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Chapter 1  Ethics
 

Chapter 1 Ethics

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    Chapter 1  Ethics Chapter 1 Ethics Presentation Transcript

    • Ethics Datuk Dr. Ahmad Tajudin Jaafar PJN,DSDK,KMN,MBBS,MHP(NSW), AM (Malaysia )
    • Definition of Ethics
      • Greek word ‘ethickos’ meaning character, manners and morals.
      • Oxford dictionary defines ethics to include :
      • Science of morals.
      • Rules of conduct.
      • Science of human duty .
    • Purpose of Ethics
      • To guide the conduct of a person before an act is undertaken.
      • Define what is considered an honorable behavior.
    • Medical Ethics
      • Application of general ethical principles to the morals problem of medical profession.
    • Medical Ethics
      • Plato : physician judge action of another physician.
      • Aristotle : penalty only on the reputation of physician.
      • Hippocrates : created an oath regarding medical ethics.
    • Hippocratic Oaths
      • Need for proper instruction and registration of doctors.
      • Doctors is for benefit of patient.
      • Perform to the best of ability and refrain from harm.
      • Euthanasia and abortion proscribed.
      • Nature of doctor & patient relationship.
      • Doctrine of confidentiality.
    • H.O (further development)
      • 1948 – Declaration of Geneva by the World Medical Association.
      • 1968 – Amended in Sydney and led to the International Code of Medical Ethics.
      • 1981 – International Organization of Islamic Medicine adopted “Oath of a Muslim doctor”.
    • Ethics Theories
      • Consequentialism
      • an action is right if and only if it promotes the best consequences.
    • Ethics Theories
      • 2. Utilitarianism
      • consequences of an action does matter.
      • the best consequences are those in which human happiness is maximized.
      • “the greater good for the greater number”.
    • Ethics Theories
      • 3. Duty-bound or Deontology
      • focus on the duties rather from the consequences
    • Ethics Theories
      • 4. Virtue ethics
      • developed by Aristotle on 4B.C.
      • focus on the character and a habits of a person.
      • places better value upon moral character rather than acts or outcome of acts
    • Ethical Principles
      • 1.Beneficence
      • positive duty to do good.
      • 2.Paternalism
      • “doctor knows what is best for patient”.
    • Ethical Principles
      • 3.Autonomy
      • self determination
      • autos(self) + nomos(governance)
      • special liberty, where individual are free to choose and implement their own decision, free from deceit, duress, constraint and coercion.
    • Ethical Principles
      • 4.Non-maleficence
      • A duty to do no harm, i.e. obligation not to inflict harm intentionally.
      • 5.Justice
      • - Deals with equitable distribution of benefits and burdens.
    • Ethical Principles
      • 6.Fidelity
      • Obligations to keep promises and not deceive.
      • 7.Confidentiality
      • Information regarding his patient confidential aspect of trust.
    • Ethical Principles
      • Veracity
      • Need for truth-telling in the doctor - patient relationship.
      • Mutual trust and confidence.