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Ch13 Italian renaissance
 

Ch13 Italian renaissance

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  • Paolo Caliari , known as Veronese 1528-1588 The Wedding Feast at Cana 1562-1563 Canvas H 6.66 m; W 9.90 m INV 142 Called to Venice in 1553, this painter from Verona was an indefatigable worker, making use of his exceptional talent as a decorator, and a capacity to cover huge surfaces combining masterful stage sets, lavish contemporary costumes and resplendent colour. The Wedding Feast at Cana once decorated the refectory that Palladio built for the Benedictines on the island of San Giorgio Maggiore. The sacred story is transformed, taking a sovereign liberty with iconography, into the fashionable splendour of a Venetian wedding. If we are to believe a long-established tradition, all the Venetian masters are depicted here as musicians; Titian, Jacopo Bassano, Tintoretto and Veronese himself, who is dressed in white.
  • The Adoration of the Magi – Botticelli 1470-75; Tempera on panel; 111 x 134 cm; Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
  • Andrea Mantegna - Dead Christ , c. 1500, tempera on canvas, 27' x 32" -This is an excellent example of foreshortening , a process of perspective used on the human figure.
  • http://www.kausal.com/leonardo/monalisa.html

Ch13 Italian renaissance Ch13 Italian renaissance Presentation Transcript

  • Ch. 13 Section 1: The Renaissance begins in Italy
  • Between 1300 and 1600 the Western world was transformed. An extraordinary wave of artistic and cultural innovation shattered medieval society and brought European culture into the modern era. This was the Renaissance . Michelangelo’s The Creation of Adam. Sistine Chapel ceiling; Italy’s Vatican City. INTRODUCTION: PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • As Europe’s Trade and Growth of Cities was reviving again in the Late Middle Ages,
    • the Plague struck .
    • The only way to avoid the disease was for people to leave the city for the country .
    • This solution was, unfortunately, available only to the wealthy.
    • The population decrease caused by the plague led to an economic depression .
    • Merchants and tradespeople had fewer people to whom they could sell their wares.
    • Economic hardship spread as those who dealt with the merchants--bankers, suppliers,
    • and shippers--also lost revenue.
    • As the plague decreased at the start of the 1400s (15 th c.), populations swelled,
    • creating a new demand for goods and services. A new wealthy middle class emerged again -
    • bankers, merchants, tradespeople and educated professionals.
    • With the people’s respect of the once all-powerful Church weakened following its many
    • problems during the Middle Ages, this new educated, wealthy class began to pursue more
    • secular and human interests – art, science, philosophy, etc.
    • The invention of the printing press would.lead to increased literacy among the people,
    • the rapid spread of new knowledge, and education of the masses.
  • The Renaissance 1300-1600 began in Italy. Locate Florence. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  •  
  • Florence, Italy today . PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School Renaissance begins in Italy ...
    • Italy’s thriving urban cities were the center for the renewed trade coming in from
    • the Middle East that brought in wealth and culture here first before the rest of Europe.
    Florence, Italy today . PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School Renaissance begins in Italy ...Why?
    • Italy’s thriving urban cities were the center for the renewed trade coming in from the
    • Middle East that brought in wealth and culture here first before the rest of Europe.
    • Thriving cities meant opportunities for education, scientific pursuits,
    • and even…arts and leisure.
    Florence, Italy today . PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School Renaissance begins in Italy ...Why?
    • Italy’s thriving urban cities were the center for the renewed trade coming in from
    • the Middle East that brought in wealth and culture here first before the rest of Europe.
    • Thriving cities meant opportunities for education, scientific pursuits, and even
    • arts and leisure.
    • A wealthy merchant middle class who became art patrons . (text, p. 418)
    Renaissance begins in Italy ...Why? 3. What role did patrons of the arts play in the development of Renaissance ideas? Wealthy patrons spent money to help artists and architects create works of genius. Florence, Italy today . PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School Lorenzo de Medici - ruler of Florence and Art Patron 1449 - 1492 contributed more than anyone to the flowering of Florence’s artistic genius in the late 15th century, supporting such giants as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo. Lorenzo treated the artists under his protection with respect and warm-hearted familiarity. “ Whoever wants to be happy, let him be so: about tomorrow there's no knowing.”                                            —Lorenzo The Magnificent (Video clip, http://www.pbs.org/empires/medici/renaissance/)
    • Italy’s thriving urban cities were the center for the renewed trade coming in from the
    • Middle East that brought in wealth and culture here first before the rest of Europe.
    • Thriving cities meant opportunities for education, scientific pursuits, and
    • even…leisure.
    • A wealthy merchant middle class – became art patrons .
    PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School Florence, Italy today . Renaissance begins in Italy ...Why?
    • Italy was the home of the old Roman Empire, surrounding everyone
    • still are the ruins & reminders of the classical Greco-Roman heritage.
  • Renaissance – is the French translation of the Italian word rinascita which means, “rebirth.” But “rebirth” of what? The Renaissance style would focus on 2 Main Components : I. a “rebirth” or return of the classical style developed by the ancient Greeks and Romans, II. an intensified concern with secular life—interest in humanism and assertion of the importance of the individual. B. Determining Word Meaning Renaissance – the rebirth of great art and classical learning that began in northern Italy around 1300 A.D. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School Video Clip.
  • I. a “rebirth” or return of the classical style developed by the ancient Greeks and Romans, II. an intensified concern with secular life—interest in humanism and assertion of the importance of the individual. St. Sebastian Andrea Mantegna. Painted, ca. 1480. Louvre Museum, Paris. “ David” * Michelangelo. Carved 1501-04. Galleria Academia, Florence. The Renaissance style would focus on 2 Main Components :
  • B. Determining Word Meaning Humanism – a new philosophy or outlook that focuses on humankind’s achievements and potential to achieve great things .
    • Michelangelo’s David *
    • is the very “definition”
    • of what the Renaissance is about:
    • the return to the Greek style .
    • But also the influence of humanism –
    • here a young boy who slays his giant reminds us all
    • Man can achieve great things on his own!
    How is the Renaissance emphasis on Humanism different from the old Medieval view? PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
    • How did humanism influence the growth of learning?
    Humanists believed mankind’s achievements and successes should be praised – unlike the old Church teaching that this was vanity or sinful. They encouraged artists to copy the classical style of the Greeks and Romans who had made great advances in art, architecture, and the sciences. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School “ School of Athens” * ~ Raphael In this wall fresco, Raphael (1483-1520) pays tribute to mankind’s achievements - Greek philosophers, scientists, astronomers, and mathematicians engage in philosophic inquiry together in one place though they lived in different times. Wall frescoe, Vatican Museums, Rome Italy.
    • How did humanism influence the growth of learning?
    Humanists believed mankind’s achievements and successes should be praised – unlike the old Church teaching that this was vanity or sinful. They encouraged artists to copy the classical style of the Greeks and Romans who had made such great advances in art, architecture, and the sciences. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School 2. How did ideas about piety and a simple life change? Although people remained Christians; the everyday society was becoming more secular (emphasizing non-religious pursuits / concerned with the here and now). The wealthy, the educated, and even upper-clergy believed they could enjoy life now without fear of offending God.
  • PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School 2. How did ideas about piety and a simple life change? Although people remained Christians; the everyday society was becoming more secular (emphasizing non-religious pursuits / concerned with the here and now). The wealthy, the educated, and even upper-clergy believed they could enjoy life now without fear of offending God. In these two works we see mankind “enjoying life.” Left: The Peasant Dance by Pieter Brueghel the Elder. Right: a section of Garden of Earthly Delights by the innovative painter Hieronymous Bosch.
  • PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School 4. What effects did the emphasis on individuals have on painters and sculptors? Artists now painted portraits of prominent citizens, showed their distinct characteristics; Chancellor Rolin and the Virgin ~ Jan Van Eyck 1435 Louvre Museum, Paris. Identify characteristics of Renaissance painting. Artists now painted portraits of prominent citizens, showed their distinct characteristics;
  • PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School 4. What effects did the emphasis on individuals have on painters and sculptors? Artists now painted portraits of prominent citizens, showed their distinct characteristics; they developed perspective in order to achieve realism in their art; B. Determining Word Meaning perspective – an art technique that gives the appearance of three-dimensional realism, distance, or depth . Marriage of the Virgin - Raphael
  • PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School 4. What effects did the emphasis on individuals have on painters and sculptors? Artists now painted portraits of prominent citizens, showed their distinct characteristics; they developed perspective in order to achieve realism in their art; they glorified the human body in relaxed, natural poses (as did the Greeks). “ The Birth of Venus” ~ Botticelli 1485 Painted for the villa of Lorenzo de Medici, Florence Italy.
  • COMPARING MEDIEVAL TO RENAISSANCE ART “ Three Muses” ancient Greek fresco, 5 th c. B.C. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • COMPARING MEDIEVAL TO RENAISSANCE ART In this Medieval manuscript, the Three Graces are seen covering themselves modestly with a blanket inscribed with Latin scripture verses. In the Renaissance, Botticelli’s work “Primavera” depicts the Three Graces swirling in movement and vitality. The beauty of the human form is appreciated. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • MEDIEVAL ART
    • Religious subject matter
    • Achievements of biblical figures,
    • saints, etc.
    • Formal, reverent,
    • expressionless, and stiff
    • Purpose – educational
    • symbolism
    • to glorify God
    • No background,
    • lack of attention to detail
    • Little creativity among artists,
    • uniform techniques used
    • throughout this period
    PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • MEDIEVAL ART
    • Religious subject matter
    • Achievements of biblical figures,
    • saints, etc.
    • Formal, reverent,
    • expressionless, and stiff
    • Purpose – educational
    • symbolism
    • to glorify God
    • No background,
    • lack of attention to detail
    • Little creativity among artists,
    • uniform techniques used
    • throughout this period
    PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • MEDIEVAL ART
    • Religious subject matter
    • Achievements of biblical figures,
    • saints, etc.
    • Formal, reverent,
    • expressionless, and stiff
    • Purpose – educational
    • symbolism
    • to glorify God
    • No background,
    • lack of attention to detail
    • Little creativity among artists,
    • uniform techniques used
    • throughout this period
    PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • MEDIEVAL ART
    • Religious subject matter
    • Achievements of biblical figures,
    • saints, etc.
    • Formal, reverent,
    • expressionless, and stiff
    • Purpose – educational
    • symbolism
    • to glorify God
    • No background,
    • lack of attention to detail
    • Little creativity among artists,
    • uniform techniques used
    • throughout this period
    PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • RENAISSANCE ART
    • Return to / imitates Classical Style
    • Achievements of Man
    “ David” * ~ Michelangelo, 1504 Florence, Italy. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School Greek statue, 4 th c. B.C.E.
  • RENAISSANCE ART
    • Return to Classical Style
    • Achievements of Man
    • Dignity of every Individual
      • Self – portraits !
    “ Mona Lisa” * ~ Leonardo da Vinci Louvre museum, Paris France PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • RENAISSANCE ART
    • Return to Classical Style
    • Achievements of Man
    • Dignity of Individual; Self – portraits!
    • Art as Status – patrons pay for it!
    “ Chancelor Rolin & the Madonna” ~ Jan van Eyck
    • Religious subject matter fused with
    • secular / classical / present times
    PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • RENAISSANCE ART
    • Return to Classical Style
    • Achievements of Man
    • Dignity of Individual; Self – portraits!
    • Art as Status – patrons pay for it!
    • Religious subject matter fused with
    • secular / classical / present times
    • The Wedding Feast at Cana
    • Paolo Caliari (aka Veronese)
    • 1562-1563
    • Louvre Museum, Paris France
    PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • RENAISSANCE ART
    • Return to Classical Style
    • Achievements of Man / Individual praised / portraits
    • Religious subject matter is fused with Classical
    The Sistine Chapel ceiling, by Michelangelo * PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • (“Creation of Adam”); The Sistine Chapel Ceiling * ~ Michelangelo. Does man appear equal to God? Care about God? Need God? Recently restored. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • RENAISSANCE ART
    • Return to Classical Style
    • Achievements of Man / Individual praised
    • Religious subject matter fused with Classical
    • or the Past depicted in present surroundings.
    “ The School of Athens” * ~Raphael. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • RENAISSANCE ART
    • Return to Classical Style
    • Achievements of Man / Individual praised
    • Religious subject matter fused with Classical
    • or depicted in present surroundings
    “The Ambassadors” ~ Hans Holbein the Younger
    • Emphasis on this world, not “other world,”
    • man’s ability to understand natural world.
    • Science viewed more positively
    PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • RENAISSANCE ART Reveals struggle between Faith vs. Reason; Biblical vs. Scientific; Secular vs. Sacred, etc. Is the Church being pushed aside, Science now in the foreground? Or, is the artist indicating that from above Christ looks down in judgment upon Science? PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • Renaissance artists were no longer regarded as mere artisans, as they had been in the medieval past… but for the first time emerged as independent personalities, comparable to poets and writers… They sought new solutions to visual problems, As a result, the painted surface was regarded as a window on the natural world, and it became the task of painters to portray this world in their art. and many of them were also devoted to scientific experimentation. In so doing, perspective was developed, a system in which all objects in a painting are related both proportionally and rationally, objects in background get smaller as they recede compared to foreground…gives appearance of 3-D. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • FOCAL POINT “Bacchus” ~ Titian. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • FOCAL POINT
  • FOCAL POINT “ The Last Supper” ~ Leonardo da Vinci * PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • RENAISSANCE ART
    • Return to Classical Style
    • Achievements of Man
    • Religious subject matter fused with Classical
    • or depicted in present surroundings
    • Emphasis on this world, not “other world,”
    • man’s ability to understand natural world.
    • Artists experiment, use “perspective” / “focal
    • point” to make art more realistic.
    PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School “ St. Sebastian” and “The Dead Christ” ~ Andrea Mantegna
  • RENAISSANCE ART
    • Return to Classical Style
    • Achievements of Man
    • Religious subject matter fused with Classical
    • or depicted in present surroundings
    • Emphasis on this world, not “other world,”
    • man’s ability to understand natural world.
    • Artists experiment, use “perspective”; make
    • art more realistic.
    “ Wedding Portrait” - Jan Van Eyck PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • Virgin of the Rocks ~ Leonardo da Vinci National Gallery, London.
  • WORKS OF THE RENAISSANCE MASTERS , MICHELANGELO “ The David” PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • WORKS OF THE RENAISSANCE MASTERS , MICHELANGELO
    • “ The David”
    • the Sistine Chapel’s Ceiling
  • WORKS OF THE RENAISSANCE MASTERS , MICHELANGELO
    • “ The David”
    • the Sistine Chapel’s Ceiling
    Recent restoration 1981-1994 PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • WORKS OF THE RENAISSANCE MASTERS , MICHELANGELO *
    • “ The David”
    • the Sistine Chapel’s Ceiling
    • The Last Judgment
    PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School THE SISTINE CHAPEL SISTINE CHAPEL CEILING “ The Last Judgment” ALTAR WALL
  • WORKS OF THE RENAISSANCE MASTERS , MICHELANGELO
    • the “David”
    • the Sistine Chapel’s Ceiling
    • “ Last Judgment”
    • the “Pieta”
    “ Pieta” – in St. Peter’s Bascilica, Vatican City, Rome. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • WORKS OF THE RENAISSANCE MASTERS , MICHELANGELO
    • the “David”
    • the Sistine Chapel’s Ceiling
    • “ Last Judgement”
    • the “Pieta”
    • the Dome of St. Peter’s Basilica
    St. Peter’s Bascilica, Vatican City, Rome. See Textbook, p. 420 PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • WORKS OF THE RENAISSANCE MASTERS , MICHELANGELO
    • the “David”
    • the Sistine Chapel’s Ceiling
    • “ Last Judgement”
    • the “Pieta”
    • the Dome of St. Peter’s Bascilica
    Learn more about him at : http://www.michelangelo.com/buon/bio-index2.html 1475-1564 PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School Can you match these great works of art to their artist? A true Renaissance Man – Painter, Sculptor, Architect, poet
  • WORKS OF THE RENAISSANCE MASTERS , ~ Leonardo da Vinci Louvre Museum Paris Mona Lisa * PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School Leonardo da Vinci
  • WORKS OF THE RENAISSANCE MASTERS , Leonardo da Vinci “ The Last Supper” PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • WORKS OF THE RENAISSANCE MASTERS , Leonardo da Vinci “ Mona Lisa” “ The Last Supper” Defense Contractor – “Artillery” & “StoneThrower” Engineer – “Levers & Gears” Inventor “Flying Machine” PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • WORKS OF THE RENAISSANCE MASTERS , Leonardo da Vinci “ Mona Lisa” “ The Last Supper” Scientist / Anatomy Inventor PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • WORKS OF THE RENAISSANCE MASTERS , Leonardo da Vinci “ Mona Lisa” “ The Last Supper” Scientist / Anatomy Inventor His theories are contained in numerous notebooks, most of which were written in mirror script . Because they were not easily decipherable, Leonardo's findings were not disseminated in his own lifetime; had they been published, they would have revolutionized the science of the 16th century . Leonardo actually anticipated many discoveries of modern times. In anatomy he studied the circulation of the blood and the action of the eye. He made discoveries in meteorology and geology, learned the effect of the moon on the tides, foreshadowed modern conceptions of continent formation, and surmised the nature of fossil shells. He was among the originators of the science of hydraulics and probably devised the hydrometer; his scheme for the canalization of rivers still has practical value. He invented a large number of ingenious machines, many potentially useful, among them an underwater diving suit. His flying devices, although not practicable, embodied sound principles of aerodynamics. - Encarta, 2001. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • WORKS OF THE RENAISSANCE MASTERS , Leonardo da Vinci “ Mona Lisa” “ The Last Supper” 1452-1519 Painter, Inventor, Scientist… RENAISSANCE MAN ! Can you match these great works of art to their artist? PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • WORKS OF THE RENAISSANCE MASTERS, MICHELANGELO
    • the “David”
    • the Sistine Chapel’s Ceiling
    • “ Last Judgement”
    • the “Pieta”
    • the Dome of St. Peter’s Bascilica
    Leonardo DA VINCI “ Mona Lisa” “ The Last Supper” PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • WORKS OF THE RENAISSANCE MASTERS RAPHAEL
    • “ The School of Athens”
    PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • WORKS OF THE RENAISSANCE MASTERS MICHELANGELO
    • the “David”
    • the Sistine Chapel’s Ceiling
    • “ Last Judgement”
    • the “Pieta”
    • the Dome of St. Peter’s Bascilica
    Leonardo DA VINCI “ Mona Lisa” “ The Last Supper” Raphael “ The School of Athens”
  • THE END ! “David,” (rear view)
  • DAY 2
  • The Renaissance 1300-1600 began in Italy. Locate Florence. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School Let’s Review.
    • Italy’s thriving urban cities were the center for the renewed trade coming in from the
    • Middle East that brought in wealth and culture here first before the rest of Europe.
    • Thriving cities meant opportunities for education, scientific pursuits, and
    • even…leisure.
    • A wealthy merchant middle class – became art patrons .
    PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School Florence, Italy today . Renaissance begins in Italy ...Why?
    • Italy was the home of the old Roman Empire, surrounding everyone
    • still are the ruins & reminders of the classical Greco-Roman heritage.
  • Renaissance – is the French translation of the Italian word rinascita which means, “rebirth.” But “rebirth” of what? The Renaissance style would focus on 2 Main Components:
    • a “rebirth” or return of the classical style developed by
    • the ancient Greeks and Romans,
    • an intensified concern with secular life—interest in
    • humanism and assertion of the importance of the individual.
    B. Determining Word Meaning Renaissance – the rebirth of great art and classical learning that began in northern Italy around 1300 A.D. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School Video Clip.
  • B. Determining Word Meaning Humanism – a new philosophy or outlook that focuses on humankind’s achievements and potential to achieve great things .
    • Michelangelo’s David *
    • is the very “definition”
    • of what the Renaissance is about:
    • the return to the Greek style .
    • But also the influence of humanism –
    • here a young boy who slays his giant reminds us all
    • Man can achieve great things on his own!
    How is the Renaissance emphasis on Humanism different from the old Medieval view? PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • WORKS OF THE RENAISSANCE MASTERS MICHELANGELO
    • the “David”
    • the Sistine Chapel’s Ceiling
    • “ Last Judgement”
    • the “Pieta”
    • the Dome of St. Peter’s Bascilica
    Leonardo DA VINCI “ Mona Lisa” “ The Last Supper” Raphael “ The School of Athens”
  •  
  • PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School 5. How did writers reflect Renaissance values in their work? They wrote in the vernacular ; wrote about non-religious (secular) topics – simply for leisure, fun, self-expression; and pursued independent thought and investigation rather than simply accepting what the church taught. B. Determining Word Meaning vernacular – the language of the local people. (not Latin!) Petrarch , often called the “father of humanism” authored beautiful sonnets in the vernacular Italian and they were about a love of his life named Laura.
  • PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School 6. How did the writing of Petrarch, Boccaccio, and Machiavelli demonstrate the values of humanism? Petrarch wrote about Laura – an ideal woman. Boccaccio wrote about the follies of characters in the Decameron . Machiavelli wrote about the imperfect conduct of humans in The Prince. Born May 3, 1469 in Florence, Italy, Machiavelli was a political philosopher during the Renaissance, and is most famous for his political treatise, The Prince (1513), It has become a cornerstone of modern political philosophy. “ No enterprise is more likely to succeed than one concealed from the enemy until it is ripe for execution.”                                   —Machiavelli from The Art of War
  • “Being a good ruler means sometimes doing the unpopular in order to achieve what is best for one’s people in the long run.” “ The End justifies the Means.” “ A shrewd politician knows he may have to sometimes employ devious methods if he is to stay in power.” “ At any given time a ruler may be faced with sending men to their deaths in battle. He must be willing to sacrifice those few in order to save the many.” “Rulers can not be expected to live under the same “morality” as the masses they rule. They must at times choose corrupt, distasteful, even evil means in order to achieve a final good for their people.” “ It is better that a Ruler should be feared by his people than loved by them.” ~ Machiavelli DO YOU AGREE or DISAGREE? PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • Niccolò Machiavelli was an Italian statesman and writer and is considered one of the most significant political thinkers of the Renaissance. His best-known work, The Prince, describes cunning and unscrupulous methods for rulers to gain and keep power. A.) The Prince (1532; trans. 1640) - describes the method by which a prince can acquire and maintain political power. B.) It is believed he was defending the tyranny of such cruel rulers of his day as Cesare Borgia. C.) He believed that a ruler is not bound by traditional ethical norms like the people the ruler’s rules should be. D.) a prince should be concerned only with power and be bound only by rules that would lead to success in political actions. “ The End justifies the Means .” “ Better to be feared than loved.” E.) believed that these rules could be discovered by deduction from the political practices of the time, as well as from those of earlier periods. PP Design of T. Loessin; Akins High School
  • Today we still use the phrase machiavellian to refer to someone who pursues an action that, though may not be viewed as morally right, he believes will be politically effective. Can you think of examples in American or World History / Politics of leaders whose decisions might be considered machiavellian ?
  • Duomo Cathedral , completed in 1436 by Filippo Brunelleschi Florence, Italy. “ The Three Philosophers” by Venetian painter Giorgione 1508. <<<< A.) Identify three features in this painting that make it clearly a Renaissance work: B.) Built in the 15 th century, why is this cathedral a good example of Renaissance architecture?