Power

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Power

  1. 1. POWERS Kunto Adi Wibowo
  2. 2. Kekuasaan• Ilmuwan politik mendefinisikan kekuasaan sebagai “kemampuan untuk mempengaruhi perilaku orang lain tanpa atau dengan perlawanan• Kajian kekuasaan ada di ranah politik dimana semua usaha untuk mendapatkan, menggunakan dan mempertahankan kekuasaan.• Kekuasaan dilawankan dengan kehendak (will), sebagai faktor utama kehendak yang lain menjadi subjeknya.
  3. 3. Teori Kekuasaan• Nicollò Machiavelli (The Prince) awal abad ke-16• Machiavelli represents the strategic and decentralized thinking about power and organization. He sees power as a means, not a resource, and seeks strategic advantages, such as military ones, between his prince and others. an understandable interest in power.
  4. 4. Teori Kekuasaan• Thomas Hobbes (Leviathan) abad ke-17• Power, in Hobbes, is centralized and focused on Sovereignty. Here exists a total political community, the embodiment of which is the state, or the community, or the society. This is a single unit, ordered according to a uniform principle, possessing a continuity of time and place, from which the power stems.
  5. 5. Teori Kekuasaan• Max Weber (1947)• He defined power as the probability that an actor within a social relationship would be in a position to carry out his will despite resistance to it. The activation of power is dependent on a person’s will, even in opposition to someone else’s.• Weber was interested in power as a factor of domination, based on economic or authoritarian interests. He historically researched the sources of the formal authority that activates legitimate power, and identified three sources of legitimation, or accordance of social permission, for the activation of power: the charismatic, the traditional, and the rational-legal.• the organizational power of the bureaucracy as the source of the mechanization and routinization of human life, and as a threat to the freedom of the human spirit.
  6. 6. Teori Kekuasaan• Dahl (1961) theory of community power• Power is exercised in a community by a particular concrete individual, while other individuals, also actual, are prevented from doing what they prefer to do.• Power is exercised in order to cause those who are subject to it to follow the private preferences of those who possess the power.• Power is the production of obedience to the preferences of others, including an expansion of the preferences of those subject to it so as to include those preferences• Power as the ability to make somebody do something that otherwise he or she would not have done.
  7. 7. Kekuasaan dan agensi• Kekuasaan adalah komponen dasar dari agensi manusia. Kekuasaan adalah kemampuan manusia untuk mengintervensi sebuah kejadian dan membuat perbedaan• Kekuasaan tak terpisahkan dari interaksi sosial di level mikro• Ketidakseimbangan hadir dalam kemampuan manusia dan akses terhadap sumber daya merupakan konsep kunci dalam memahami kekuasaan seperti apa yang dapat dilakukan oleh manusia• Kekuasaan dapat dipahami dalam derajat kebebasan dan ketergantungan• Kekuasaan adalah proses, intervensi diantara ketegangan agen dan struktur
  8. 8. Sumber kekuasaan• Otoritas delegatif (demokrasi)• Kelas Sosial (kekayaan sama dengan kekuasaan)• Nilai sumber daya (nilai material sepert uang dan properti)• Karisma personal atau kelompok• Terberi (persepsi atas kemampuan yang diasumsikan dimiliki)• Keahlian (kemampuan, Keterampilan)• Persuasi (langsung, tidak langsung,atau subliminal)• Pengetahuan (terberi, dibagikan atau disimpan)• Selebritas• Kekuatan (kekerasan, koersi).• Persuasi moral (termasuk agama)• Bekerjanya dinamika kelompok• Pengaruh sosial atau tradisi• Dalam sebuah hubungan: dominasi/penghambaan
  9. 9. Kekuasaan dan Legitimasi• Rasionalisasi kekuasaan (Habermas)• Kekuasaan bersumber dari kekuatan• Kekuasaan bersumber dari keturunan (Tuhan)• Kekuasaan dari keahlian (teknokrasi)• Kekuasaan dari popularitas (demokrasi)
  10. 10. Kekuasaan vs Kuasa• Kekuasaan bersifat represif, melarang, menghambat kehendak• Kuasa bersifat produktif, strategis, dan relasional• If power was never anything but repressive, if it never did anything but say no, do you really believe that we should manage to obey it?
  11. 11. Kuasa• power is not a thing but a relation• power is not simply repressive but it is productive• power is not simply a property of the State. Power is not something that is exclusively localized in government and the State (which is not a universal essence). Rather, power is exercised throughout the social body.• power operates at the most micro levels of social relations. Power is omnipresent at every level of the social body.• the exercise of power is strategic and war-like
  12. 12. Foucault• Power is the process of keeping things going, it is not a thing, in the way fuel or electricity is.• Power is a relation between forces, or rather every relation between forces is a power relation• Force is never singular but essentially exists in relation with other forces, such that any force is already a relation, that is to say power: force has no other subject or object than force.• It is an action upon an action• Power, then, is not essentially repressive; it is not possessed, but is practiced. Power is not the prerogative of masters, but passes through every force. We should think of power not as an attribute (and ask What is it?), but as an exercise (and ask How does it work?).
  13. 13. Panopticon (kuasa/pengetahuan)
  14. 14. Kuasa dan Subjeksi• Fokus pada teknik atau bentukan kuasa yang membentuk subjek: – Subjek untuk orang lain dengan kontrol dan ketergantungan – Subjek yang terikat pada identitasnya sendiri dengan kesadaran atau pengetahuan diri.

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