:: media studies :: lecture #08 twitter: @wowoxarc firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
active audience Different audiences can understand a media message but can have different responses to it. Some people believe and accept the message, others reject it using knowledge from their own experience or can use processes of logic or other rationales to criticize what is being said (Miller and Philo, 2001)
Uses and Gratification 1948, Lasswell suggests media texts have the functions of surveillance, correlation, entertainment and cultural transmission 1974, Blulmer and Katz expand the theory, state individuals choose and use a text for the purpose of diversion, personal relationships, personal identity and surveillance.
Uses and Gratification attempts to explain the uses and functions of the media for individuals, groups, and society to explain how individuals use mass communication to gratify their needs. “What do people do with the media”. to discover underlying motives for individuals’ media use. to identify the positive and the negative consequences of individual media use.
Obstinate Audience Theory Obstinate Audience Theory --Raymond A. Bauer “one-way influence” “transactional model” Bauer-Eberhart Study --Audience can filter out, distort or fail to recognize perceptual events which do not fit their points of view
Obstinate Audience Theory Zimmerman-Bauer Study --Audience plays a large part in influencing the message Advertising Study --People who like advertising found ads enjoyable while people who don’t like advertising found ads annoying and offensive
cultural studies British sociologist Stuart Hall proposed a model of mass communication which highlighted the importance of active interpretation within relevant codes. Stuart Hall stressed the role of social positioning in the interpretation of mass media texts by different social groups.
resistance Audiences offer resistance against existing meanings by creating their own meanings Media is a “cultural battlefield” of resistance, incorporation, hegemony, and oppression (Van Bauwel, 2006)
model of resistance in the media structure passive resistance practicesofpower incorporation active agency
resistance and active audience Concept of “resistance” influenced by Marxism Media producers and consumers should have co-equal role in interpreting texts Active audience theory has received harsh criticism, in part because it seems to suggest moral relativism If every meaning is up for negotiation, there are no absolute meanings – and no universal truths Can truth be “constructed”?