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Periodic Table 2

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  • 1. PERIODIC TABLE
  • 2.  
  • 3. MODERN PERIODIC TABLE
    • Development of the Modern Periodic Table
    • John Newland- arrange the element
    • according to the increasing order or relative
    • atomic mass. Introduce Octave Law
    • Dmitri Mendeleev- Successfully coined the first periodic table in year
    • 1869. arrange the element according to the increasing order of
    • Relative atomic mass. Left empty spaces for elements that not found
    • yet at that time.
    • H.J.G. Moseley- carried out X-Ray analysis and confirmed that the
    • Proton number is the identity of each element. He confirmed that the
    • proton number and not the relative atomic mass that causes the
    • periodicity of the properties Of the elements. Established the Modern
    • Periodic Table
  • 4.
    • The arrangement of elements in vertical column called Groups and horizontal rows called Periods in order of increasing proton number
    • There are 18 Groups numbered 1-18 and 7 Periods numbered 1-7 in a Periodic Table.
    MODERN PERIODIC TABLE
  • 5. Periods & Groups
      • 7 numbered periods:
      • Period 1 : 2 elements, H and He.
      • Period 2 : 8 elements, Li to Ne.
      • Period 3 : 8 elements, Na to Ar.
      • Period 4 : 18 elements, K to Kr,
      • (including First transition elements)
      • Period 5 : 18 elements, Rb to Xe,
      • (including Second transition elements)
      • Period 6 : 32 elements, Cs to Rn,
      • (including Third transition elements &
      • Lanthanides)
      • Period 7 : variable no of elements, Fr to Mt,
      • (including Fourth transition elements &
      • Actinides)
  • 6. Periods
    • Across the period from left to right
    • Proton number increases
    • Element become non-metallic
    • Oxides become more acidic
  • 7. Groups
    • Shared similar chemical properties (have same
    • number of valence electrons).
    • Have the same number of outer shell electron
    • Form ion with the same charge
    • Form the same number of bonds
    • Form compound with similar formula
    • Special names for some groups of elements :
    • Group I (IA) : alkali metals
    • Group 2 (IIA) : alkaline earth metal
    • Group 17 (VIIA) : halogens
    • Group 18 (VIIIA) : noble gases
  • 8. Classification of the Elements
          • Common classification
    • classification into different block (s,p,d,f)
    • Valence electrons : Outer electrons of an atom, which are those involved in chemical bonding
    • Electron configuration : tell us how the electron are distributed among the various atomic orbital's)
    • based on selected physical properties of the element
  • 9.
    • Alkali Metals
    • Found in group 1 of the periodic table (formerly known as group IA),
    • very reactive metals that do not occur freely in nature.
    • Have only one electron in their outer shell. Therefore, they are ready
    • To lose that one electron in ionic bonding with other elements.
    • The alkali metals are softer than most other metals. Cesium and
    • Francium are the most reactive elements in this group. Alkali metals
    • can explode if they are exposed to water. The Alkali Metals are:
    • Lithium
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Rubidium
    • Cesium
    • Francium
    CLASSIFICATION BASED ON ELECTRON CONFIGURATION
  • 10. Alkaline earth metal
    • Metallic elements found in the second group of the periodic table.
    • All alkaline earth elements have an oxidation number of +2, making them very reactive. Because of their reactivity, the alkaline metals are not found free in nature.
    • The Alkaline Earth Metals are:
    • Beryllium
    • Magnesium
    • Calcium
    • Strontium
    • Barium
    • Radium
  • 11. Halogens
    • Five non-metallic elements found in group 17 of the periodic table.
    • Have 7 electrons in their outer shells, giving them an oxidation number of -1.
    • The halogens exist, at room temperature, in all three states of matter:
    • Solid- Iodine, Astatine
    • Liquid- Bromine
    • Gas- Fluorine, Chlorine
    • The Halogens are:
    • Fluorine
    • Chlorine
    • Bromine
    • Iodine
    • Astatine
  • 12.
    • NOBLE GAS
        • The six noble gases are found in group 18 of the periodic table.
        • Have completely filled outer shell (8 electrons)
        • Except for Helium, the valence electron is 2
        • The noble gaseous are:
        • Helium
        • Neon
        • Argon
        • Crypton
        • Xenon
        • Radon
  • 13. CLASSIFICATION INTO METALS, METALLOIDS AND NON-METALS
    • Elements from top of Group 13 (B) to the bottom of Group 16
    • (Po) separates the elements into 3 classes
    • METAL
    • Most metals elements exhibit the shiny luster
    • Metals tend to lose valence electron during chemical
    • change, forming positive ions called cations.
  • 14. NON-METALS
    • Elements in groups 14-16 of the periodic table.
    • Not able to conduct electricity or heat very well.
    • Exist in two of the three states of matter. At room temperature: gases (such as oxygen) and solids (such as carbon).
    • They have oxidation numbers of ±4, -3, and -2.
    • The Non-Metal elements are:
    • Hydrogen
    • Carbon
    • Nitrogen
    • Oxygen
    • Phosphorus
    • Sulfur
    • Selenium
  • 15. Metalloids
    • Elements found along the stair-step line that distinguishes metals from non-metals.
    • This line is drawn from between Boron and Aluminum to the border between Polonium and Astatine.
    • Metalloids have properties of both metals and non-metals. Some of the metalloids, such as silicon and germanium, are semi-conductors. This means that they can carry an electrical charge under special conditions. This property makes metalloids useful in computers and calculators
    • The Metalloids are:
    • Boron
    • Silicon
    • Germanium
    • Arsenic
    • Antimony
    • Tellurium
    • Polonium
  • 16. Physical properties of metals and non-metals
    • Metals
    • High electrical conductivity
    • High thermal conductivity
    • Metallic gray or silver luster
    • Almost all are solids
    • Can be hammered into sheet
    • Non Metals
    • Poor electrical conductivity
    • Good heat insulators No metallic luster
    • Solids, liquids or gases
    • Brittle in solid state
  • 17.
    • END