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Periodic Table 2
 

Periodic Table 2

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    Periodic Table 2 Periodic Table 2 Presentation Transcript

    • PERIODIC TABLE
    •  
    • MODERN PERIODIC TABLE
      • Development of the Modern Periodic Table
      • John Newland- arrange the element
      • according to the increasing order or relative
      • atomic mass. Introduce Octave Law
      • Dmitri Mendeleev- Successfully coined the first periodic table in year
      • 1869. arrange the element according to the increasing order of
      • Relative atomic mass. Left empty spaces for elements that not found
      • yet at that time.
      • H.J.G. Moseley- carried out X-Ray analysis and confirmed that the
      • Proton number is the identity of each element. He confirmed that the
      • proton number and not the relative atomic mass that causes the
      • periodicity of the properties Of the elements. Established the Modern
      • Periodic Table
      • The arrangement of elements in vertical column called Groups and horizontal rows called Periods in order of increasing proton number
      • There are 18 Groups numbered 1-18 and 7 Periods numbered 1-7 in a Periodic Table.
      MODERN PERIODIC TABLE
    • Periods & Groups
        • 7 numbered periods:
        • Period 1 : 2 elements, H and He.
        • Period 2 : 8 elements, Li to Ne.
        • Period 3 : 8 elements, Na to Ar.
        • Period 4 : 18 elements, K to Kr,
        • (including First transition elements)
        • Period 5 : 18 elements, Rb to Xe,
        • (including Second transition elements)
        • Period 6 : 32 elements, Cs to Rn,
        • (including Third transition elements &
        • Lanthanides)
        • Period 7 : variable no of elements, Fr to Mt,
        • (including Fourth transition elements &
        • Actinides)
    • Periods
      • Across the period from left to right
      • Proton number increases
      • Element become non-metallic
      • Oxides become more acidic
    • Groups
      • Shared similar chemical properties (have same
      • number of valence electrons).
      • Have the same number of outer shell electron
      • Form ion with the same charge
      • Form the same number of bonds
      • Form compound with similar formula
      • Special names for some groups of elements :
      • Group I (IA) : alkali metals
      • Group 2 (IIA) : alkaline earth metal
      • Group 17 (VIIA) : halogens
      • Group 18 (VIIIA) : noble gases
    • Classification of the Elements
            • Common classification
      • classification into different block (s,p,d,f)
      • Valence electrons : Outer electrons of an atom, which are those involved in chemical bonding
      • Electron configuration : tell us how the electron are distributed among the various atomic orbital's)
      • based on selected physical properties of the element
      • Alkali Metals
      • Found in group 1 of the periodic table (formerly known as group IA),
      • very reactive metals that do not occur freely in nature.
      • Have only one electron in their outer shell. Therefore, they are ready
      • To lose that one electron in ionic bonding with other elements.
      • The alkali metals are softer than most other metals. Cesium and
      • Francium are the most reactive elements in this group. Alkali metals
      • can explode if they are exposed to water. The Alkali Metals are:
      • Lithium
      • Sodium
      • Potassium
      • Rubidium
      • Cesium
      • Francium
      CLASSIFICATION BASED ON ELECTRON CONFIGURATION
    • Alkaline earth metal
      • Metallic elements found in the second group of the periodic table.
      • All alkaline earth elements have an oxidation number of +2, making them very reactive. Because of their reactivity, the alkaline metals are not found free in nature.
      • The Alkaline Earth Metals are:
      • Beryllium
      • Magnesium
      • Calcium
      • Strontium
      • Barium
      • Radium
    • Halogens
      • Five non-metallic elements found in group 17 of the periodic table.
      • Have 7 electrons in their outer shells, giving them an oxidation number of -1.
      • The halogens exist, at room temperature, in all three states of matter:
      • Solid- Iodine, Astatine
      • Liquid- Bromine
      • Gas- Fluorine, Chlorine
      • The Halogens are:
      • Fluorine
      • Chlorine
      • Bromine
      • Iodine
      • Astatine
      • NOBLE GAS
          • The six noble gases are found in group 18 of the periodic table.
          • Have completely filled outer shell (8 electrons)
          • Except for Helium, the valence electron is 2
          • The noble gaseous are:
          • Helium
          • Neon
          • Argon
          • Crypton
          • Xenon
          • Radon
    • CLASSIFICATION INTO METALS, METALLOIDS AND NON-METALS
      • Elements from top of Group 13 (B) to the bottom of Group 16
      • (Po) separates the elements into 3 classes
      • METAL
      • Most metals elements exhibit the shiny luster
      • Metals tend to lose valence electron during chemical
      • change, forming positive ions called cations.
    • NON-METALS
      • Elements in groups 14-16 of the periodic table.
      • Not able to conduct electricity or heat very well.
      • Exist in two of the three states of matter. At room temperature: gases (such as oxygen) and solids (such as carbon).
      • They have oxidation numbers of ±4, -3, and -2.
      • The Non-Metal elements are:
      • Hydrogen
      • Carbon
      • Nitrogen
      • Oxygen
      • Phosphorus
      • Sulfur
      • Selenium
    • Metalloids
      • Elements found along the stair-step line that distinguishes metals from non-metals.
      • This line is drawn from between Boron and Aluminum to the border between Polonium and Astatine.
      • Metalloids have properties of both metals and non-metals. Some of the metalloids, such as silicon and germanium, are semi-conductors. This means that they can carry an electrical charge under special conditions. This property makes metalloids useful in computers and calculators
      • The Metalloids are:
      • Boron
      • Silicon
      • Germanium
      • Arsenic
      • Antimony
      • Tellurium
      • Polonium
    • Physical properties of metals and non-metals
      • Metals
      • High electrical conductivity
      • High thermal conductivity
      • Metallic gray or silver luster
      • Almost all are solids
      • Can be hammered into sheet
      • Non Metals
      • Poor electrical conductivity
      • Good heat insulators No metallic luster
      • Solids, liquids or gases
      • Brittle in solid state
      • END