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Leading ChangeGemini Skills WorkshopGemini ConsultingJanuary 1999
Purpose of this session• To provide an overview of thinking about change:    –And how it is changing.• To provide an overv...
Content of this session•   Why and how to change:     – Business environments.•   The Roots of Gemini’s Approach to Change...
Why and how to change
WHY AND HOW TO CHANGETruths about change—why it happens, where it happens                                        . . . req...
WHY AND HOW TO CHANGEChange requires individuals and organisations to think, actand perform differently• No matter how wel...
WHY AND HOW TO CHANGEAcademics and practitioners are starting to apply thinkingfrom science about living systems to organi...
WHY AND HOW TO CHANGEExperimentation and learning are key to leading thischange, control and pressure are not!          Tr...
The Roots of Gemini’s Approachto Change
THE ROOTS OF GEMINI’S APPROACH TO CHANGEGemini’s change approach is grounded in the practical toolsdeveloped from behaviou...
THE ROOTS OF GEMINI’S APPROACH TO CHANGEA Gemini change intervention takes place through a projectorganisation• The projec...
THE ROOTS OF GEMINI’S APPROACH TO CHANGEOur change approach is evolving to adapt to shifts in clientneeds and to incorpora...
Gemini’s Evolving Change Model
GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELThe vision for our Change Model emerged fromthree key drivers•   Changing environments of cl...
GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELWe are positioning Gemini by putting a stronger emphasison a capability-oriented approach to...
GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELcWe view capability as the next generation of consulting andwe intend to get there faster th...
GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELWe view change as a continuous process oftranslating aspirations into results . . .Change as...
GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELWe believe that all living systems, including businessorganisations, need an aspirational vi...
GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELWe are therefore developing our own definition ofcapability, based on our experience with ou...
GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELThe capabilities are defined generally - eachindustry has different dimensions for each of t...
GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELThe capabilities are defined generally - each industryhas different dimensions for each of t...
GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELCapability can be found by identifying its componentelements                                ...
GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELDeveloping capabilities therefore takes place byintervening at the individual, group or orga...
GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODEL Effective transfer of client learnings from their partnership with Gemini enables clients t...
GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELMarket development activities will put a strong focus onthe value-added resulting from capab...
GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODEL    An A&D will focus on the creation of aspiration, diagnosing    development needs and cre...
GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELThe Change Model approach was used to effectively address thecapability issues of the client...
GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODEL    Results Delivery will develop sustainable capability quickly    The process of change - ...
GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELAt Lidl & Schwartz, Gemini Consulting developed the corecapabilities to implement and run a ...
Individual Change and Learning
INDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNINGSuccessful change is a continuous people-focused process. . . think of it as marketing to in...
INDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNINGImplementing change requires understanding the dynamicsof anxiety and the need for psycholog...
INDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNINGChange involves letting go in order to move on—this willalways be a personal choice, and is ...
INDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNINGOur role is to help others through change...•    Clarify Endings             –   Disengageme...
INDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNING… and one step towards helping people in change is to givethem what they need in such situat...
iNDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNINGPeople need Information and secuirty because they mayexperience a sense of loss during chang...
INDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNINGNeeds and responses from people vary during differentemotional stages experienced in a chang...
INDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNINGUnderstanding the emotional cycle can help us deal withthe change process              Phase...
INDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNINGWe can help people to change by responding appropriatelyto their current state• People in co...
You cannot makeanybody change!
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  • 42 33 7 7 The beginning of the change effort is frequently a “honeymoon” period with high hopes among those involved. Feelings are running high and morale is at a peak. This initial certainty about the changes success is based on little information. The manager needs to build high energy in the “honeymoon” stage and use that momentum to drive through the informed optimism stage.
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  • Transcript of "Leading change gsw"

    1. 1. Leading ChangeGemini Skills WorkshopGemini ConsultingJanuary 1999
    2. 2. Purpose of this session• To provide an overview of thinking about change: –And how it is changing.• To provide an overview of Gemini’s approach: –History and direction for the future.• To understand how we lead the change process and increase mobilisation and learning within the client organisation• To familiarise you with models, frameworks and vocabulary commonly used within Gemini and client teams. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential -2- GSW_Jan_v0.9
    3. 3. Content of this session• Why and how to change: – Business environments.• The Roots of Gemini’s Approach to Change: – Core principles and tools.• Gemini’s Evolving Change Model: – Capability framework. – Value chain implications. – Client examples.• Change, Learning and Individuals: – Psychological safety. – Emotional cycle of loss. – Anxiety and aspiration. – Conditions for capability development. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential V-O - 3 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    4. 4. Why and how to change
    5. 5. WHY AND HOW TO CHANGETruths about change—why it happens, where it happens . . . requires . . . requires External personal organisational change . . . change change . . . – Technology – Strategies – Role – Economy – Structures/de-layering – Responsibilities – Habits – Government – Practices – Thinking – Society – Processes – Values – Customer/competitors – Products – Behaviours Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential -5- GSW_Jan_v0.9
    6. 6. WHY AND HOW TO CHANGEChange requires individuals and organisations to think, actand perform differently• No matter how well motivated, an individual cannot make change alone.• And yet, it is the rate of individual change which determines the rate of organisational change.• Business change results from a critical mass of individuals participating in a change process together. Gemini works with our clients to involve multiple parts of an organisation, at different levels, to ensure sustainable change. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential -6- GSW_Jan_v0.9
    7. 7. WHY AND HOW TO CHANGEAcademics and practitioners are starting to apply thinkingfrom science about living systems to organisations• The traditional view of organisations is largely derived from Newtonian physics: –Linear, rational, predictable. –Machine model: made up of parts; parts have limited and controllable impact on the whole. –Cultures of administration, planning, policy; values of control, hierarchy. –Role of managers is to control the work of others.• New thinking from physics is permeating other fields including business, organisations and leadership: –Non-linear, unpredictable, butterfly effect. –Living systems model: interconnected parts; direction of the whole system can be influenced rather than outcomes controlled. –Cultures of entrepreneurialism, innovation, experimentation: values of openness, learning. –Role of leaders is to amplify impact of events which create movement towards desired outcomes. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential B-U - 7 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    8. 8. WHY AND HOW TO CHANGEExperimentation and learning are key to leading thischange, control and pressure are not! Traditional Change Paradigm Evolving Change Paradigm • Change can be managed with a Gantt • Change requires leadership of people, chart not management of things • Change can be planned and controlled • Change requires critical mass to emerge —where, when and how cannot always • The consultant or manager is the driver, be predicted; seeing and using manager of the change process opportunities is key • The consultant or manager is outside • The consultant or manager is part of the the process context, involved in the learning process: • Control is the key value – Client and consultant are learning about different things • Creativity is the key value Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential -8- GSW_Jan_v0.9
    9. 9. The Roots of Gemini’s Approachto Change
    10. 10. THE ROOTS OF GEMINI’S APPROACH TO CHANGEGemini’s change approach is grounded in the practical toolsdeveloped from behavioural change insights by United Research Behavioural Change Insights Tools • Change starts with an individual • Central role of the Joint Team Member • Change happens in relationships • Partnership between JTM and Gemini consultant; coaching relationship; openness; trust • Small groups provide the means to accelerate • Natural Work Team; Joint Team; RAT individual change • Give people frameworks and vocabulary to help • Emotional cycle of loss; LIFO them articulate and understand their experience: then they can let go and move on • Use structure to build security and confidence • Charters; milestones; deliverables about the process • Make the change tangible ad meaningful • Business case • Provide ways of clarifying messy issues; • PSTB; Brown Papers; RACI externalise them, make them visible • Focus on the positive • Bs before Cs; opportunities not problems; “and”—not “but”; IWIK, H2; celebrate successes Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 10 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    11. 11. THE ROOTS OF GEMINI’S APPROACH TO CHANGEA Gemini change intervention takes place through a projectorganisation• The project is a joint team, made up of client people and Gemini people working together.• Gemini ways of working (processes, values, behaviour) provide role models of a To-Be culture and ways of working.• The project provides challenging work—an adventure zone—which requires client people to work in different ways, to experiment with their approach, in order to get the results required.• The project provides a safe place in which to experiment—risks are reduced through support from a Gemini consultant who has done this before, through change tools which structure problems and processes.• Content is used to provide safety, to give client people the confidence to innovate for themselves, not to provide the answer.• The vocabulary of the change tools reinforces positive orientation, can-do attitudes role modelled by the Gemini team members. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential V-O - 11 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    12. 12. THE ROOTS OF GEMINI’S APPROACH TO CHANGEOur change approach is evolving to adapt to shifts in clientneeds and to incorporate new insights about changeIssues• H2 apply insights around the behaviour of complex, adaptive systems (such as people, organisations) to the process of business change.• H2 address change as a way of life: continuous change rather than a crisis event.• H2 address the “corporate big picture” rather than “the project and the joint team”.• H2 consult with clients on individual or organisational transformation, when their main or initial focus is content expertise or strategic insight .• H2 retain and spread learnings once joint teams dissolve, beyond the joint team during an engagement. Understanding “sustainable change” was chosen as an area of focus to increase Gemini’s differentiation. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 12 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    13. 13. Gemini’s Evolving Change Model
    14. 14. GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELThe vision for our Change Model emerged fromthree key drivers• Changing environments of clients: – Continuous change, driven by technology/market shifts. – Sustainable change. – Faster change. – Increased client capability (analytics, programme design and management, BPR tools).• Changes the consulting service market: – Increasing maturity/sophistication of buyers. – Highly imitative Big 6 players: increasing in size/skills: commoditising products (e.g. BPR). – Product/service life cycles shortening. – New specialist entrants in change management arena: visual identify, communications consultancies. – People and IT emerging as key integrating factor. – Lack of differentiation within general management consulting. – Low awareness and reputation of Gemini.• Sources of Gemini success with clients: – “How we worked with people – up and down and across the organisations.” – “The way we worked reflected the way work needed to be done in the future: empowered individuals and teams, values driven, results oriented.” Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential V-O - 14 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    15. 15. GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELWe are positioning Gemini by putting a stronger emphasison a capability-oriented approach to the change process Traditional View Evolving View Change as a process of loss and Change as continuously acceptance, a crisis-oriented responding to and shaping a adaptation to an imposed event, dynamic environment through and resulting in achievement of a the on-going development of new status quo. capability. Unfreeze Refreeze Create Aspiration Move ... For superior results Develpo Capitalize Capabilities Capabilities This view is based on an underlying business model of a “systems view”, rather than a “machine view”, of organisations. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 15 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    16. 16. GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELcWe view capability as the next generation of consulting andwe intend to get there faster than our competitors + Impact on Capability the Organisation + Results + Direction Setting Advice 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 16 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    17. 17. GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELWe view change as a continuous process oftranslating aspirations into results . . .Change as an on-going, capability focused process Create Aspiration Client need: Develop • Faster change ... for superior Capabilities • Deeper change Results • Sustainable change Capitalise Capabilities ... through the development and capitalisation of capabilities. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 17 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    18. 18. GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELWe believe that all living systems, including businessorganisations, need an aspirational view on their future …The process of change - The creation of aspiration 1 Envision the • “Reason why” • energizing desired future • open • driven by value creation 2 Clarify the • “Strategic direction” • “Stretched targets” mid-term “To-Be” • attractive to financial community • customer driven • innovation focused 3 • explicit and measurable • action focused Understand the • “Development stretch” impact on capability • To-Be vs. As-Is • constraint based view • in line with strategic direction Time horizon … in order to continously adapt to or even shape their environment, and achieve the fast, deep, and sustainable change required to survive and evolve. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 18 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    19. 19. GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELWe are therefore developing our own definition ofcapability, based on our experience with our clientsDefinition of Capability• The ability to adapt and respond creatively to unforeseen circumstances or events to achieve a desired outcome.Definition of Capability at the Organisational Level• Organisational capability has five dimensions: –Environmental intelligence. –Asset management. –Process. –Alignment. –Learning and innovation. Capability is not competency, it is organisational, not individual: Competency = individual skills, knowledge, behaviour Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 19 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    20. 20. GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELThe capabilities are defined generally - eachindustry has different dimensions for each of the five Environmental Intelligence • To observe your organisation and what is in and outside the organisation. • To understand who your customers are and their needs (today’s and tomorrow’s customers). • To understand the borders of your organisation in a dynamic way (organisation as part of an ecology). Asset Management • To understand an organisation as a portfolio of assets (HR, knowledge, financial, physical, brands, customer relationships, supplier relationships) • Which assets are key to your strategy? – How assets create value for whom (customer, stakeholders, etc). – How to allocate resources to assets. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 20 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    21. 21. GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELThe capabilities are defined generally - each industryhas different dimensions for each of the five(cont.) Process • To link actions to produce reasonable output and create value. • To understand critical processes across functions and use these as key drivers for value. • To focus on decision points within processes as a key point of leverage. Alignment • To build a unified, focused leadership cadre(s). • To produce agreed sense of purpose and common mission. • To ensure that sense of purpose is lived to align individual activities to the organisation’s goals. • To align resource allocation, rewards, and performance management with these goals. Learning • To reflect, review, understand and act on implications; to identify critical learning areas. • To capture knowledge and connect it to value (for customers, stakeholders). • To create space for risk. • To be open to challenge current assumptions and mindset. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 21 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    22. 22. GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELCapability can be found by identifying its componentelements Com- People Tools Process Systems Paradigms petencies Environmental Intelligence Asset Management Process Alignment Learning & Innovation Developing capability takes place through the interaction of people in developing new competencies, designing and using new tools, processes and systems and in absorbing new paradigms—people are the integrating factor. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 22 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    23. 23. GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELDeveloping capabilities therefore takes place byintervening at the individual, group or organisational levelThe process of change - The development of capabilities Environmental Intelligence Capability Dimensions Asset Management Process Delivery Alignment Learning/ Innovation Individual Key Group Organisation Development Levels Capabilities can be developed and capitalised on individual, group and/or organisational levels. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 23 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    24. 24. GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODEL Effective transfer of client learnings from their partnership with Gemini enables clients to capitalise their capabilitiesThe process of change - The capitalization of capabilities Related Client Issues Gemini Project Environmental Results of the project: Intelligence Asset • Capture the return on investment in Dimensions Management Capability capabilities in the Process specific business area Intelligence • Apply capabilities to Alignment related issues or organisational units Learning/ Innovation • Establish new base-line for a next generation of aspiration Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 24 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    25. 25. GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELMarket development activities will put a strong focus onthe value-added resulting from capability developmentThe process of change - The role of Market Development Client need: • Faster change • Deeper change • Sustainable change Market Development Perspective MDE Profile• Relationship driven • Strong on industry and content • “Experience heavy”• Industry and content focused • Role model for positive approach• Aspiration- rather than crisis-oriented to change – Positioning change as a positive challenge – Aspirational thinking rather than a “must achieve” or a “fix it” – Pragmatic and flexible – Linking capability development to issue-based • Sound understanding of how change problem solving and benefits realisation materialises in organisations, groups and individuals Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 25 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    26. 26. GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODEL An A&D will focus on the creation of aspiration, diagnosing development needs and creating a developmental experienceThe process of change—The role of A&D: Creation of aspiration 1 2 3 A&D Perspective A&D Consultant Profile• Aspiration-driven rather than crisis-driven • Strong on industry and content – Creating confidence in client people and • Strong intuition: “taste and judgement” tapping into their desire to develop themselves • Role model for positive approach and their business to change, learning and growth• Focused on capability gaps –Strong tolerance for ambiguity – … as well as process gaps –Aspirational thinking• Mobilising the organisation around aspiration –Pragmatic and flexible – … in addition to “Quick Hits”/“Early Wins” –Open, not defensive• Giving the organisation a taste of the capability • People-oriented development experience • “Experience heavy” Leading interventions with a focus on aspiration requires a specific project approach and consultant profile. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 26 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    27. 27. GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELThe Change Model approach was used to effectively address thecapability issues of the client Putting the Change Model into Practice - The logic of A&D Key issues Aspirational Picture Capability- Capability Profile Competitive Capability Profiling* focused Workshops “Environmental Interviews intelligence” 1 5 5 Asset- What Management 1 5 capability issues • Understand • Profile • Discuss capability profile capabilities in hypothesis on Process- have to be of key competitors relation to capability Intelligence 1 5 adressed? competition profile with key • Build first groups Alignment 1 5 hypotheses • Identify examples, Learning issues, and best • Prioritise issues & 5 Innovation 1 practices How do the • Outline next Where are • Fine tune stepscompetitors future competitive hypothesesmanage their advantages?capabilities? The resulting capability profile served as the basis for change strategy and RD design.* Conducted by Shop/The Institute Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential B-U - 27 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    28. 28. GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODEL Results Delivery will develop sustainable capability quickly The process of change - The role of RD: Development of capabilities Environmental Intelligence Dimensions Capability Asset Management Process Alignment Development Learning/ Levels Innovation Indivi- Groups Organis- duals ations RD Perspective RD Consultant Profile• Creating an experimental environment • Strong on industry and content – Creating safety, enabling discovery • Deep understanding of how change – “Hot Housing” materialises and able to play multiple roles: – “Rapid prototyping” – Coach and sounding board on the individual – “Action Learning” development level – Facilitator, content expert and sparring partner on the group development level• Focused on capability development – Methodology expert on the organisational – … in addition to problem solving and development level benefits delivery • Strong ability to get things done:• “Leaving a legacy” do - reflect - improve (80:20 rule) – “Pilot fast - learn fast - adapt fast” approach . . . in addition to issue-based problem solving and benefits delivery. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 28 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    29. 29. GEMINI’S EVOLVING CHANGE MODELAt Lidl & Schwartz, Gemini Consulting developed the corecapabilities to implement and run a completely new organisation Putting the Change Model into Practice - The Lidl & Schwartz example The Client Situation The Approach The Results • Lidl & Schwartz is a • A capability-focused A&D • A new organisational German, 30’000 employee, quickly discovered that structure was DM 21B sales, hypermarket wide-scale organisational implemented retailer change would be required – … based on a competency centre model • Their revenues had doubled • The RD delivered against over five years, but there – … with a process-oriented were worries whether they three objectives: instead of a functional focus would be able to stay on the – Build the appropriate systems • The new managers were fast track and processes for rapid trained, coached, and growth educated on and off-the-job • Therefore, their original – Realign the organisation and interest (1996) was to get – … to successfully run the develop the necessary capabilities to excel in the business in the new consulting support on competence centres organisational design and changed organisation alignment - areas they – Develop a growth platform • As much as possible perceived as critical for leading edge Gemini retail future success • The whole RD was based industry knowledge was on an extremly close and transfered to the client trusting client relationship Changing the client by using a capability-driven approach created client enthusiam and let to a m$ 10+ sale for Gemini. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential B-U - 29 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    30. 30. Individual Change and Learning
    31. 31. INDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNINGSuccessful change is a continuous people-focused process. . . think of it as marketing to internal segments• Understand the needs of different populations or segments in the organisation• Understand how to communicate and engage the attention of different segments• Lots of feedback on progress• Positive reinforcement• Repetition: try it, fix it, try it again• Interim milestones• Frequently celebrate successes Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential V-O - 31 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    32. 32. INDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNINGImplementing change requires understanding the dynamicsof anxiety and the need for psychological safety • The problem of organisational learning and transformation is to overcome the negative effects of past carrots and sticks. • To make people feel safe in learning, they must have a motive, a sense of direction and the opportunity to try out new things without fear of punishment.Source: “The Dynamics of the Green Room”, E. Schein, Sloan Management Review, 1993. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 32 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    33. 33. INDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNINGChange involves letting go in order to move on—this willalways be a personal choice, and is not easy to achieve Rational(c. f. Kurt Lewin) Unfreeze Move Refreeze Emotional - “Me” (c. f. Bridges) Endings Transitions Beginnings Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 33 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    34. 34. INDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNINGOur role is to help others through change...• Clarify Endings – Disengagement – Listening and accepting – Disorientation – Focusing: ask questions to pinpoint real issues – Disidentification – Restating: hearing it restated by someone else can help a person – Disenchantment to clarify their real interests• Share Transition – Explain – Signal shift-move the conversation on – Confront/identify – Explain purpose of change – Neutralise – Link to his/her concerns – Transfer – Summarise: bottom line• Engage Beginnings – Vision & Plans – “Were my comments clear?” – Communications – “What are your ideas for the future?” – Symbols & ceremonies – “These are my ideas” – New Starts – Agree to finite steps Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 34 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    35. 35. INDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNING… and one step towards helping people in change is to givethem what they need in such situations What people in change (usually) get: What people in change want: • Autocratic Behaviour • Empathy • Avoidance • Information • “Rah rah” • Ideas • Uncertainty • Certainty • Insecurity • Security Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 35 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    36. 36. iNDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNINGPeople need Information and secuirty because they mayexperience a sense of loss during change • Security Control, knowledge of what the future holds and place in the organisation • Competence What to do, how to manage (can be embarrassing) • Relationships Familiar contracts (customers, colleagues, managers, group membership) • Sense of direction Understanding of where you are going, why, how • Territory Area that ‘belonged’ to you (work space, responsibilities) This sense of loss can generate an emotional cycle which may stall in a number of unproductive phases before acceptance of a new direction is complete. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential B-U - 36 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    37. 37. INDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNINGNeeds and responses from people vary during differentemotional stages experienced in a changing environmentThe Emotional Cycle of Organisational Change Satisfaction Certainty Confidence Optimism Hope Time Pessimism Doubt This cycle traces the loss of hope, expectation and an envisioned future and the acceptance of a different set of expectations. Different people will be in different places at different times.Source: Daryl Conner, adapted from Kubler-Ross’s Emotional Cycle of Loss: see “On Death and Dying”. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential - 37 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    38. 38. INDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNINGUnderstanding the emotional cycle can help us deal withthe change process Phase 1: • Honeymoon period Uniformed optimism – • Ideas look great on paper Certainty • All major obstacles appear to have been anticipated Phase 2: • Problems surface, not all solutions are obvious Informed pessimism – • Morale drops (“Why did I ever get involved in the first place?”) Doubt • A turning point occurs, a sense of accomplishment replaces a sense Phase 3: of pushing against problems Hopeful realism – Hope • Problems have not all disappeared, but people’s hopes are based on realistic data Phase 4: • Optimism continues to develop Informed optimism – • A fresh burst of energy appears Confidence Phase 5: • Successful change has been made Rewarding completion – • Official change effort is complete Satisfaction • The outcome is frequently much different from that anticipated in Phase 1 Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential V-O - 38 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    39. 39. INDIVIDUAL CHANGE AND LEARNINGWe can help people to change by responding appropriatelyto their current state• People in contentment or denial are not frozen: –Events will move them soon enough; little can be done to hasten the day; rational problem-solving will delay it. –Make presence felt and accepted by acting appropriately; support their right to stay there as long as they wish.• To mobilise energy, we need to work with people in confusion or renewal: –Seeds of success are sown in confusion and sprout in renewal.• To get past resistance, people have to express it out loud.• Letting go of the past is a pre-condition for moving forward: –Letting go happens in its own time.• The urge to hold on is to protect sense of identity, certainty, meaning: –No unfreezing techniques are likely to help. –Realistic patience and a sense of an appropriate time. –Scale must underlie and guide the change process itself• Any task may shake people into denial; respond by keeping talking and waiting it out.• People need support when in anxiety, not admonitions to hurry up and change faster.Source: Marvin Weisbord: op cit. Gemini Consulting GmbH • Proprietary and Confidential V-O - 39 - GSW_Jan_v0.9
    40. 40. You cannot makeanybody change!
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