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Ac. ch. 1

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  • Page 9 Text
  • WRONG
  • WRONG
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Science of Biology What is science? -Investigate and understand -Explain events -Make predictions
    • 2. The Science of Biology
      • Science deals only with natural world
      • Accuracy is essential and used to organize
      • Scientists must be able to test proposed explanations
    • 3. The Science of Biology
      • Thinking like a scientist
        • Observations
          • Qualitative- non-numerical
          • Quantitative- numerical
    • 4. The Science of Biology
      • Data
        • Expressing data
          • Graphing
            • Scatter Chart
            • Pie Graph= percent data
            • Histogram or bar graph= discreet data
            • Line graph= Continuous data
    • 5. Scatter Chart
      • This is a way of representing a two dimensional data sequence.
    • 6. Scatter Chart
    • 7. Line Chart
      • Shows how two continuous variables are related to each other, especially changes in one variable over time. Time is normally shown on the horizontal.
    • 8. Line Graph
    • 9. Bar Charts
      • Suitable for data vectors with only one numerical value being shown for different groups. They can be used to indicate the momentary status or last measured value of a parameter
      • Bar charts can also be used to show the breakdown of total figures by splitting each bar up into segments
    • 10. Bar Charts
    • 11. Pie Chart
      • Suitable for showing the relationship or proportions of parts with regard to a whole. They represent only a single row of data.
    • 12.  
    • 13. The Science of Biology
      • Using data
        • Inferences- apply findings to derive logical conclusions or interpretations
        • Predictions- Based on experimental data logical predictions can be made
    • 14. The Science of Biology
      • Biology is NOT a series of facts but an ongoing quest for understanding the living world.
        • Much of our understanding is still developing and changing.
          • Search is more for how and why answers.
    • 15. The Science of Biology
      • Human Beliefs & Science
        • Vary by culture
        • Vary by location
        • Vary by personal belief system
    • 16. The Science of Biology
      • Galileo Galileo Galilei 1564-1642 (Italian)
        • Considered to have established modern scientific method
                                                   .
    • 17. The Science of Biology
      • The Scientific Method
        • Statement of question;
        • Hypothesis; “EDUCATED”
        • Experimentation
        • Data
        • Conclusion
          • “ Based on the data the hypothesis was/was not SUPPORTED”
    • 18. The Science of Biology
      • Key Experiments and why they are repeated!
        • Francesco Redi (Italian) 1668
        • Spontaneous generation
    • 19. Francesco Redi
      • Redi's Problem
      • Where do maggots come from? Hypothesis: Maggots come from flies.
      • Redi put meat into three separate jars.
        • Jar 1 was left open
        • Jar 2 was covered with netting
        • Jar 3 was sealed from the outside
    • 20. Francesco Redi
      • Jar-1
      • Left open Maggots developed
      • Flies were observed laying eggs on the meat in the open jar.
    • 21. Francesco Redi
      • Jar-2
      • Covered with netting.
      • Maggots appeared on the netting.
      • Flies were observed laying eggs on the netting.
    • 22. Francesco Redi
      • Jar-3
      • Sealed No maggots developed.
    • 23. The Science of Biology
      • What is a controlled experiment?
      • What is a manipulated variable?
      • Describe the experiment that Redi designed. What was the result?
      • Describe the experiment that Pasteur designed. What was the result?
      • What did the experiments of Redi and Pasteur prove?
    • 24. The Science of Biology
      • John Needham (English) mid 1700’s
        • Boiled gravy and left flask open.
        • Flasks developed microorganisms.
        • Conclusion: had to have come from gravy.
    • 25. The Science of Biology
      • Lazzaro Spallanzani (Italian) Late 1700’s
        • Improved Needham’s experiment
        • Closed off top of one flask after boiling
        • Results only open flask grew life forms
        • Conclusion: Life forms were coming from air.
    • 26. The Science of Biology
      • Louis Pasteur (French) 1864
        • Experiment let in air but no dust.
        • Swann neck flask
        • Results- No growth even with air entering but no dust
        • Conclusion: dust contained microorganisms
    • 27. The Science of Biology
      • Louis Pasteur
        • The germ theory
          • nature of contagious diseases
          • laboratory manipulations of infectious agents can be used to immunize people and animals.
          • the inventor of the process of pasteurization
    • 28. Louis Pasteur
    • 29. The Science of Biology
      • Exceptions to Experimentation
        • Observation
        • Ethical issues
          • Adolph Hitler
    • 30. The Science of Biology
      • Theories-
        • Developed from well tested and supported hypothesis.
        • Generally accepted concepts in science.
          • Life originates from life “Theory of Biogenesis”
    • 31. The Science of Biology
      • BIOLOGY- The study of life and living things
    • 32. The Science of Biology
      • Characteristics of all living things
        • All living things are made of at least 1 cell
          • Unicellular= 1 cell
          • Multicellular= many cells
    • 33. The Science of Biology
      • All living things reproduce
        • Asexual reproduction
          • Asexual reproduction only takes one parent.
          • offspring are typically genetically similar to their parent
          • The lack of genetic recombination results in fewer genetic alternatives than with sexual reproduction.
    • 34. The Science of Biology
      • All living things reproduce
        • Sexual Reproduction
          • results in increasing genetic diversity of the offspring .
          • fertilization , involving the fusion of two gametes
    • 35. The Science of Biology
      • Living things are based on a universal genetic code.
        • DNA & RNA carry out the same function in all living things.
    • 36. The Science of Biology
      • All living things grow and develop
        • Growth= physical increase in size.
        • Development= changes in physical structure maturation.
    • 37. The Science of Biology
      • Living things need energy
        • Autotrophs= photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
        • Heterotrophs= cellular respiration
    • 38. The Science of Biology
      • Living Things Respond to their Environment
        • Some response is immediate some are very slow.
          • Stimulus is the environmental factor that triggers response.
            • Response may be visible or internal.
    • 39. The Science of Biology
      • Maintain Homeostasis
        • RESULTS of inbalance
          • FEVER
          • SICKNESS
          • ACHING
    • 40. The Science of Biology
      • Populations of Organisms Evolve
        • Individuals can NOT evolve.
    • 41. The Science of Biology
      • Branches of Biology
        • Agriculture - study of producing crops from the land, with an emphasis on practical applications
        • Anatomy - the study of the animal form, with an emphasis on human bodies
        • Bioengineering - the study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology.
    • 42. The Science of Biology
      • Branches of Biology
        • Cell Biology - the study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell.
        • Conservation Biology - the study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife
        • Entomology - the study of insects
    • 43. The Science of Biology
      • Branches of Biology
        • Ethology - the study of animal behavior
        • Genetics - the study of genes and heredity.
        • Ichthyology - the study of fish
        • Macrobiology - the study of biology on the level of the macroscopic individual (plant, animal, or other living being) as a complete unit.
        • Marine Biology - the study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings.
        • Etc.
    • 44. The Science of Biology
      • LEVELS OF ORGANIZATION
        • Sub-atomic
          • Proton, neutron, electron
        • Atomic -Basic unit of matter that maintains the qualities of that element.
        • Molecular -Combined atoms in a specified ratio.
          • H 2 O NaCl
          • CO 2 HCl
          • C 6 H 12 O 6 O 2
    • 45. The Science of Biology
      • Because a water molecule has a slight positive charge on one end and a slight negative charge on the other...the attraction of the opposite charges, (electro-static charges) creates what is called surface tension, the weak attraction is called a hydrogen bond.
    • 46. The Science of Biology
      • Cellular -Smallest unit representing life.
      • http://www.wiley.com/legacy/college/boyer/0470003790/animations/cell_structure/cell_structure.htm
      • Tissues - Groups of similar cells
        • Muscle, vascular, mesentary etc.
      • Organs - Groups of tissues
        • Stomach, intestine
    • 47. The Science of Biology
      • Organ system- Groups of organs with similar function.
        • Digestive
        • Endocrine
        • Reproductive
        • Etc.
      • Organism - Groups of organ systems carrying out life’s functions
    • 48. The Science of Biology
      • Population - Groups of the same organism in a defined area in a defined time.
      • Community - Populations living together in a specified area.
      • Ecosystem - Communities and their nonliving surroundings.
      • Biosphere - Part of the Earth that contains all ecosystems.
    • 49. The Science of Biology
      • Everyday Biology
        • Current events
          • Diseases
          • Population problems
          • Environmental issues
    • 50. The Science of Biology
      • Challenges of Biology
        • Unlike most classes
          • Lecture/Reading
          • Labs
          • Broad coverage
    • 51. The Science of Biology
      • Common ground
        • Measurements
          • SI units (Metric)
          • Meter – Length  
          • Liter – Volume  
          • Gram – Mass/Weight  
          • Celsius – Temperature  
    • 52. The Science of Biology
      • Prefixes-
      • Kilo – Thousand
      • Milli-   Thousand
      • Centi – Hundred  
      • Deci – Ten
    • 53. The Science of Biology
      • Tools of Biology
        • Microscopes
          • Light microscopes
            • 1 cell thick
            • Maximum magnification 1,000X
          • Electron Microscope
            • Transmission electron microscopes (TEM)
            • Scanning electron microscopes (SEM)
              • Surface or Internal observation
              • Maximum 1,000,000X
    • 54. The Science of Biology
      • LAB Techniques
        • Cell Cultures -Growing cells from 1 cell under controlled environments.
        • Cell Fractionation –To study individual cell parts by breaking apart cells (lysing) then separating their parts by using a centrifuge.