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# Periodic Table 2

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### Transcript

• 1. PERIODIC TABLE
• 2.
• 3. MODERN PERIODIC TABLE
• Development of the Modern Periodic Table
• John Newland- arrange the element
• according to the increasing order or relative
• atomic mass. Introduce Octave Law
• Dmitri Mendeleev- Successfully coined the first periodic table in year
• 1869. arrange the element according to the increasing order of
• Relative atomic mass. Left empty spaces for elements that not found
• yet at that time.
• H.J.G. Moseley- carried out X-Ray analysis and confirmed that the
• Proton number is the identity of each element. He confirmed that the
• proton number and not the relative atomic mass that causes the
• periodicity of the properties Of the elements. Established the Modern
• Periodic Table
• 4.
• The arrangement of elements in vertical column called Groups and horizontal rows called Periods in order of increasing proton number
• There are 18 Groups numbered 1-18 and 7 Periods numbered 1-7 in a Periodic Table.
MODERN PERIODIC TABLE
• 5. Periods & Groups
• 7 numbered periods:
• Period 1 : 2 elements, H and He.
• Period 2 : 8 elements, Li to Ne.
• Period 3 : 8 elements, Na to Ar.
• Period 4 : 18 elements, K to Kr,
• (including First transition elements)
• Period 5 : 18 elements, Rb to Xe,
• (including Second transition elements)
• Period 6 : 32 elements, Cs to Rn,
• (including Third transition elements &
• Lanthanides)
• Period 7 : variable no of elements, Fr to Mt,
• (including Fourth transition elements &
• Actinides)
• 6. Periods
• Across the period from left to right
• Proton number increases
• Element become non-metallic
• Oxides become more acidic
• 7. Groups
• Shared similar chemical properties (have same
• number of valence electrons).
• Have the same number of outer shell electron
• Form ion with the same charge
• Form the same number of bonds
• Form compound with similar formula
• Special names for some groups of elements :
• Group I (IA) : alkali metals
• Group 2 (IIA) : alkaline earth metal
• Group 17 (VIIA) : halogens
• Group 18 (VIIIA) : noble gases
• 8. Classification of the Elements
• Common classification
• classification into different block (s,p,d,f)
• Valence electrons : Outer electrons of an atom, which are those involved in chemical bonding
• Electron configuration : tell us how the electron are distributed among the various atomic orbital's)
• based on selected physical properties of the element
• 9.
• Alkali Metals
• Found in group 1 of the periodic table (formerly known as group IA),
• very reactive metals that do not occur freely in nature.
• Have only one electron in their outer shell. Therefore, they are ready
• To lose that one electron in ionic bonding with other elements.
• The alkali metals are softer than most other metals. Cesium and
• Francium are the most reactive elements in this group. Alkali metals
• can explode if they are exposed to water. The Alkali Metals are:
• Lithium
• Sodium
• Potassium
• Rubidium
• Cesium
• Francium
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON ELECTRON CONFIGURATION
• 10. Alkaline earth metal
• Metallic elements found in the second group of the periodic table.
• All alkaline earth elements have an oxidation number of +2, making them very reactive. Because of their reactivity, the alkaline metals are not found free in nature.
• The Alkaline Earth Metals are:
• Beryllium
• Magnesium
• Calcium
• Strontium
• Barium
• 11. Halogens
• Five non-metallic elements found in group 17 of the periodic table.
• Have 7 electrons in their outer shells, giving them an oxidation number of -1.
• The halogens exist, at room temperature, in all three states of matter:
• Solid- Iodine, Astatine
• Liquid- Bromine
• Gas- Fluorine, Chlorine
• The Halogens are:
• Fluorine
• Chlorine
• Bromine
• Iodine
• Astatine
• 12.
• NOBLE GAS
• The six noble gases are found in group 18 of the periodic table.
• Have completely filled outer shell (8 electrons)
• Except for Helium, the valence electron is 2
• The noble gaseous are:
• Helium
• Neon
• Argon
• Crypton
• Xenon
• 13. CLASSIFICATION INTO METALS, METALLOIDS AND NON-METALS
• Elements from top of Group 13 (B) to the bottom of Group 16
• (Po) separates the elements into 3 classes
• METAL
• Most metals elements exhibit the shiny luster
• Metals tend to lose valence electron during chemical
• change, forming positive ions called cations.
• 14. NON-METALS
• Elements in groups 14-16 of the periodic table.
• Not able to conduct electricity or heat very well.
• Exist in two of the three states of matter. At room temperature: gases (such as oxygen) and solids (such as carbon).
• They have oxidation numbers of ±4, -3, and -2.
• The Non-Metal elements are:
• Hydrogen
• Carbon
• Nitrogen
• Oxygen
• Phosphorus
• Sulfur
• Selenium
• 15. Metalloids
• Elements found along the stair-step line that distinguishes metals from non-metals.
• This line is drawn from between Boron and Aluminum to the border between Polonium and Astatine.
• Metalloids have properties of both metals and non-metals. Some of the metalloids, such as silicon and germanium, are semi-conductors. This means that they can carry an electrical charge under special conditions. This property makes metalloids useful in computers and calculators
• The Metalloids are:
• Boron
• Silicon
• Germanium
• Arsenic
• Antimony
• Tellurium
• Polonium
• 16. Physical properties of metals and non-metals
• Metals
• High electrical conductivity
• High thermal conductivity
• Metallic gray or silver luster
• Almost all are solids
• Can be hammered into sheet
• Non Metals
• Poor electrical conductivity
• Good heat insulators No metallic luster
• Solids, liquids or gases
• Brittle in solid state
• 17.
• END