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Ac. ch. 1

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Ac. ch. 1 Ac. ch. 1 Presentation Transcript

  • The Science of Biology What is science? -Investigate and understand -Explain events -Make predictions
  • The Science of Biology
    • Science deals only with natural world
    • Accuracy is essential and used to organize
    • Scientists must be able to test proposed explanations
  • The Science of Biology
    • Thinking like a scientist
      • Observations
        • Qualitative- non-numerical
        • Quantitative- numerical
    View slide
  • The Science of Biology
    • Data
      • Expressing data
        • Graphing
          • Scatter Chart
          • Pie Graph= percent data
          • Histogram or bar graph= discreet data
          • Line graph= Continuous data
    View slide
  • Scatter Chart
    • This is a way of representing a two dimensional data sequence.
  • Scatter Chart
  • Line Chart
    • Shows how two continuous variables are related to each other, especially changes in one variable over time. Time is normally shown on the horizontal.
  • Line Graph
  • Bar Charts
    • Suitable for data vectors with only one numerical value being shown for different groups. They can be used to indicate the momentary status or last measured value of a parameter
    • Bar charts can also be used to show the breakdown of total figures by splitting each bar up into segments
  • Bar Charts
  • Pie Chart
    • Suitable for showing the relationship or proportions of parts with regard to a whole. They represent only a single row of data.
  •  
  • The Science of Biology
    • Using data
      • Inferences- apply findings to derive logical conclusions or interpretations
      • Predictions- Based on experimental data logical predictions can be made
  • The Science of Biology
    • Biology is NOT a series of facts but an ongoing quest for understanding the living world.
      • Much of our understanding is still developing and changing.
        • Search is more for how and why answers.
  • The Science of Biology
    • Human Beliefs & Science
      • Vary by culture
      • Vary by location
      • Vary by personal belief system
  • The Science of Biology
    • Galileo Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 (Italian)
      • Considered to have established modern scientific method
                                                 .
  • The Science of Biology
    • The Scientific Method
      • Statement of question;
      • Hypothesis; “EDUCATED”
      • Experimentation
      • Data
      • Conclusion
        • “ Based on the data the hypothesis was/was not SUPPORTED”
  • The Science of Biology
    • Key Experiments and why they are repeated!
      • Francesco Redi (Italian) 1668
      • Spontaneous generation
  • Francesco Redi
    • Redi's Problem
    • Where do maggots come from? Hypothesis: Maggots come from flies.
    • Redi put meat into three separate jars.
      • Jar 1 was left open
      • Jar 2 was covered with netting
      • Jar 3 was sealed from the outside
  • Francesco Redi
    • Jar-1
    • Left open Maggots developed
    • Flies were observed laying eggs on the meat in the open jar.
  • Francesco Redi
    • Jar-2
    • Covered with netting.
    • Maggots appeared on the netting.
    • Flies were observed laying eggs on the netting.
  • Francesco Redi
    • Jar-3
    • Sealed No maggots developed.
  • The Science of Biology
    • What is a controlled experiment?
    • What is a manipulated variable?
    • Describe the experiment that Redi designed. What was the result?
    • Describe the experiment that Pasteur designed. What was the result?
    • What did the experiments of Redi and Pasteur prove?
  • The Science of Biology
    • John Needham (English) mid 1700’s
      • Boiled gravy and left flask open.
      • Flasks developed microorganisms.
      • Conclusion: had to have come from gravy.
  • The Science of Biology
    • Lazzaro Spallanzani (Italian) Late 1700’s
      • Improved Needham’s experiment
      • Closed off top of one flask after boiling
      • Results only open flask grew life forms
      • Conclusion: Life forms were coming from air.
  • The Science of Biology
    • Louis Pasteur (French) 1864
      • Experiment let in air but no dust.
      • Swann neck flask
      • Results- No growth even with air entering but no dust
      • Conclusion: dust contained microorganisms
  • The Science of Biology
    • Louis Pasteur
      • The germ theory
        • nature of contagious diseases
        • laboratory manipulations of infectious agents can be used to immunize people and animals.
        • the inventor of the process of pasteurization
  • Louis Pasteur
  • The Science of Biology
    • Exceptions to Experimentation
      • Observation
      • Ethical issues
        • Adolph Hitler
  • The Science of Biology
    • Theories-
      • Developed from well tested and supported hypothesis.
      • Generally accepted concepts in science.
        • Life originates from life “Theory of Biogenesis”
  • The Science of Biology
    • BIOLOGY- The study of life and living things
  • The Science of Biology
    • Characteristics of all living things
      • All living things are made of at least 1 cell
        • Unicellular= 1 cell
        • Multicellular= many cells
  • The Science of Biology
    • All living things reproduce
      • Asexual reproduction
        • Asexual reproduction only takes one parent.
        • offspring are typically genetically similar to their parent
        • The lack of genetic recombination results in fewer genetic alternatives than with sexual reproduction.
  • The Science of Biology
    • All living things reproduce
      • Sexual Reproduction
        • results in increasing genetic diversity of the offspring .
        • fertilization , involving the fusion of two gametes
  • The Science of Biology
    • Living things are based on a universal genetic code.
      • DNA & RNA carry out the same function in all living things.
  • The Science of Biology
    • All living things grow and develop
      • Growth= physical increase in size.
      • Development= changes in physical structure maturation.
  • The Science of Biology
    • Living things need energy
      • Autotrophs= photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
      • Heterotrophs= cellular respiration
  • The Science of Biology
    • Living Things Respond to their Environment
      • Some response is immediate some are very slow.
        • Stimulus is the environmental factor that triggers response.
          • Response may be visible or internal.
  • The Science of Biology
    • Maintain Homeostasis
      • RESULTS of inbalance
        • FEVER
        • SICKNESS
        • ACHING
  • The Science of Biology
    • Populations of Organisms Evolve
      • Individuals can NOT evolve.
  • The Science of Biology
    • Branches of Biology
      • Agriculture - study of producing crops from the land, with an emphasis on practical applications
      • Anatomy - the study of the animal form, with an emphasis on human bodies
      • Bioengineering - the study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology.
  • The Science of Biology
    • Branches of Biology
      • Cell Biology - the study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell.
      • Conservation Biology - the study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife
      • Entomology - the study of insects
  • The Science of Biology
    • Branches of Biology
      • Ethology - the study of animal behavior
      • Genetics - the study of genes and heredity.
      • Ichthyology - the study of fish
      • Macrobiology - the study of biology on the level of the macroscopic individual (plant, animal, or other living being) as a complete unit.
      • Marine Biology - the study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings.
      • Etc.
  • The Science of Biology
    • LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
      • Sub-atomic
        • Proton, neutron, electron
      • Atomic -Basic unit of matter that maintains the qualities of that element.
      • Molecular -Combined atoms in a specified ratio.
        • H 2 O NaCl
        • CO 2 HCl
        • C 6 H 12 O 6 O 2
  • The Science of Biology
    • Because a water molecule has a slight positive charge on one end and a slight negative charge on the other...the attraction of the opposite charges, (electro-static charges) creates what is called surface tension, the weak attraction is called a hydrogen bond.
  • The Science of Biology
    • Cellular -Smallest unit representing life.
    • http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/cell_structure/cell_structure.htm
    • Tissues - Groups of similar cells
      • Muscle, vascular, mesentary etc.
    • Organs - Groups of tissues
      • Stomach, intestine
  • The Science of Biology
    • Organ system- Groups of organs with similar function.
      • Digestive
      • Endocrine
      • Reproductive
      • Etc.
    • Organism - Groups of organ systems carrying out life’s functions
  • The Science of Biology
    • Population - Groups of the same organism in a defined area in a defined time.
    • Community - Populations living together in a specified area.
    • Ecosystem - Communities and their nonliving surroundings.
    • Biosphere - Part of the Earth that contains all ecosystems.
  • The Science of Biology
    • Everyday Biology
      • Current events
        • Diseases
        • Population problems
        • Environmental issues
  • The Science of Biology
    • Challenges of Biology
      • Unlike most classes
        • Lecture/Reading
        • Labs
        • Broad coverage
  • The Science of Biology
    • Common ground
      • Measurements
        • SI units (Metric)
        • Meter – Length  
        • Liter – Volume  
        • Gram – Mass/Weight  
        • Celsius – Temperature  
  • The Science of Biology
    • Prefixes-
    • Kilo – Thousand
    • Milli-   Thousand
    • Centi – Hundred  
    • Deci – Ten
  • The Science of Biology
    • Tools of Biology
      • Microscopes
        • Light microscopes
          • 1 cell thick
          • Maximum magnification 1,000X
        • Electron Microscope
          • Transmission electron microscopes (TEM)
          • Scanning electron microscopes (SEM)
            • Surface or Internal observation
            • Maximum 1,000,000X
  • The Science of Biology
    • LAB Techniques
      • Cell Cultures -Growing cells from 1 cell under controlled environments.
      • Cell Fractionation –To study individual cell parts by breaking apart cells (lysing) then separating their parts by using a centrifuge.