Writing eff presentations-gsw

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Writing eff presentations-gsw

  1. 1. Writing EffectivePresentationsAn IntroductionCap Gemini Ernst & YoungWednesday, 13 September 2000
  2. 2. Agenda• Five Principles• Creating Quality Documents• Using a Standard Format• Presenting Your Data• Structuring Your Story© 2000 by Cap Gemini Ernst & Young. All rights reserved. Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential -2- Final Internal Presentation
  3. 3. INTRODUCTIONFive principles underpin all good document writing• Write for your audience. Write for your audience.• Keep it simple. Keep it simple.• Supportassertions with facts. Support assertions with facts.• Stay in the active voice (have actors, use verbs). Stay in the active voice (have actors, use verbs).• Tell a good story. Tell a good story. Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential -3- Final Internal Presentation
  4. 4. CREATING QUALITY DOCUMENTSDocuments are a consultancy’s only tangible product• Send a message to our clients about who we are—and what we think of them.• Contain valuable—and expensive—information for the client.• Often get wide circulation in the client firm.• Are a direct reflection of Cap Gemini Ernst & Young’s image. Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential -4- Final Internal Presentation
  5. 5. CREATING QUALITY DOCUMENTSDocument quality has an impact on CGE&Y’s image Y CGE& Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential -5- Final Internal Presentation
  6. 6. CREATING QUALITY DOCUMENTSWe want that image to be positive Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential -6- Final Internal Presentation
  7. 7. CREATING QUALITY DOCUMENTSA first draft will not meet CGE&Y’s quality standards Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential -7- Final Internal Presentation
  8. 8. CREATING QUALITY DOCUMENTSEach step in the writing process is essential 1. Find a good model 6. Edit 2. Outline your story 7. Revise 3. Write draft 8. Type revisions 4. Type draft 9. Check revisions 5. Read to copy 10. Proofread Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential -8- Final Internal Presentation
  9. 9. CREATING QUALITY DOCUMENTSSpellcheck can eliminate embarrassing errors To goad people into spellchecking, a colleague of mine coined the non- PC phrase, “Spellcheck or die”. Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential -9- Final Internal Presentation
  10. 10. CREATING QUALITY DOCUMENTSThere’s no good excuse for poor quality at CGE&Y• “The audience doesn’t care.”• “There isn’t time.”• “No one complains.” Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 10 - Final Internal Presentation
  11. 11. Using a Standard Format• Advantages• Basic Mechanics Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 11 - Final Internal Presentation
  12. 12. USING A STANDARD FORMATStandard formats offer several practical advantages• Audience soon learns where to look for particular kinds of information: – Format “disappears” so they concentrate on substance. – A form of repetition that promotes audience comfort.• Provides you with a ready-made framework: – Helps you structure your ideas concisely. – Eliminates the need to make small format and style decisions. – Becomes familiar across the firm.• Promotes writing and production efficiencies. Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 12 - Final Internal Presentation
  13. 13. RUNNING HEADHeadline (usually a sentence)Head (optional) “Tracker” (optional)• Bullet: – Sub-bullet (as needed): • Sub-sub-bullet (as needed). A look at the elements and their names “Kicker” (optional). Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 13 - Final Internal Presentation
  14. 14. WHERE WE ARE IN THE STORYWhat this page is aboutA key category or idea• A main point: – A sub-point. How the elements work – A second.• A second main point: – A sub-point. – A second. Implications: “So what?” Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 14 - Final Internal Presentation
  15. 15. USING A STANDARD FORMATFollow the “Rule of Two” Limit every element in the format to two lines: • Report title • Bullets • Subtitle • Dashes • Headlines • Kickers • Heads Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 15 - Final Internal Presentation
  16. 16. USING A STANDARD FORMATYour title page needs a few basic elements• Name of target audience.• An active title that generates interest: – Begin with a verb form (e.g. Developing, Evaluating, Understanding, Assessing).• Subtitle: – An option that allows you to elaborate.• Author.• Date delivered. Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 16 - Final Internal Presentation
  17. 17. USING A STANDARD FORMATGood headlines focus attention on the page’s main idea• Usually a brief sentence: – One line is best. – Two lines maximum.• Say something meaningful that directs attention to the page’s important point, e.g.: – “ROE varies greatly across businesses”• Avoid empty statements, e.g.: – “The next step of the analysis is as follows:”• Use headlines as the “story board” of your document: – Reading only the headlines should tell a coherent story. Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 17 - Final Internal Presentation
  18. 18. USING A STANDARD FORMATThe work we completed is as follows: NO! Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 18 - Final Internal Presentation
  19. 19. USING A STANDARD FORMATEach page, like a paragraph, tells a small story• Create a logical flow from top to bottom.• Be sure it fits the logic of your overall story.• Don’t overwhelm your audience: – By jamming too much information on page. – With material that is beyond its comprehension.• Don’t “underwhelm” your audience: – With too little (or trivial) information. – By making simple information seem complex. Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 19 - Final Internal Presentation
  20. 20. USING A STANDARD FORMATToo much information can overwhelm your audience Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 20 - Final Internal Presentation
  21. 21. USING A STANDARD FORMATYou can make text manageable at the revision stage• Break long bullets into bullets and dashes, which will not only make them look considerably better on the page, but will also make them easier for the reader to understand and remember. e.g.• Break long bullets into bullets and dashes: – Better looking. – Easier to read and understand. – More memorable. That is, follow the Rule of Two. Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 21 - Final Internal Presentation
  22. 22. USING A STANDARD FORMATThe best kickers answer the audience’s “So what?”questions• Say what the page’s content implies for the audience: – NOT a continuation of the headline.• Sometimes used effectively in other ways: – As exception statement or counterpoint. – To sum up and end section (signal a transition).• Good kickers are short and to the point: – Follow the Rule of Two.• Optional—use only when needed. Using kickers well can add substantial power to your presentations. Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 22 - Final Internal Presentation
  23. 23. USING A STANDARD FORMATYour audience comes first• Create an audience-focused title page with an active title.• Write headlines that add value.• Do not cram pages too full: – People cannot absorb too much at once. – White space is essential.• Use the kicker option when you want to drive home a key “So-what?” message. Make the information on each page clearly accessible to your audience. Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 23 - Final Internal Presentation
  24. 24. Presenting Your Data• Ensuring Accuracy• Constructing Effective Tables• Using Graphics to Advantage Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 24 - Final Internal Presentation
  25. 25. PRESENTING YOUR DATAOne bad number can destroy the credibility of an entiredocument Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 25 - Final Internal Presentation
  26. 26. PRESENTING YOUR DATAKeep tables as simple and clean as possible• Highlight key numbers: – Box or circle. – Boldface.• Create logical patterns and progressions: – Low to high; left to right; past to present to future; etc.• Use repetition: – Present similar data in same format from page to page. – Promotes audience comfort.• Put “data dumps” in appendix. Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 26 - Final Internal Presentation
  27. 27. PRESENTING YOUR DATAGraphics add power to presentations• A graphic always has more impact than a table of raw numbers.• Gives both a numerical and a visual message.• Simpler really is better.• Worst case—audience does not understand your complicated graphic. Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 27 - Final Internal Presentation
  28. 28. PRESENTING YOUR DATAChoose the right graphic for the job you want doneIn general: Share  Pie charts Comparisons  Bar charts Trends  Line graphs Degree  Booz balls Position  Matrices Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 28 - Final Internal Presentation
  29. 29. PRESENTING YOUR DATAShare = Pie Charts Other 20% 40% Coal Petroleum 5% Specialty Chemicals 15% 20% Commodity Chemicals Pie charts start at 12 o’clock and build clockwise from largest to smallest; “other” is always last. Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 29 - Final Internal Presentation
  30. 30. PRESENTING YOUR DATAComparisons = Bar Charts Strategy 1: “Status Quo” Projected 1999 Market Share by Distribution Channel 84% Traditional Non-traditional Total 58% 41% 23% 19% 19% 17% 13% 10% 9% 4% 3% Client Competitor 1 Competitor 2 All Other Competitors Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 30 - Final Internal Presentation
  31. 31. PRESENTING YOUR DATATrends = Line Graphs Client vs. S&P 500 Index 1993–1999 4 Client 3 S&P 2 1 0 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 31 - Final Internal Presentation
  32. 32. PRESENTING YOUR DATADegree = Booz Balls Siding Support Requirement Distributors Retailers OEMs Breadth of Product Line Delivery Requirements Order Processing Training by Client Reps Financing Packaging Level of Support Low Medium High Required Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 32 - Final Internal Presentation
  33. 33. PRESENTING YOUR DATAPosition = Matrices Many Fragmented Specialised Number of Ways to Create Advantage Stalemate Volume Few Small Large Size of Advantage Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 33 - Final Internal Presentation
  34. 34. Structuring Your Story Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 34 - Final Internal Presentation
  35. 35. STRUCTURING YOUR STORYTell a story your audience can follow Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 35 - Final Internal Presentation
  36. 36. STRUCTURING YOUR STORYA good report story has simple, logically ordered elements Element Purpose Roadmap “Tell them what you’re going to tell them” What the problem is Set the stage What we did Outline approach/methodology; build credibility What we found Present findings What that means Interpret findings and make conclusions What we need to do Make recommendations What happens next Outline next steps Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 36 - Final Internal Presentation
  37. 37. STRUCTURING YOUR STORYMany people create a storyboard of their presentations• Develop an active title.• Create an agenda that establishes the storyline’s sections.• Write headlines for the panels in each section. Creating even a rough storyboard will help you generate a coherent story for your audience. Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 37 - Final Internal Presentation
  38. 38. Revisiting the five underlying principles• Write for your audience.• Keep it simple.• Support assertions with facts.• Stay in the active voice (have actors, use verbs).• Tell a good story. Cap Gemini Ernst & Young • Proprietary and Confidential - 38 - Final Internal Presentation
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