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  • 1. LIQUID
  • 2. Introduction
    • Molecules in liquid are closed to one another, attractive forces are stronger (keep molecules together) compared to gases.
    • Can move past one another freely (flow, poured)
    • Take the shape of a container.
    • Almost incompressible
    • Viscosity (its resistance to flow) – is affected by size & intermolecular forces.
    • Complex, polar molecules: have high viscosity.
    • Increase T  viscosity will decrease
  • 3. Mercury is viscous liquid
  • 4.
    • Surface tension : force that cause the surface area of liquid to contract (responsible for spherical shape of liquid drop).
    • Molecule that have a high surface tension is………….?
    • Decrease with an increase in temp. or decrease in polarity.
      • Cohesive : intermolecular forces holding a liquid together.
      • Adhesive forces : forces of attraction between a liquid and surface.
    • Diffusion – Spreading of liquid or gas into a region where it is originally not present.
    • Liquid diffuses slower compare to the gas (stronger force between molecules).
  • 5.
    • Liqui d Vapour
    • Vaporization – change of liquid to gas. A few high-energy molecules which possess sufficient energy to overcome the attractive forces and escape from the bulk liquid (convert to gas).
    • Condensation : conversion of a gas or vapour to liquid. A fraction of gaseous molecules lose energy and return to liquid state.
    • Liquid in an equilibrium state : rate of vaporization = rate of condensation
    vaporization condensation
  • 6.
    • Vapour Pressure – pressure exerted at the equilibrium state of a liquid
    • Affected by its intermolecular forces and temperature.
    • 1) intermolecular forces :
      • Vapour pressure high if intermolecular forces are weaker
      • Weaker intermolecular forces  more volatile  low boiling point
      • Stronger intermolecular forces  non volatile  higher boiling point
      • 2) Temperature : Vapour pressure increase if temp. increase (rate of motion increase).
  • 7. Boiling of liquids
    • Process in which vaporization occurs throughout a liquid.
    • Boiling point = temperature at which the vapour pressure is equal to external atmospheric pressure.
      • Not constant, depend on the atmospheric pressure and the nature of the attractive force between the liquid molecules.
      • Higher atmospheric pressure : boiling point increase.
      • Stronger intermolecular forces (or polar liquids) => higher boiling point.
    • Normal boiling point = temperature at which the vapour pressure is equal to 1 atm.
  • 8.  
  • 9. Introduction
    • Particles are closely arranged and touch one another – can only vibrate in a fixed position (fixed volume, shape and incompressible).
    • Has high density.
    • Divided into crystalline solid and amorphous solid
    • crystalline solid have a regular three-dimensional arrangement, occupy fixed position. e.g.. NaCl
    • amorphous solid have random arrangement or un orderly arrangement e.g. rubber & plastics
  • 10. Phase Changes in Solid
    • Heating – particles vibrates and solid melts (enough energy to break away from interparticle forces.
    • Molecules move freely ( Solid Liquid).
      • Melting point : temp. at which the solid and liquid phase coexist in equilibrium.
      • Freezing point : the temp. at which the liquid and solid phase coexist in equilibrium.
      • Cooling – particles of liquid lose energy, move closer and arrange to fixed position. (Liquid Solid).
  • 11.
    • Sublimation – direct transformation of solid into gas, without going through liquid phase.
    • Deposition – direct transformation from gas into solid during a cooling process.
  • 12.
      • Ionic solids
      • particles made up of cation and anion respectively, which are alternatively arranged in three dimensions and are held strongly by electrostatic forces ;eg NaCl
      • Giant covalent solids (Macromolecule crystals)
      • consist of particles held together by covalent bonds , non- metals. e.g.. Graphite, diamond, silicon.
      • Molecular covalent solids
      • particle consists of simple molecules which are held together by weak van der Waals forces (Has very low melting and boiling point). e.g.. I 2 and P 4 .
      • Metallic solids
      • atoms of the same metal which are bound together by metallic bond (strong force of attraction between the positive ions and delocalized electrons). e.g.. Iron and titanium.
  • 13.
    • Gas Laws
    • Boyle,s Law P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2
    • Charles's Law V 1 /T 1 = V 2 /T 2
    • Avogadro's Law V 1 /n 1 = V 2 /n 2
    • Ideal gas equation PV = nRT
    • Combined gas Law P 1 V 1 / T 1 = P 2 V 2 / T 2
  • 14.
    • Dalton’s Law of partial pressure
        • P Total = P 1 + P 2 + P 3 +P 4 + …….+P n
    • = (n X + n y + n z ) (RT)
    • V
    • Mole fraction of gas : X x = n x /n total = P x /P total
    • van der Waals equation
    • P + n 2 a (V- nb) = nRT
    • V 2