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:: media studies :: lecture #02 twitter: @wowoxarc email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
perspektifsosiologis media media beradadidalammasyarakat media membentukdandibentukolehmasyarakat peran, fungsidanstruktur media didalammasyarakat konsekuensipandangan ideal masyarakatterhadap media
teorinormatif media The Authoritarian Theory pemerintahotoriter, media tunduk The Libertarian Theory masyarakatbebas, media bebas The Soviet Theory Melayanikelaspekerja/partai, media semi otonom The Social Responsibility Theory informativeness, truth, accuracy, objectivity, and balance
pluralist-liberal View asumsiumum The diversity of interests gives balance and strength to society The power of groups is roughly equal The government acts as an impartial referee Political life is independent from economic life The exercise of power is visible
pluralist-liberal view asumsi media Media help to give voice to all views and to provide a forum for public debate. Media provide the information necessary for citizens to act. Media are independent of the power of economics and government. Media serve as an independent institution keeping watch over self-serving government and excessive influence of special interest groups.
pluralist-liberal view Media organizations are seen as bounded organizational systems, enjoying an important degree of autonomy from the state, political parties and institutionalised pressure groups autonomous managerial élite who allow a considerable degree of flexibility to media professionals Audiences are seen as capable of manipulating the media in an infinite variety of ways according to their prior needs and dispositions Curran and Gurevitch (1982)
pluralist-liberal practices in Europe: the wide range of media products available, including some which are required by the government to cater for minority tastes deregulation of broadcasting systems, encouraged by governments throughout Europe the relative independence of journalists journalists' resistance to political pressure when they are subjected to it the independence of many media organs from big conglomerates
pluralist-liberal practices In USA The assumption underlying the pluralist view in American research was that there was a broad consensus on social norms and that the media largely reflected and reinforced those norms
the model Media is seen as an arena of competing groups and interest, yet relatively autonomous from them
media roles in society Fourth Estate Watchdog The Guardians of Democracy The Defender of the Public Interest
Discussion What do you think about general assumption of Pluralist view? Is there any weakness or far from reality or practices? How do you think those assumptions relate to the assumptions of media view from pluralist? Explain the consequences from every single interests in pluralist model
resume Societal: competing interest and groups Media: many and independent each other Production: creative, free, original Content: diverse and competing, responsive to audience demand
resume Professionals: independence and outonomous Audience: fragmented, selective, reactive & active Effects: numerous without consistency or predictability of direction, but often no effect Keywords:democracy, liberalism