2 2 You’ll be presented with a number of change models to explain how and what the organization, as well as individuals, will go through. We will hopefully not only arm you with what to expect but how to deal with these changes.
3 3 Change is easier to deal with if we understand why the changes are occurring There are many factors outside the organization that contributes to the need for change (legislation, competitors, markets change) Whenever possible, give example from the client’s perspective (e.g., DuPont, nylon has become a commodity item) The scope of changes in the organization reaches from the way we do our work, to the product or service that we deliver to our clients. Nothing within our organization will escape change. We as individuals will be required to think, act, and behave differently Key Message : we are change agents, and we all need to become experts in managing the changes that are occurring within our organizations, within our workgroup and within individuals in our organization Transition : Let’s look at some of the specific changes that are taking place in our society
4 4 It is useful to have some models to aid us in understanding the process of change. Kurt Lewin created this three step universal change model and an associated theory on how to make change occur more than 40 years ago. Key Points: It’s simple. Easily understood. Applies to any change personal and/or organizational. The key is to become skilled at unfreezing and nimble enough as an organization to recognize the need quickly and then respond. Lewin’s model helps us understand conceptually what needs to happen. Force Field Diagram Driving Change Opposing Change Driving Change Opposing Change
5 5 Think back to a change situation (as a group) you’ve just recently experienced (local election, changes to church procedures, etc.). Remember how successful the change was. Were your feelings dealt with? Did you feel you knew enough about it before it happened? It’s impossible to over communicate, when you think you’ve told people as much as you can—tell them all over again. Did you feel confident enough about what to expect and what would and would not be impacted? Help identify zones of stability for people. For example, develop “What will be different” charts for people as they understand the strengths of the current environment and being retrained. Could you have done something to prevent this change? Reduce defensiveness and any implied blame for creating the problems that now must be changed. For example, emphasize that they have been successful but now must reach for the next level of effectiveness. Ask the group for any other techniques that would reinforce unfreezing (e.g., explain changes clearly and in detail). Key Messages: Your role as a change agent is to help shepherd each individual through the change process.
6 6 We don’t think our emotional shifts are unique—eeryone goes through it. The shifts become less severe. We can understand and know what to expect from the rections of other people in the organization. By recognizing the symptoms it will help us and help others to get through it more quickly. Each of the following panels describes the stages of the emotional cycle of change. As you discuss each phase, have the group provide examples of behavior they have seen that indicates someone is experiencing the emotions of that phase. Option: draw this on a flipchart so it is visible while viewing the following slides. Upon completion of the definitions—ask group where they are. See appendix for descriptions, explanations, examples for following five phases.
7 7 The beginning of the change effort is frequently a “honeymoon” period with high hopes among those involved. Feelings are running high and morale is at a peak. This initial certainty about the changes success is based on little information. The manager needs to build high energy in the “honeymoon” stage and use that momentum to drive through the informed optimism stage.
8 8 We have discussed why our organizations are required to change and a vision of how the organization will look in the future. We have also described how individuals respond to change, and some ways for dealing with individuals. The only thing we know for sure is that both the organizations and individuals within the organization will be different as a result of the changes. We will now look at some approaches to managing change within our organizations Key message: Actively dealing with the change and the differences that we will see is a sure way to succeed Transition: We have explored change from the perspective of society, of our own organization, and from individuals within the organization. Our challenge is to determine how we, as change agents, can most successfully support the process of change.
9 9 Help individuals understand why need to change. They may not like it, but may be accepting if they understand why : Create dissatisfaction with the present Consequences of not changing Communicate the latest changes, steps forward and background. We have a plant to get there. Demonstrate support about achieving results
Objectives• To appreciate change at an organisational and a personal level• To provide some sensible models that describe the process of change, in order for it to be managed as a process• To understand how to be proactive in managing the change process and reducing resistance• To understand the good and bad sides of conflict Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential -2- MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Truths about change - why it happens creates . . . creates External personal organisational change . . . change change . . .– Technology – Strategies – Role– Economy – Structures/de-layering – Responsibilities – Habits– Government – Practices – Thinking– Society – Processes – Values– Customer/competitors – Products – Behaviors• Change thus requires individuals and organisations to think, act, and perform differently• No matter how well motivated, an individual cannot make change alone• . . . and an organisation changes only as fast as the percentage of people within the organisation change• . . . thus the individuals within an organisation are as important as the leaders in changing organisations Our model is predicated on involving all parts of an organisation in making sustainable change. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential -3- MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
The Five Essential Ingredients of Change Vision Sense of Willingness Capability Action Plans/ Urgency to Change to Change Rewards Successful Change The process can break down if any of these five are not in place. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential -4- MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
A simple view of change is presented by Kurt Lewin’schange model Refreezing Unfreezing Movement Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential -5- MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Successful change is a continuous process• Communication• Feedback• Reinforcement• Repetition: try it, fix it, try it again• Interim milestones• Celebrate frequent successes . . . and everyone must be involved! Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential -6- MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
We can use Kurt Lewin’s change model to help us ineach phase of implementation: • Acknowledge feelings and empathize • Give people as much information about the change Techniques to as possible reinforce • Say what will not change unfreezing • Treat the past with respect • Create the motivation and readiness to change • Provide focus and direction Techniques to • Strengthen peoples connections to one another reinforce • Open up two-way communications movement • Provide the individual with a specific role in the change process • Ensure that individuals are reinforced for new Techniques to behaviour reinforce • Implement quick results and highlights successes refreezing • Build feedback mechanisms • Celebrate! Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential -7- MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Some change tools & techniques Unfreeze Movement Refreeze Unfreeze Communication Plan - who, when, what, how• Stream charters • “To-Be” analysis • Problem solving / • Continuous• Stream logic – Roles and team building Plan-Do-Review Responsibilities • White papers• Activity plans – KPIs and milestones • Implementation Gantt – Process flow• A&D findings charts • Route / cause• Quick hits • Implementation RACIs analysis• “As-Is” analysis • Pareto analysis • Implementation KPIs and baselines • Manage resistance• Mobilisation to change – Brown Paper fair • Roles and responsibilities – Town meetings charting • Reward and recognition – Small group events – Workplans • Coaching and feedback • Benefits tracking Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential -8- MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
But this only tells part of the story - Change involvesgiving up - and this is more of a personal choiceThe Rational(c. f. Kurt Lewin) Unfreeze Move RefreezeEmotional - “Me” (c. f. Bridges) Endings Transitions Beginnings Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential -9- MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Our role is to help others through change• Clarify Endings – Listening – Disengagement – Focusing: ask questions to pinpoint – Disorientation real issues – Disidentification – Restating: hearing it restated – Disenchantement by someone else can help a person to clarify their real interests• Share Transition – Signal shift-take control of conversation – Explain – Explain purpose of change – Confront / identify – Link to his/her concerns – Neutralise – Summarise: bottom line – Transfer• Engage Beginnings – “Were my comments clear” – Vision & Plans – “What are your ideas for the future?” – Communications – “These are my ideas” – Symbols & ceremonies – Agree to finite steps – New Starts Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 10 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Unfortunately what you want and what you get in timesof change often differWhat people in change want: What people in change (usually) get: • Empathy • Autocratic Behaviour • Information • Avoidance • Ideas • “Rah rah” Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 11 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
People feel a sense of loss during change• Security Control, knowledge of what the future holds and place in the organisation• Competence What to do, how to manage (can be embarrassing)• Relationships Familiar contracts (customers, colleagues, managers, group membership)• Sense of Understanding of where and why you are going direction• Territory Area that ‘belonged’ to you (work space, responsibilities) This sense of loss generates an emotional cycle which can stall in a number of unproductive phases before acceptance of a new direction is complete. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 12 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Change always results in a roller-coaster ride of Emotions The Emotional Cycle of Change Satisfaction Certainty Confidence Optimism Hope TimePessimism Doubt What is important to recognise is that it’s a roller-coaster ride where different people will be in different places at different times. Source: Daryl Conner. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 13 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Understanding the Emotional Cycle of Change helpsus deal with it Phase 1: • Honeymoon period Uniformed optimism – • Ideas look great on paper Certainty • All major obstacles appear to have been anticipated Phase 2: • Problems surface, not all solutions are obvious Informed pessimism – • Morale drops (“Why did I ever get involved in the first Doubt place?”) • A turning point occurs, a sense of accomplishment Phase 3: replaces a sense of pushing against problems Hopeful realism – Hope • Problems have not all disappeared, but people’s hopes are based on realistic data Phase 4: • Optimism continues to develop Informed optimism – • A fresh burst of energy appears Confidence • Successful change has been made Phase 5: • Official change effort is complete Rewarding completion – Satisfaction • The outcome is frequently much different from that anticipated in Phase 1 Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 14 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
The context for evolving Gemini’s approach to change• Our perspective on change has largely been driven by the experience of companies in the 1970s and 1980s. – Relatively stable periods followed by sudden reaction to events largely imposed from outside.• The business environment of our clients is changing: – Rapid shifts, discontinuities, continuous process of disequilibrium moving to equilibrium and back to disequilibrium.• Increasingly, clients require the capability to evolve and adapt their organisation to these shifting market conditions on a continuous basis.• It is therefore no longer sufficient to understand change as discrete event that can be managed, and which is experienced as a crisis.• Change in this context is better viewed as a creative process of choice, learning and growth. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 16 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
We are developing our thinking around change as aprocess of learning and capability development Capability is defined as the readiness to respond adaptively and creatively to new or unforeseen circumstances so as to achieve a specified intent. A capability-oriented approach requires a new perspective on how we consult . . . Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 17 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Chaos theory changes how we view the change processand how we view the emotional experience of change Disintegration Chaos Creation of a Equilibrium Turbulence higher order Self organising and self renewing systems possess innate properties that use chaos as a Order does not equal structure. necessary stage to move to higher levels of order. Order = dynamic energy that creates form and shape that suits present circumstance. If creating a “higher order”, on any dimension, requires turbulence, chaos and disintegration, what will enable, rather than disable, this process? Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 18 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
We focused on understanding what happens when wework in conditions of uncertainty Emotional responses to working on an unknown task • Excitement • Fear of failing, being wrong, not having the answer • High levels of anxiety • Block: “I can’t think” • Rigidness: “It’s not my job” • Envy of people who seem to be coping • Blaming of others . . . In order to understand how we can create conditions for learning and capability development. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 19 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
The challenge is to work with anxiety to create insight,avoid defensive behaviour and no learning—not to remove anxiety Cycle of Emotions Cycle of Emotions Promoting Learning Discouraging Learning 1. Healthy 1. Unhealthy level Anxiety of Anxiety5. Insight 5. Willing 2. Fight or or ignorance flightAAuthority and inactivity 2. Uncertainty # 3. Denial or avoidance 4. Struggle 3. Risk 4. Defensiveness o or resistance Role modelling and the use of structure (tasks, time) act to contain anxiety to healthy levels.Adaptation: “Inside Action Learning” by Russ Vince and Linda Martin, in “Management Education and Development”, Vol. 24, Part 3, 1993. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 20 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
From here, we identified possible conditions forcapability development Conditions for Capability Development Anxiety owned and managed Aspiration Developmental Perspective Reflective Space Interpersonal dynamics worked with, not suppressedSources: Discussion with Tavistock Consulting Service; Group Focus Interview on capabilities and conditions for capability development (London, March 1998). Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 21 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
If the conditions are met, a virtuous spiral of capability development takesplace—without them, we generate defensiveness in ourselves and ourclients Conditions for Capability Development • Anxiety as stored energy • Provide direction and a Anxiety owned reason for change • Unhealthy levels of anxiety and managed creates stress, defensiveness, • Motivate and inspire denial, avoidance • Touch people’s hearts • Owned and managed anxiety Aspiration creates healthy tension and discovery Developmental Perspective • Nurturing approach • “Valuing the other person’s ability and handling it as a jewel” • Enabling people to make own Reflective discoveries, vs. controlling them Space • Time to reflect Interpersonal dynamics • Readiness to reflect on self worked with, and others not suppressed • Emotional issues surfaced • • Emotional energy channelled Create space for learning • Facilitates self-discovery • Working with unanticipated outcomes • Discussing the undiscussable • Respect for needs for safety, support, protection and value These conditions can be translated into day-to-day working practices for consultants and teams. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 22 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Both support and resistance can come from the same area - it is important to recognise which “..we don’t have the resource to do this” “..the benefits are enormous”Some abovethe surface “..this could risk delivery” “..the increases agility will really thrill customers” “..quality will suffer” Rational “..satisfaction indices will soar” “..I’ve been waiting for this moment for years” ...and some below Emotional Political “..but that will affect my pay!” “..de-layering of the organisation makes such good sense ” “..how will this affect our relationships with “..the benefits will be enormous” clients?” Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 24 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
In making change a success, it is important tounderstand where the various players’ energy lies Drive Support Observe Resist 20% 60% 20% ? Both sides try to influence the ‘undecided’ to move to their side - it’s a delicate balance. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 25 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
So how to manage this? • Focus on the Resistance NOT on the Drive • Seek Champions • Mobilise the Undecided Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 26 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Change requires individuals and organizations tothink, act, and behave differently CALVIN AND HOBBES Bill Watterson T HE M ORE Y OU KNOW , O NCE Y OU BECOME Y OU R EALIZE T HAT N OTHING BEING A M AN O F ACTION , T HE H ARDER I T I S T O I NFORMED , Y OU S TART I S AS C LEAR AND S IMPLE C AN’T AFFORD T O T AKE I T AKE D ECISIVE ACTION . S EEING C OMPLEXITIES AS I T F IRST APPEARS . T HAT R ISK. AND S HADES O F G RAY . U LTIMATELY , KNOWLEDGE I S P ARALYZING . Y OU’RE I GNORANT . BUT A T L EAST Y OU ACT O N I T . Neither ignorance or inaction make Change a success. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 27 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Change also requires leadership “To deal with the change, I committed us to try certain things with the understanding what they might not all work. Later, I realized that what I started - even through I didn’t see it at the time - was to create two things: an action plan and trust The action plan had varying degrees of success and failure. But the trust was always there. If we didn’t have that trust, we would have complained ourselves out of business a long time ago.” Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 28 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
So what you can do to proactively to Iead the changeeffort Show we are serious about Team Show getting there – Member demonstrate Communicat ge personal Support support e ‘learning’ n and ha Demonstrate that we know professional C where we are stability Rewards headed and consistent have a plan ge with the to get there ‘To Be’ n Broad- ha cast C the truth Involve teams in owning Clarify why change change is needed Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 29 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Dealing with IndividualResistance and Conflict
50 Reasons Why It Won’t Work 1. We tried that before. 26. It might not work. 2. Our systems are different 27. Not that again! 3. It costs too much. 28. Where’d you dig that one up? 4. That’s beyond our responsibility. 29. We did all right without it. 5. That’s not my job. 30. It’s never been tried before. 6. We’re all too busy to do that. 31. Let’s shelve it for the time being. 7. It’s too radical a change. 32. I don’t see the connection. 8. There’s not enough help. 33. What you are really saying is … 9. We’ve never done it before. 34. Let’s not be the first. 10. We don’t have the authority. 35. Maybe that would work in your Branch but not in mine. 11. There’s not enough time. 36. Head Office will never go for it. 12. Let’s get back to reality. 37. It can’t be done. 13. That’s not our problem. 38. It’s too much trouble. 14. Why change it? It’s still working OK. 39. It’s impossible. 15. I don’t like that idea. 40. You’re not here to think. 16. You’re right, but … 41. Can’t teach an old dog new tricks. 17. You’re two years ahead of your time 42. Let me think about that and I’ll get back to you. 18. It isn’t in the budget. 43. Let’s wait until the next generation. 19. We’re not ready for that. 44. The rules say we can’t do that. 20. Sounds OK but impractical. 45. We can’t fight local government regulations. 21. Let’s give it some more thought. 46. That’s old/new business and can’t be discussed now. 22. That’s my bowling day. 47. That’s too serious a subject. 23. That doesn’t effect me or my child. 48. No one is interested. 24. Nobody cares about that. 49. It’s too early to think about it. 25. We’ve always done it this way. 50. It’s too late to start. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 31 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Forms of ResistanceA. Avoidance of responsibility H. Changing the subjectB. Flooding with detail I. I’m not surprisedC. One-word answers J. SilenceD. Impracticality K. TimeE. Attacking L. Nit-pickingF. Compliance M. Pressing for solutionsG. ConfusionSource: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 32 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Understanding Resistance is about getting behind theapparent and into the core Indirect Expressions of Concerns/ Visible Resistance Real/Underlying The Voyage of Discovery Concerns . . . but tread carefully - too much exploration is rarely appreciated - simply ask “Why is that?”Source: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 33 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Why Resistance Occurs . . .Resistance can occur because people fear:• Loss of their credibility or reputation• Lack of career or financial advancement• Possible damage to relationships with their superiors• Losing their job• Interpersonal rejection• Change in job role• Embarrassment/loss of self-esteem• Job transfer or demotionSource: Ryan and Oestreich. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 34 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Five Steps for Dealing with Resistance • Trust what you see and how you hear more than what you hear • Ask questions and listen carefully - Pick up the ‘cues’ 1. Identify the form the • Learn from your own reactions: – Uneasy resistance is taking – Bored – Irritated • Listen for repetition and telltale phrases • Tell the person your perception of the resistance • Do it in a neutral, nonaggressive way with WIN/WIN words: 2. Acknowledge the “What I think I hear you saying is …” • Tell the person how the resistance is making you feel: resistance – Use “I” statements • Be specific, clear, and authentic • Allow them to ‘vent’ - until they do so progress is limited 3. Be quiet, listen, let the • Stay attuned to other forms of resistance surfacing person respond • Check for understanding • Remember that their behaviour is not a reflection of you. • Let them air their concerns without responding 4. Don’t take it personally defensively. • Don’t counterattack head-on. • The majority of questions about methodology or the project process are just expressions of discomfort 5. Remember the “two good • The third time the question is asked, respond to the faith responses” rule question with a statement that suggests the person might be reluctant to commit to the problem or process Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 35 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Acknowledging Resistance:Hints for the Right Words• Describe how you feel: – Your perceptions of how they feel• Being authentic: – . . . Encourages person to do the same Descriptive Judgmental Specific NOT Stereotyped• Be assertive: Focused Lengthy Brief – Direct, without putting anyone down Simple Complicated – Use “I” statements• Be descriptive, not evaluative Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 36 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
How to Acknowledge Resistance Resistance Forms How to Acknowledge - some examples Avoidance of A. “You don’t see yourself as part of the problem?” responsibility “You’re giving me more than I need. Can you B. Flooding with detail headline it?” “Say more about that” (and don’t say the next word C. One-word answers !) “You seem to feel that what we’re discussing is not D. Impracticality ‘real world’. How could we make it more relevant?” “You are really questioning a lot of what I do. You E. Attacking seem angry.” “You seem agreeable to anything I suggest. I’m F. Compliance having a hard time telling what you’re really feeling.” “We seem to be having difficulty moving ahead. G. Confusion Are you confused about something?”Source: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 37 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
How to Acknowledge Resistance cont’d Resistance Forms Acknowledgment Examples “The subject keeps shifting. Can we focus on one H. Changing the subject thing at a time?” “I feel that you expect me to know more about I. I’m not surprised you.” J. Silence “I don’t know how to read your silence.” “You don’t seem to have the time to work with me. K. Time I find it hard to proceed without involvement from you.” L. Nit-picking “We would appear to be getting into a lot of detail.” “It’s too early for solution. I’m still trying to find M. Pressing for solutions out…”Source: Flawless Consulting by Peter Block. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 38 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
One of the hardest parts of consulting is coping withthe conflict that resistance engendersThe top seven sources of conflict on projects are:• Schedules: – Timing, sequencing, duration, feasibility of schedule for project-related tasks or activities• Project priorities: – Lack of goals, poorly defined project mission, differing views of task importance, shifting goals• Resources: – Competition for personnel, materials, equipment, facilities among project members or across teams• Technical options: – From technical issues, performance specifications, technical trade-offs• Administrative procedures: – How project will be managed, reporting relationships, interface relationships, work design, plans for execution, negotiated work agreements with others, administrative procedures• Cost objectives: – Lack of cost control authority, allocation of funds• Personalities: – Egos, personality differences, prejudice, stereotypingSource: Thamhain and Wilemon. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 40 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
A Key MessageThe client is not always right, but the way you deal with him/her has to be . . . it requires humility, resolve, and patience.
Strategies for dealing with conflict tend to be situationdependent• Avoiding – Or withdrawing, …but this may mean leaving the solution to chance or fate• Smoothing – Covering up and pretending that all is calm, cooperative, and pleasant - at times a good strategy where third parties are involved• Bargaining – Sometimes compromising - each party gains and loses something - preferably amicably• Forcing – Loser and winner situation - where time pressure exists this may be necessary• Problem Solving – Collaboratively and objectively confronting the problem Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 42 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
In situations of conflict think about both parties’ styles- and understand how yours influences theirsThe three “pure” styles of influence.• Tough Battler – fighting, powerful, commanding – pressing for results, threatening, repetition Tough Battler – confident, persuasive, forceful• Logical Thinker – logical, knowledgeable, clarifying ideas – facts, quoting rules, practical – orderly, fair, thorough Logical Friendly Thinker Helper• Friendly Helper – helpful, sympathetic, polite – encouraging, compromising, concerned, friendly – trusting, optimistic, caring, supportive You may need to exercise all three styles at different times. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 43 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
A useful model to understand one’s approach is the“Assertiveness Matrix” High Aggressive Assertive (I win You lose) (We both win) The extent to which I achieve my goals Avoidance Submissive (We both lose) (I lose You win) Low Low High The extent to which I allow the other person to achieve their goals Always seek to attain a position of ‘win-win’. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 44 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Where assertiveness on your part makes sense…employ the “DESC” script• Describe - what you want, how you see the situation objectively, and factually• Express - your feelings about the situation and why you feel that way• Specify - the action you think should be taken and why• Consequences - both positive and negative, of doing or not doing what you are suggesting Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 45 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
An example of the “DESC” script• Describe: I’ve studied your inventory control system team and it is not adequate to meet the increased demands on your business.• Express: I think this is worrying.• Specify: My view is that unless you invest in a new inventory control system you will not fix it.• Consequences: The benefit of this will be that you will cut the amount of inventory you have to hold and there will be fewer stock- outs on the line. If you don’t fix it, you are going to find it hard to meet your new quality targets. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 46 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
If the client constantly challenges - “AIR” is a usefultechnique• Acknowledge – What they have said in a genuine way• Investigate – Identify the main source of the resistance – Encourage them to talk more about it - and listen – Isolate and work the separate issues• Reinforce: – Reinforce the positive aspects of anything you are proposing – Calmly and clearly explain the reasons for change (again!) – Look for acceptance Emphasise your role as a partner. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 47 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Remember, make sure ‘what you say’, ‘how you say it’, and‘how you look’ work together to convey the right message Actions Words Body Language Try ‘mirroring’ behaviours. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 48 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Nine strategies to deal with conflict and resistanceconstructively “Do it my way” “Let’s make a deal” “Let’s work together” Involved DOMINATE BARGAIN COLLABORATE You direct, You trade, take turns, You problem-solve impose, control or split the difference together to reach a Your Interaction or resist win-win resolution “Try it, you’ll like it” “Agree to disagree” “It’s yours to do” SMOOTH COEXIST RELEASE You accentuate You pursue differences You release control similarities and independently within agreed-on downplay differences limits “Wait” “Let’s be fair” “I’ll go along” Neutral DECIDE MAINTAIN BY RULE YIELD You postpone Objective rules You give in, adapt, or confronting determine how differences agree differences will be handled Firm Flexible Your ViewpointSource: Managing Conflict and Disagreement Constructively - H S Kindler, The 1995 Annual, Pfeiffer & Co Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 49 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
Top Tips - Managing Change• Remember people are more likely to change if they can help plan it• Explain the change and its consequences to all those affected• Put yourself in the shoes of those affected when planning change• Explain the benefits of change in simple terms• Always maintain the self-esteem of people affected• Avoid creating win-lose situations if possible• Look for ways to turn negative concerns into positive opportunities• Generate as few surprises as possible• Lead by example• Recognise support and success• Admit mistakes and learn from failures Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 50 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
If the business is perceived as an open system,interacting with its environment Understanding Business as a System Organisation as the sum of its Core Competencies Competitors • Environmental intelligence capabilitySuppliers Organisation Customers • Process capability • Asset management capability • Alignment capability Employees • Learning capability Core capabilities are what enable it to respond and adapt creatively to new or unforeseen circumstances. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 52 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
We have some initial ideas on defining these capabilityareas Core Capability Description • Transfer of information from the market (clients, Environment Intelligence competitors, suppliers, new entrants, transfer of information to the market. • Understanding of KPIs, RACI, best Process Capability practice/benchmarking, knowing how to analyse processes and design To-Be processes. • Knowledge, human resource, physical and financial Asset Management asset management. Alignment • Leadership, values, corporate identity, communication. • Development process, innovation process, continuous Learning improvement process. We will hold “expert” workshops within Gemini to fully define these areas and understand the implications for a consulting approach. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 53 - MngChg v2Aug98.ppt
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