Media studies salman3


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Media studies salman3

  1. 1. :: media studies ::<br />lecture #03<br /> twitter: @wowoxarc<br /> or <br />
  2. 2. class and ideology<br />The ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas, i.e. the class which is the ruling material force of society, is at the same time its ruling intellectual force. <br />
  3. 3. class and ideology<br />The class which has the means of material production at its disposal, has control at the same time over the means of mental production, so that thereby, generally speaking, the ideas of those who lack the means of mental production are subject to it (Marx, German Ideology)<br />
  4. 4. society assumption<br />
  5. 5. media assumptions<br />Mass media owned by bourgeois class<br />Media operated in their class interest<br />Media promote working-class false consciousness<br />Media access denied to political opposition<br />
  6. 6. media assumption <br />the media are seen as part of an ideological arena in which various class views are fought out, although within the context of the dominance of certain classes <br />ultimate control is increasingly concentrated in monopoly capital <br />media professionals, while enjoying the illusion of autonomy, are socialized into and internalize the norms of the dominant culture <br />
  7. 7. media assumption <br />the media taken as a whole, relay interpretive frameworks consonant with the interests of the dominant classes <br />and media audiences, while sometimes negotiating and contesting these frameworks, lack ready access to alternative meaning systems that would enable them to reject the definitions offered by the media <br />
  8. 8. pluralist vsmarxist<br />Pluralist<br /><ul><li>Societal: competing interest and groups
  9. 9. Media: many and independent each other
  10. 10. Production: creative, free, original
  11. 11. Content: diverse and competing, responsive to audience demand</li></ul>Marxist<br /><ul><li>Societal: ruling class or elite
  12. 12. Uniform and under concentrated ownership
  13. 13. Standardized, routinized, controlled
  14. 14. Selective and decided from ‘above’</li></li></ul><li>pluralist vsmarxist<br />Pluralist<br /><ul><li>Professionals: independence and autonomous
  15. 15. Audience: fragmented, selective, reactive & active
  16. 16. Effects: numerous without consistency or predictability of direction, but often no effect
  17. 17. Keywords:democracy, liberalism</li></ul>Marxist<br /><ul><li>illusion of autonomy, socialized into and internalize the norms of the dominant culture
  18. 18. Dependent, passive, organized on large scale, lack of access
  19. 19. Strong and confirmative of established social order
  20. 20. Keywords: domination</li></li></ul><li>“quote”<br />“Bahwaketidakadilandarikapitalismeharusdirubahdanduniaseharusnyamenjaditempat yang lebihbaikjikakitadapatmerubahnya”(Fiske, 1994)<br />
  21. 21. karakteristikperspektifmarxis<br />media sebagaialatproduksi<br />semata-matamenyebarkanidedanpandangankelasberkuasasertamenolakataumenjinakkanide-idealternatif<br />berfungsimemproduksi ‘kesadaranpalsu’ kelaspekerja. <br />memproduksiekspresitunggalygmengabaikankemungkinanpembacaanoposisionaldariaudiens<br />
  22. 22. karakteristikperspektifmarxis<br />ideology<br />posisiideologismerupakanfungsiposisikelas, danideologidominandimasyarakatadalahideologidarikelasygdominan<br />kesadaranpalsubagikelasmarjinal<br />
  23. 23. karakteristikperspektifmarxis<br />penguatdominasi<br />institusi media terkuncididalamstrukturkekuasaan<br />media bertindaksebagai tandem dariinstitusidominandimasyarakat<br />mereproduksipandangandominansebagaipusat, jelas, dan natural<br />
  24. 24. karakteristikperspektifmarxis<br />pembentukansubjek<br />pembentukansubjekdenganmemalsukankondisieksistensimereka<br />individudibentuksebagaipembawasuatuposisimelaluiefekrelasisosial<br />
  25. 25. pendekatanmarxis/kritis<br />structuralist approach - where the emphasis is on the 'internal articulation of the signifying systems of the media' <br />
  26. 26. pendekatanmarxis/kritis<br />political economy approach - who see the power of the media as located in the economic processes underlying media production. <br />
  27. 27. pendekatanmarxis/kritis<br />culturalist approachemphasizes the actual experience of sub-groups in society and contextualizes the media within a society which is seen as 'a complex expressive totality<br />