The coaching process follows the PLAN - DO - REVIEW model. Keep in mind that the model also suggests that the time allotment is 40 - 20 - 40.; 40%=planning, 20%=doing, and 40%=reviewing. The following panels go through these phases in more detail.
The general strategy and approach for any coaching session should begin with a thorough analysis of the situation. While the actual content of the session may vary depending on the circumstances, the preparation phase is always the same. It centers on the questions listed above. Point out to the class that it is better to deal with a limited range of behaviors (preferably 1-3 separate behaviors) in any one session. Trying to get someone to change too much at one time can be confusing.
The following questions can serve as guidelines in preparing for a coaching session. Take a few minutes for participants to read each bullet to themselves. Ask if anything
There are five steps involved in actually conducting the coaching session. The aim of coaching is to work with the individual to help them put forth their best effort in achieving results. Following these steps will help in achieving that objective significantly. The following panels discuss each of these steps in more detail.
It is important that the proper tone gets set at the beginning of the session. The client will tend to be apprehensive about going through the process. This apprehension will make it very difficult for a good exchange to take place. Therefore, the coach should try to make the situation more comfortable. This may be done by commenting on the person’s interests or hobbies. This should not be overdone because the client may feel like they have been “set up,” only to be “zapped” later in the conversation. This is particularly true if the client is somewhat defensive about the behaviors being discussed. The transition to coaching should be done in as non-threatening a way as possible. Refer back to trust formula—this ties in closely with I factor (intimacy). Draw upon personal issues of individual (health, family, etc.).
An important part of making and keeping the coaching session comfortable is to clearly establish expectations. Establish at the beginning how long the session will last. Be sensitive to the client’s schedule. If there is not enough time to conduct the session properly, reschedule for another time. Once the time contract is established, honor it. You should talk about why the session is being held—this will come out of your up front preparation. Make sure that the client agrees with the need for the session. If there are any issues, work them before you go any further. Make sure that both your expectations and those of the client are communicated. At the end of the session, it is helpful to go back and review the expectations to see that they have all been met.
There is always something good that can be found in almost any situation. Identify strengths as well as coaching opportunities in preparing to give feedback. Strengths should also be given in behavioral language and as explicit as possible. “You did a good job” isn’t exactly something the individual can draw upon. It is important to emphasize that coaching isn’t just reviewing performance with the client. It needs to be open and honest, two-way communication. The coach needs to be a good listener so that he or she can pick up on and understand what the client is trying to communicate—both what is said and what is not said. Emphasize the need to use active listening techniques. Be specific.
The action plan focuses on changing behaviors and is critical to the change process. Solicit feedback and test for understanding, also, offer support. The action plan should be as specific as possible and should specify actions to specific behaviors. These actions should be things that can be completed in a reasonable amount of time. It is important that each action be clearly
Positive reinforcement is key. Don’t assume that it will occur automatically if not supported. Some key points to address during reinforcement: The benefit to the individual. The benefit to the organization. The consequences of not implementing the action plan—both to the organization and the individual.
To further assess the success of a session, ask yourself if you: Focused on behavior, not personality or what you perceived to be an “underlying attitude.” Listed and tried to understand the other person’s opinion. Described and explained fully and specifically what you thought the person needed to do. Maximized the person’s participation in determining the outcome. Focused on small, manageable pieces of behavior change. Assured commitment to the action plan. Gave the person most of the responsibility for implementation of the action plan. Set up a communication plan until the action plan activities are completed. It is essential to follow up on the implementation of the action plan frequently to ensure that the client is not encountering unexpected difficulties or has slipped back into old behavior patterns.
Some helpful hints to follow when preparing ourselves for conducting a successful coaching session. Although we may be focused on the message we need to deliver, don’t loose sight of the fact that the most important attribute in coaching is the ability to LISTEN. Agreement on the action to be taken is the desired outcome.
Coach v2 gsw
Coaching for ResultsGemini Skills WorkshopApril 1998
Contents1. Creating the Environment2. Intervention Styles Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential -2- Coaching v2.ppt
Approach each coaching intervention systematically PLAN • Prepare and analyze Before the Session • Set the climate • Set expectations DO • Give and get feedback During the Session • Develop an action plan • Reinforce behaviors REVIEW • Assess and follow-up After the Session But remember, sometimes a timely coaching intervention can appear unexpectedly and you will not have the opportunity to plan it. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential -4- Coaching v2.ppt
Plan: Preparing for Coaching• What is the behavior you think needs changing or strengthening?• Is this my problem or the client’s?• What is the behavior (goal) you want?• Is the problem one of knowledge or willingness or both?• What resistance/reaction is likely?• What is my Action Plan — How will I make it ours? Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential -5- Coaching v2.ppt
Plan: Issues to Consider before Coaching• Is the behavior in question a “high impact” behavior? To the entire team, or just me?• Is my focus on the behavior exhibited, or an assumption I have about the cause?• What do I expect to accomplish from the session?• How do I feel about the person? Are my perceptions overly critical or too soft?• What information should I use in preparation? Do I have examples?• What are the benefits for the individual, from their point of view, for altering the behavior?• What specific actions have I developed for the action plan?• What approach is likely to get the most cooperation from the person?• Have I made plans to involve them, get their ideas, for how to resolve the problem?• Have I allocated enough time? Is the location appropriate? Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential -6- Coaching v2.ppt
Do: Conducting the Coaching Session• Set the climate• Set expectations• Get/give feedback• Develop the action plan• Reinforce Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential -7- Coaching v2.ppt
Do: Set the Climate• Open the coaching session with casual conversation• Get the person to relax and talk freely• Transition to coaching through focus on what has been done so far Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential -8- Coaching v2.ppt
Do: Set ExpectationsExplain:• How long session will last• Why you are holding the session• What the desired outcome is: – What do you wish to achieve? – What does the other person expect from the session? Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential -9- Coaching v2.ppt
Do: Get and Give Feedback Strengths Opportunities• Invite the person to summarize • Invite the person to summarize skills his/her strengths not currently performed well. Objective is to gain acknowledgment of areas where coaching is needed.• Clearly support the self-assessment • Clearly support the self-assessment of those you consider real strengths of those you consider real• Get further clarification on those • Get further clarification on those behaviors you do not consider real behaviors you do not consider real strengths opportunities.• Identify other strengths that the • Identify additional needs the person person has overlooked. Cite may have overlooked or avoided. specific examples Cite specific examples. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 10 - Coaching v2.ppt
Do: Develop the Action Plan• Identify the strengths noted• List activities to maintain strengths, milestones and goals• Identify the needs noted• List activities to develop needs, milestones and goals• Outline the resources needed• Agree on the plan as a joint commitment Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 11 - Coaching v2.ppt
Do: Reinforce• Summarize the Action Plan• Check for mutual understanding on key elements• Build mutual confidence that we can make it happen Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 12 - Coaching v2.ppt
Review: Assess the Session and Follow-Up• Ask yourself: – Did the session achieve the objectives? – What went well? – If I had to do it again, what changes would I make in my approach?• What follow-up coaching is required?• What is my role in the Action Plan?• When do I need to follow-up? Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 13 - Coaching v2.ppt
There are four key intervention styles that we candeploy• Acceptant• Catalytic• Confrontational• Prescriptive Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 15 - Coaching v2.ppt
We can use the acceptant style when . . . A client’s feelings about a situation, a problem, other people or themselves are blocking their ability to move forward Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 16 - Coaching v2.ppt
It is underpinned by two assumptions• The client is prevented from coming to terms with the problem or cannot find a way forward because of their feelings• The client has sufficient resources to find their own way forward once the feelings have been acknowledged and resolved Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 17 - Coaching v2.ppt
Using the acceptant style• Adopt an open, non-threatening body posture and use direct non- challenging eye contact• Smile and nod acceptance of client’s descriptions of their situation; use positive verbal signals (“uh-huh” etc)• Paraphrase/summarise what the client is saying to you• Encourage clients to say more• Encourage clients to express their thoughts and their feelings about the situation. Give clients ‘permission’ to explore their feelings• Use silence to allow clients time to think and articulate how they are feeling• Do not discuss or apply any value judgements to the ‘content’ of the client’s problem• Accept that the client’s initial definition of the problem is not necessarily the real problem. Start from where the client is and allow them to explore and redefine their problem. All diagnoses are made by the client. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 18 - Coaching v2.ppt
Above all listen at three levels1. What is the client saying?2. What is the client not saying?3. What is it that the client cannot bring himself/herself to say? Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 19 - Coaching v2.ppt
We can use the catalytic style when . . . Clients do not have enough relevant data to make a decision about change or they have so much data they are overwhelmed and can’t distinguish the essentials Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 20 - Coaching v2.ppt
The catalytic style relies on some key assumptions• That the clients want to solve the problem and are capable of exploring various aspects of it with help• That either additional data, or more structured data, will have a significant impact on client perception of the situation. And, as a result of this change of perception, clients will be able to decide on an appropriate course of action• There is sufficient data within the client system to make a decision although it may currently be difficult to access or interpret• There will be greater client commitment to a decision if it is owned by them. It is essential that the clients make their own decisions based on the data Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 21 - Coaching v2.ppt
How do I use the catalytic style?• Use open questions to encourage clients to describe their situation - but also accept the client’s perspective as the legitimate start point• Use ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘where’, ‘when’, ‘how’ questions to help clients explore the situation for themselves• Only use ‘why’ questions sparingly otherwise it will create an interrogatory atmosphere• Sometimes suggest data-gathering methodologies in order to collect more information about the situation - however, such suggestions should be made tentatively: the client should be allowed to develop their data-gathering approach wherever possible• Encourage clients to make their own decisions - do not allow yourself to be drawn into making the decision for them. Equally, do not offer your opinion on which decision is best Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 22 - Coaching v2.ppt
Above all . . . Do not hide a prescriptive suggestion behind a supposedly catalytic question e.g., “Have you tried...?” or “Would it be useful if...?” Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 23 - Coaching v2.ppt
We can use the confrontational style . . .• In situations where the clients are part of the problem and there are discrepancies between what they say they do (or think) and what they actually do (or think) in practice.• To highlight the implications of a client continuing with a current behaviour pattern• To point out the impact a client is having on you Confrontation does not involve blame or judgement. It objectively highlights the gap between what clients said they were going to do and what they actually did. The choice of what to do about the discrepancy remains with the client. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 24 - Coaching v2.ppt
The assumptions underlying the use of theconfrontational style are . . .• The client’s values, beliefs and behaviour are part of the problem that you are trying to resolve• The clients do not have insight into (or choose to ignore) discrepancies between their proclaimed values and their actual behaviour and its impact• If the discrepancies in behaviour are addressed the clients will have sufficient resources of their own to find a solution or satisfactory way forward• The clients have sufficient emotional resilience to undertake an examination of their behaviour and values and will be able to deal with the feelings likely to arise Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 25 - Coaching v2.ppt
How do I use a confrontational style• Point out discrepancies between what they think they do and what they actually do• Point out the implications of continuing with current behaviour• Confront clients with your own feelings about their behaviour• Use direct questions that help the client towards awareness and honesty• Present facts, counter-arguments and logic to help clients test their objectivity• Help clients examine any implications which could arise as a result of their behaviour• Present alternative frames of reference for clients to consider• Towards the end of the confrontation, summarise any decision(s) that have been taken Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 26 - Coaching v2.ppt
But above all . . .• Be ready for an adverse reaction from the client (denial, counter- accusations, anger, justification, displacement, blame etc)• Choose the right time to confront• Follow up to address any client feelings of hurt, loss of self image• Be prepared for the client to make an inappropriate decision about how to resolve the problem you have highlighted Apply the principles of giving and receiving good feed-back. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 27 - Coaching v2.ppt
We can use the prescriptive style when . . .• The client genuinely does not know what to do or does not possess the relevant skills to find a satisfactory solution to the problem• The situation is critical and requires rapid action Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 28 - Coaching v2.ppt
There are four assumptions underlying the style• The consultant is an expert in a specialism appropriate to the client’s problem and is able to give sound advice• The consultant will be able to provide a satisfactory solution to the problem• The client will comply with and carry out the prescription• The client simply wants the problem alleviated and is happy to hand over all control and responsibility to the consultant Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 29 - Coaching v2.ppt
How do I use the prescriptive style• Use a professional approach probably devoid of social/personal niceties• Conduct a probing diagnostic investigation to determine what you need to know about the situation• Listen to the clients but with a view to diagnosing the problem and offering a solution• Take control of the intervention by telling clients directly how you perceive the problem or situation• Give expert advice- prescribe the ‘best’ solution or set of actions for the client to follow• Describe your solutions with confidence and authority and, if necessary, offer to supervise implementation Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 30 - Coaching v2.ppt
Above all . . .• Ensure that the client will really be receptive to this approach• Ensure that the problem lies fully within your field of expert competence - remember that you will be held fully accountable for any solutions you prescribe Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 31 - Coaching v2.ppt
In summary, coaching has a number of key dimensions• Coaching, or client-centred consulting, is an ongoing process not a sequence of isolated events• As individual consultants we must build trust with our clients using all the steps in the process from initial contact to disengagement• We must think through, carefully plan and review our coaching interventions• We must be prepared to use the full range of intervention styles and know when to switch between them• We must, at all times, have the highest standards of personal ethics in our individual relationships with our client — always have their best interests at heart• We must be open to coaching ourselves Above all never forget that an intimate relationship with a client is a privilege and that clients (and consultants) are human beings who have the right to be treated with respect. Gemini Consulting Limited • Proprietary and Confidential - 32 - Coaching v2.ppt