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presentation of accepted paper 'Urban Tissue, representation of Urban Energy Potential'

presentation of accepted paper 'Urban Tissue, representation of Urban Energy Potential'

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  • Exergy-wise: low vs high quality energy; energy-demand also in terms of low vs high

PLEA conference 2008, Dublin PLEA conference 2008, Dublin Presentation Transcript

  • Urban Tissue – visualising urban energy demand and supply potential Drs. Wouter Leduc MSc Urban Environment Group, Wageningen University, The Netherlands SREX Project – Synergy between spatial planning and exergy URBAN ENERGY
  • Outline
    • Theory
    • Research approach
    • Research: Urban Tissue, demand & supply
    • Results
    • Case study: Urban Parkstad (NL)
    • Conclusions & further research
  • Theory: eXergy
    • Energy can never be lost (thermodynamics)  total quantity remains
    • eXergy = quality of energy  same amount of energy, with different qualities, used more often
    • Applied eXergy definition:
      • Using unused energy sources & search for useful applications (Gommans & Dobbelsteen, 2007)
      • Urban system = enormous reservoir of unused energy sources
        • Energy in form of wind, heat, solar radiation, geothermal potential
        • Waste, waste heat
        • Roads and buildings
        • More effective, or unused, labour; unused capacities in space and transport
  • Theory: Energy cascading 1. power plant 2. industry 3. greenhouses 4. offices 5. residential areas heat exchange waste exchange electricity exchange Dobbelsteen et al., 2006
  • Theory: Trias Energetica Ecofys, 2006
  • Research approach
    • Study unused energy sources (exergy), in- + output energy flows, energy demand in urban system
    Flows in Flows out Flows through Recycling
  • Research approach: Urban energy potential
  • Research: urban tissue
    • First impression of energy demand and supply potential of certain area  standard hectare = an average tissue  easy to grasp visualisation
      • Total Dutch surface: 4,150,000 ha; urban area: 507,020 ha
      • Dutch urban area = 12 % of country, urban density = 13.5 inh/Uha
    Dutch average urban tissue - 1 ha
    • Consumption standard ha:
      • Electricity = ~45,000 kWh
      • Heat households = ~1,000 GJ
  • Potential
  • Results: unused urban energy sources
    • Roads: ~1,500 m 2 at urban tissue
        • Peltier-elements: yield = 25 kWh e /m 2 .y
        • Heat and cold: 0.67 GJ/m 2 .y + 0.21 GJ/m 2 .y
        • elec: ~37,500 kWh,
        • heat: ~1,000 GJ and cold: ~320 GJ
    URBAN ENERGY
  • Results: unused urban energy sources Waste and biomass 1 kg = 5.3 MJ 1 kg = 10.2 MJ 1 kg = 3.4 MJ 1 kg = 0.6 kWh Conversion 7,440 MJ 730 Wood residues 3,640 MJ 1,070 Green household waste 2,800 MJ 2,330 kWh Total yield/Uha 530 3,890 kg/Uha Park maintenance Household waste
  • Case study: Urban Parkstad URBAN ENERGY
  • Case study: Urban Parkstad
    • Parkstad = urban with green areas
    • Total surface = 10,965 ha
    • Urban surface = 6,895 ha (63 %)
    • Urban density = 19.1 inh/Uha
    URBAN ENERGY 1,500 900 Roads 520 900 Park, other green area 1,400 1,100 Business area 130 230 Retail, hotel, catering 300 350 Social/cult. area 4,400 4,900 Residential area m²/ha m²/ha Dutch Parkstad Urban functions
  • Case study: Urban Parkstad Waste, biomass
    • Road potential:
    • Electricity = ~22,500 kWh vs. ~37,500 kWh
    • heat = ~600 GJ, cold = ~190 GJ vs. ~1,000 GJ & ~320 GJ
    10,330 7,440 Wood residues MJ 5,520 3,640 Green household waste MJ 4,050 3,350 Parkstad yield 2,800 2,330 Dutch yield Park maintenance MJ Household Waste kWh
  • Conclusions
    • Urban tissue  helpful to visualise energy demand and supply potential, linked to spatial distribution
    • Yield of unused urban energy sources (= energy supply potential) can fulfil parts of total demand
    • Quick scan of urban area  quick insight in urban functions, energy sinks and sources
    URBAN ENERGY
  • Further research
    • Coupling urban energy demand and supply
    • Study more cases
    • Planning aspects
    • GIS applications
  • Questions? www.exergieplanning.nl © Wageningen UR URBAN ENERGY