></ul><ul><li>S oxidized to SO 2 at high temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>UV fluorescence of emitted gases SO 2  SO 2 *  SO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>S limits dictated by environmental considerations (S15 or S500) </li></ul><ul><li>EPA regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Feedstock variation </li></ul>
    29. 30. Cloud point <ul><li>Test Method ASTM D 2500 </li></ul><ul><li>Limits: No established limits </li></ul><ul><li>Reported in ºC </li></ul><ul><li>Sample cooled and examined visually until first cloud appears. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicates the lowest temperature at which fuel is usable. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally higher than diesel. </li></ul>
    30. 31. Cold Flow <ul><li>Wax molecules in diesel fuel and biodiesel tend to crystallize at low temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Crystals agglomerate to form large masses. </li></ul><ul><li>This can cause filter plugging and eventually the fuel will become a solid mass. </li></ul><ul><li>Soy biodiesel gels at approximately 32 °F </li></ul><ul><li>#2 petroleum diesel fuel gels at 10 to 14 °F. </li></ul><ul><li>Biodiesel from saturated/tallow feedstocks can gel as high as 50-55°F. </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast , petroleum diesel fuel is a mixture of hundreds of different compounds that solidify at very different temperatures. So, even if some compounds crystallize at a relatively high temperature, many other compounds will stay liquid to a much lower temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Watch your soap & water content! </li></ul>
    31. 32. Cloud Point & CFPP
    32. 33. Cold Soak Filtration Test <ul><li>Developed in response to questions about precipitates above the cloud point </li></ul><ul><li>Character of precipitates may vary with feedstock </li></ul><ul><li>Method is being incorporated in the D6751 on October 15, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Method will be mandatory annex in D6751 until test method is balloted and written </li></ul><ul><li>ASTM Subcommittee 14 is working to further develop test method </li></ul>
    33. 34. Cold Soak Filtration Test Method <ul><li>Preheat fuel at 40 ° C for 3 hours to remove thermal memory then hold at room temp for 24 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Soak 300 mL sample at 4 ° C for 16 hours and let return to room temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time will vary with degree of saturation of feedstock </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Filter fuel using 0.7  m filter and constant vacuum </li></ul><ul><li>Record time to filter fuel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If fuel does not filter, record time stopped and volume filtered </li></ul></ul>
    34. 35. Oxidative Stability <ul><li>Equipment: Rancimat or OSI </li></ul><ul><li>Method: EN 14112; 3 minimum hours </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment cost: 10k- 17k </li></ul><ul><li>Recent addition to ASTM 6751 </li></ul><ul><li>Products of oxidation in biodiesel are various acids or polymers, can cause fuel system deposits and lead to filter plugging & fuel system malfunctions. </li></ul><ul><li>Additives can improve the oxidation stability performance of biodiesel. </li></ul>
    35. 36. Fuel oxidation <ul><li>Biodiesel will react with oxygen from the air to form polymers, acids, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Acids: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence indicated by increasing Acid Value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause corrosion of metal components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corrosion can be aggravated by water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polymers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sediments that can plug fuel filters and coat metal surfaces </li></ul></ul>
    36. 37. Class I & II metals: Ca/Mg/Na/K <ul><li>Calcium & Magnesium & Sodium & Potassium can be in biodie sel as abrasive solids or soluble metallic soaps. </li></ul><ul><li>Solids contribute to injector, fuel pump, piston, and ring wear, & engine deposits. </li></ul><ul><li>Soluble metallic soaps have little effect on wear, but filter clogging & engine deposits </li></ul><ul><li>These compounds may also be collected in exhaust particulate removal devices </li></ul>
    37. 38. Less Critical Parameters <ul><li>Cetane </li></ul><ul><li>Distillation Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Viscosity </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Residue </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Copper Strip Corrosion </li></ul>
    38. 39. Fleet and Distributor Biodiesel Testing <ul><li>Saftest </li></ul><ul><li>Completeness of Reaction (3/27 Methanol Test) </li></ul><ul><li>Soap test: AOCS method </li></ul><ul><li>Wilkes Infraspec </li></ul><ul><li>Paradigm Sensors </li></ul><ul><li>Fleet Biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>pHLip Test </li></ul><ul><li>Wika Water test </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial growth, algae-x </li></ul>
    39. 40. MP Biomedicals
    40. 41. Completion of Reaction <ul><li>Dissolve 3 ml of biodiesel in 27 ml of methanol. </li></ul><ul><li>The biodiesel should be fully soluble in the methanol forming a clear bright phase. </li></ul><ul><li>If you observe un-dissolved material at the bottom of the sample the reaction did not proceed to completion </li></ul><ul><li>Each ml of undissolved material corresponds to 4% by volume. </li></ul>
    41. 42. 0.2139 Bound Glycerin Although cloudy, there were no droplets of precipitate. 0.0900 Bound Glycerin Crystal clear, no cloudiness or precipitate. Samples Passing 3/27
    42. 43. 0.9256 Bound Glycerin Note the falling droplets of unreacted oil. Samples Failing 3/27 1.8260 Bound Glycerin
    43. 44. Biodiesel Conversion Test
    44. 45. Acid Number Qualitative Tests
    45. 46. Soap- AOCS test method <ul><li>Gels at ambient temperature as little as 5% </li></ul><ul><li>Cause problems with glycerol separation and washing </li></ul><ul><li>Soap can be split by acidulating </li></ul><ul><li>Soap is usually clear and very viscous </li></ul><ul><li>Methanol will act as a cosolvent and keep soap in solution with the biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>High soap levels = high sulfated ash number </li></ul><ul><li>High FFA and water content lead to soap formation in process </li></ul>
    46. 47. Soap Test Titrating from blue/green to straw yellow….
    47. 48. Wilkes InfraSpec measures percent biodiesel in diesel fuel, ethanol in gasoline, water in ethanol as well as total glycerides during the biodiesel pass/fail determination in less than 5 minutes.
    48. 49. Paradigm Sensors * Paradigm Sensors’i-SPEC™ tests TOTAL GLYCERIN in blended fuels (B6-B20), which is in accordance with ASTM proposal that the biodiesel portion of the fuel must meet ASTM 6751 prior to blending.
    49. 50. Fleet Biodiesel
    50. 51. pHLip Test
    51. 52. Wika Water Test
    52. 53. Microbial growth <ul><li>Certain varieties of bacteria and fungi can grow in diesel fuel tanks. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth occurs at the interface of the fuel and water at the bottom of the fuel tank. </li></ul><ul><li>Water must be drained from tank bottoms on a regular basis. </li></ul><ul><li>ULSD </li></ul><ul><li>Biocides are available to control microbial growth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dead microbes can still plug filters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water elimination and prevention is preferred over treatment. </li></ul></ul>
    53. 54. Bacteria Growth Fungal Growth
    54. 55. Operational issues <ul><li>Microbial growth – ULSD & moisture </li></ul><ul><li>Treat your storage tanks for moisture/biocide </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Aged fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Cold Flow </li></ul><ul><li>Low energy content (not harmful) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel filter plugging is the most common operational issue </li></ul>
    55. 56. Certificate of Analysis
    56. 57. Biodiesel Quality Standard <ul><li>ASTM D 6751 Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel quality is critical for proper functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Standards ensure satisfactory operation in diesel engines </li></ul><ul><li>BQ 9000 Certification </li></ul><ul><li>Certifies biodiesel producers and markers </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling of confidence for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engine and Vehicle Manufacturers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers </li></ul></ul>
    57. 58. In Summary <ul><li>Purchase fuel from known quality producer </li></ul><ul><li>On-site and in-process analysis is essential </li></ul><ul><li>Watch for residual contamination </li></ul><ul><li>Correct product handling and storage procedures is essential </li></ul><ul><li>Final product must meet the current revision of ASTM D 6751 </li></ul>
    58. 59. Biodiesel Fuel Quality Resources <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>www.biodiesel.org </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.bq-9000.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>www.me.iastate.edu/biodiesel </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. uidaho . edu /bioenergy/index.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cytoculture.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.biodieselmagazine.com </li></ul>
    59. 60. NBB Resources <ul><li>www.biodiesel.org </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Library </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Bulletin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Videos Available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informational Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-line Database & Spec Sheets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>www.BQ-9000.org </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel Quality Certification Program for Accredited Producers and Certified Marketers </li></ul></ul>

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