The Chemicals Of Life
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The Chemicals Of Life






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The Chemicals Of Life Presentation Transcript

  • 1. BASIC BIOLOGY BIO 101/4 Objectives: 1.understand that all matters are made up of atom/elements 2. list down the main components of life. 3. how molecules and compounds are formed 4. the unique properties of water, carbon, lipid, and protein
  • 2.
    • Atoms & Elements.
    • *Earth & all lives are made up 92 elements.
    • *Element – the simplest substance, could not break into simpler compound by any chemical means.
    • *4 main elements made up the life:
    • i. Carbon
    • ii. Oxygen
    • iii. Hydrogen
    • iv. Nitrogen
  • 3. *Other elements: Phosphorus (P), potassium (K), sulphur (S), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and chlorine (Cl). *Each element made up of atom *Compound – 2 or more atoms of diff. elements joined together.
  • 4. Molecules and Compounds: *covalent bonding *ionic bonding *valency of element shell *organic compound
  • 5. Carbon * Its special properties: i. tetravalent – hold 4 atoms forming tetrahedron structure, very stable. ii. carbon-carbon bond is very strong – forming a long chain in a single / combined with other atoms. iii.
  • 6. Water - essential to life, human body consists of 60 - 70% water. - consists of 2 Hydrogen atoms & 1 Oxygen atom forming 2 covalent bonds but not equally shared
  • 7. – Oxygen has a stronger pull on the ê than the Hydrogen resulting in slightly +ve and –ve regions – polar molecules. Water is a dipolar molecule.
  • 8.  
  • 9. The unique properties of water: - mainly due to its hydrogen bond that tends to stick to each other. i. liquid at RT – 1 water molecule could form H-bond with up to 3 other water molecules ii. Universal solvent – bipolar molecule
  • 10. iii. surface tension – stronger attraction among water molecules. iv. Ice float on water – water most dense at 4 o C, in liquid the H-bond are constantly formed and reformed but in ice the water molecules form H-bond w/ 3 other water molecules and creates a rigid lattice.
  • 11. v. adhesion – tendency to wet most surface due to its ability to attract to other molecules – polar property. vi. High specific heat capacity. vii. High latent heat of vaporization – creating cooling effect.
  • 12. iix. latent heat of fusion – high energy lost to form ice crystals. ix. transparent to sunlight. x. high density xi. Difficult to compress xii. Electric conductor – pure water is poor elec. Conductor but dossolve ions is a good conductor.
  • 13. The significances of water. i. provides a liquid environment inside cells & aquatic organisms. ii. Chemical reactions & transport medium iii. Surface tension allows aquatic organisms move on it.
  • 14. iv. High density of water allow aquatic organisms to live under ice during the cool season. v. adhesion allow water to move upward against gravity in a narrow channel (capillary force) – in plants (xylem)
  • 15. vi. High specific capacity – controlls temperature changes – cellular life. vii. High latent heat vaporization – cooling effect. viii. High latent heat fusion – water slowly to freeze.
  • 16.  
  • 17. ix. Transparent – aquatic plants and microorganisms to photosynthesise. x. High density – allow large animals to survive in it; whale, ice, etc. xi. Hardly compressed – acting as hydrostatic skeleton in certain organisma like worms & turgid.
  • 18.
    • Turgid – composes of 85% water & could dehydrate up to 3% left.
  • 19. xii. Participate in many chemical reaction due to its polar properties. xiii. Low viscosity & high tensile strength – move freely in small column and reach high up in a big tree.
  • 20. Water & pH. * Hydrogen and oxygen atoms of water can dissociate to form protons and hydroxide ions: H 2 O ↔ H + + OH - water proton hydroxide ion - pH is measured based on the concent. of [H + ] in particular solution.
  • 21. Carbohydrates. -Carbon-containing compounds that supply energy to our body. -contains carbon, hydrogen, & oxygen – C x (H 2 O) y , x & y are variables that could be the same/diff. -eg: table sugar, starch, cellulose, & glycogen
  • 22. -types of carbohydrates: 1. monosaccharides 2. disaccharides 3. polysaccharides
  • 23. Monosaccharide -the simple type of sugar – (CH 2 O) n, n = 3 – 7, triose, tetrose, pentose,hexose,heptose - glucose is the best known and most abundant sugar – C 6 H 12 O 6. glucose, fructose, galactose. -glucose has two common isomers: alpha & beta based on the position of its hydroxyl group on C 1
  • 24.  
  • 25. Disaccharides. - two monosaccharides forms disaccharide thru condensation process / water removal - alpha glucoses -> starch} glycosidic beta glucose -> cellulose} bond
  • 26.  
  • 27.  
  • 28. eg: maltose -> 2 glucose molecules sucrose -> glucose & fructose lactose -> glucose & galactose -Di/polysaccharides could be broken into its constituents thru hydrolysis . -3 to 10 monosaccharides form oligosaccharide.
  • 29. Polysaccharides -long chain of monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bond & normally insoluble in water, not sweet. eg. Starch, cellulose, glycogen -the monosaccharides could be joint in many ways; straight, branched, or coiled.
  • 30. -the properties of polysaccharides are determined by the # and types of monomers and how it jointed. - the monomers are joint thru their hydroxyl groups.
  • 31.  
  • 32. starch - energy storage in plants, formed by alpha glucose units, broken down for respiration - 2 common types; amylose & amylopectin. Amylose – linked by 1-4 glycosidic bond. Amylopectin – linked by both 1-6 & 1-4 glycosidic bonds.
  • 33.  
  • 34.  
  • 35. -chloroplast is a type of plastics made up of starch. Glycogen – energy storage in animals. - has more branches than starch (1-6 glycosidic bond), less dense and more soluble, found commonly in liver and muscle cells.
  • 36. -hydrolysed more rapidly than starch due to its bonding type. Cellulose – major constituent in plants and tougher structure. - formed by beta monomer unit, not readily hydrolyzed by common enzymes. - herbivores have microorganisms producing cellulase to digest cellulose.
  • 37. -cellulose is permeable to water and other substances to enter/leave plant cells freely. Lignin – complex cellulose impregnated with non-carbohydrate materials lining cell wall/tube like xylem.
  • 38.  
  • 39.  
  • 40. Lipid - insoluble compound in water bur dissolve readily in other organic compounds like ethanol, diethyl ether. -common type of lipid is triglycerides made up of fatty acids and glycerols thru condensation process; linked by ester bond
  • 41.  
  • 42. -glycerol is a type of alcohol. Fatty acids – a long hydrocarbon chain w/ acidic carboxyl group. - 1 molecule glycerol could combine w/ 3 mol. of fatty acids; could be the same type or diff. type. -triglycerides: oils (liquid) fats (solids)
  • 43. -2 types of fatty acids: i. saturated ii.unsaturated the atoms around double-bond C atom could be arranged in cis - or trans -form.
  • 44. -high # of cis-double bond tend to be liquid and trans-form tends to be solid. Significance of lipids: i. provides more energy due to its higher H-content ii. Heat insulation iii. Shock absorption iv. Buoyancy – aid single-celled aquatic animals to be on the surface.
  • 45. -phospholipids is a major component of cell membrane and also myelin sheath. - consists of glycerol attached to 2 fatty acids w/ the 3 rd hydroxyl group attach to phosphoric acid make it polar portion. * amphipathic property .
  • 46.  
  • 47.  
  • 48. Protein. -large & complex molecules, make up 18% of human body. - thousands types with a unique 3-dimensional structure that enables it to play diverse function in organism life.
  • 49. 7 groups of proteins based on their functions: 1 . enzymes- catalyzes biochemical reaction; breakdown & formation of ATP. 2 . structural proteins- forms parts of animal body; ligament & tendon (collagen)
  • 50. 3 . signal proteins – carry messages around the body; insulin, hormone 4 . contractile proteins – involve in movements of our body; myosin & actin for muscle contraction 5 . storage proteins – eg. Albumin in white yolk
  • 51. 6 . defensive proteins – antibodies. 7 . transport proteins - heamoglobin
  • 52. Amino acids. - building block of protein - all a.a have amino and carboxyl groups in their general structure.
  • 53.  
  • 54.  
  • 55. -The amino and hydroxyl groups, Hydrogen atom & side chain (R group) are attached by covalent bond to a central carbon atom called α -carbon . R-group could be a single H-atom or a complex ring structure, it could be polar or non-polar. Polar proteins readily dissolve in water/cellular solution – transported easily.
  • 56. Amino acids are amphoteric ; having both acidic and basic properties, make it a good buffer. 2/more amino acids can be joint together by a peptide bond to form dipeptide/polypeptide.
  • 57.  
  • 58.  
  • 59. Protein structure. 4 levels of protein structure: i. primary ii.secondary iii.tertiary iv.quaternary.
  • 60. Primary structure – a single chain of polypeptide. Secondary – folding/coiling structure due to forces between diff. part of the molecules forming alpha-helix/beta-pleated sheet structure.
  • 61.  
  • 62.  
  • 63. Tertiary structure – 3D shape of polypeptide chain & could be classified into 2 groups: i. fibrous protein – insoluble in water & physically tough. It is along polypeptide chain linked together. Ii. Globular protein – tightly folded polypeptide forming spherical shape.
  • 64. Quaternary structure – consists of more than one polypeptide chain bonded together. eg. Haemoglobin structure – 4 polypeptide chain w/ 2 diff. types; alpha and beta chains.
  • 65.