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Foucault Discourse

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  • 1. Foucault: Analisis Arkeologi S Kunto Adi Wibowo @wowoxarc
  • 2. (ke)Budaya(an) dan (ke)Sejarah(an)
  • 3. The history ofpresent:menggunakansejarah sebagaisalah satu alatdiagnostik untukproblem masa kini(present)There is no such astotal history
  • 4. 1. Kontingensi: peristiwa dan pemikiran terjadi secara acak dan terdapat kecelakaan sejarah2. Skeptis terhadap semua klaim politis (ahistoris)
  • 5. 1. Mencari deskripsi keteraturan, perbedaan, dan transformasi (non-interpretif)2. Menghindari pencarian penulis (orisinalitas) dan berkonsentrasi pada pernyataan/praktik (non-antropologis)
  • 6. Discourse• Seperangkat pernyataan yang teratur dan sistematis (non-linguistik) – Identifikasi aturan produksi pernyataan – Identifikasi aturan yang membatasi apa yang bisa dikatakan – Identifikasi aturan yang membentuk ruang dimana penyataan baru bisa dibuat – Identifikasi aturan yang menjamin bahwa sebuah praktik bersifat material dan diskursif secara bersamaan
  • 7. Knowledge• The knowledge used ranges from very simple, informal knowledge to very complex, formal knowledge and the range includes knowledge called rational, within modern social sciences, and knowledge called irrational.
  • 8. Kekuasaan vs Kuasa• Kekuasaan bersifat represif, melarang, menghambat kehendak• Kuasa bersifat produktif, strategis, dan relasional• If power was never anything but repressive, if it never did anything but say no, do you really believe that we should manage to obey it?
  • 9. Kuasa• power is not a thing but a relation• power is not simply repressive but it is productive• power is not simply a property of the State. Power is not something that is exclusively localized in government and the State (which is not a universal essence). Rather, power is exercised throughout the social body.• power operates at the most micro levels of social relations. Power is omnipresent at every level of the social body.• the exercise of power is strategic and war-like
  • 10. Foucault• Power is the process of keeping things going, it is not a thing, in the way fuel or electricity is.• Power is a relation between forces, or rather every relation between forces is a power relation• Force is never singular but essentially exists in relation with other forces, such that any force is already a relation, that is to say power: force has no other subject or object than force.• It is an action upon an action• Power, then, is not essentially repressive; it is not possessed, but is practiced. Power is not the prerogative of masters, but passes through every force. We should think of power not as an attribute (and ask What is it?), but as an exercise (and ask How does it work?).
  • 11. Wacana Etnis
  • 12. • ”Bila Saudara mengamati, di Jawa Barat ternyata sulit atau tidak dapat dijumpai jalan yang bernama Jalan Gajah Mada dan Jalan Hayam Wuruk. Harap Saudara kemukakan apa sebabnya. Apa yang Saudara ketahui tentang Pasundan Bubat?” (Orang Sunda Mencari Jatidiri : Pikiran Rakyat, 20-06-2006)
  • 13. Jono de Barros (1615)Pulau Jawa dipisahkan oleh sungai Chiamo (cimanuk)
  • 14. • The inhabitant are not very warlike, much addicted to their idolatries, and hate the Mahomedans, and particularly since they were conquered by the Sangue Pati Dama” (Jono de Barros dalam Raffles, 1830 (1817); xv-xvii)
  • 15. • Tanahnya sangat kaya. Emas murni seberat 6 karat, telah ditemukan…terutama masalah produksi pulau ini, dimana lebih dari tiga puluh ribu kuintal lada dipanen tiap tahunnya. (Jono de Barros dalam Raffles, 1830 (1817); xv-xvii)
  • 16. • ”...The Sundas exhibit many features of a mountainous race. They are shorter, stouter, hardier and more active men, than the inhabitant of the coast and eastern district. In some respect they resemble the Madurese, who display a more martial and independent air, and move with bolder carriage than the natives of Java” (Raffles, 1830 (1817); 67)
  • 17. Tujuan analisis• Wacana memberikan kategori-kategori pengetahuan tententu• Problematisasi common sense tentang sebuah wacana.• Desubjeksi: menghindari pembentukan subjek kita dari wacana
  • 18. Hatur nuhun