Exergy on urban scale - Exergy conference Paris

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Invited lecture at international exergy conference, Paris June 17th 2011: Exergy to define structure and quality of materials, energy and ecosystems

Invited lecture at international exergy conference, Paris June 17th 2011: Exergy to define structure and quality of materials, energy and ecosystems

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  • Regenerative energy systems addressing energy savings and assimilation of RE 23/06/11
  • Fraction available to perform work 23/06/11
  • EN & spatial planning: different language and scale; energy potentials not fully used; knowledge gap on regional scale; energy not (yet) integrated in spatial planning 23/06/11
  • Many problems in urban area, but also solutions available 23/06/11
  • 23/06/11 Coupling of energy producing greenhouses and ultra low-exergetic households; greenhouses produce excess heat during summer, stored underground via pumps; used in winter for heat demand dwellings and greenhouses  solar energy as sole energy source for space heating
  • Exergy = use remaining qualities to increase efficiency, to reach sustainable cities/regions 23/06/11

Transcript

  • 1. Exergy on urban scale Wouter Leduc Chair group Landscape Architecture (Wageningen University) RiBuilT – Built Environment & Regional Development (HS Zuyd) SREX -project: S ynergy between R egional Planning and Ex ergy Exergy Conference, Paris, June 17th 2011
  • 2. Content
    • Problem
    • How to tackle
    • Examples and Research results
    • Take home message
  • 3. Million barrels day oil equivalent Source: GENI, Global Energy Network Institute
  • 4. Problem
    • High energy consumption: built environment uses 40-50 % of total energy
    • Growing urbanization – more than 50% worldwide
    • High fossil fuel use  non-sustainable + non-efficient
    • Low or no interaction between urban functions (resources)
    • Lots of waste heat and emissions
  • 5. Sustainable energy transition
    • Gradual change from fossil fuels towards regenerative energy systems:
      • Energy savings
      • Assimilation of renewable energy
    • Optimal planning approach taking into account:
      • energy quality
      • secondary resources
    • Also see e.g. KNAW, 2007 Duurzaamheid duurt het langst: Onderzoeksuit-dagingen voor een duurzame energievoorziening (KNAW, Amsterdam)
  • 6. Exergy
    • Need for more efficient use of resources, less wasting
    • Therefore:
    • Use Exergy = non-used fraction of energy or other resource
    • i.e. use remaining, un-used qualities (Q):
      • Renewables
      • Residuals: Waste = residual resource
  • 7. SREX-research
    • Stimulate synergy between exergy and spatial planning on regional level
    • Using exergy as steering principle for development of generally applicable and sustainable spatial design principles
      • Case-study in NL
  • 8. Combining several options towards a sustainable region Titel presentatie? Combined heat Power Solar power Heat flows exchange Biomass Heat grid Planned heat grid
  • 9. (Stremke, 2010) Proposed heat cascade in Emmen-Noordbarge Source: Dobbelsteen et al., 2006 Source power plant industry greenhouses offices residential areas
  • 10. Parkstad Limburg
    • Interaction between urban functions  cascades
    • Local production
    • Exploit local potentials
    • Red = Multi-functional urban clusters
    • Black = trace/plan ring road
    (Van Kann, 2011)
  • 11. Regional scale: Samsoe, Denmark
    • District heating:
      • Straw bales
      • Wood chips burning
      • Solar heating system
    • Individual heating systems
    • Renewable electricity:
      • Land-based WT
      • Offshore WT
      • PV-cells
    • Savings
  • 12.  
  • 13. Towards sustainable cities - Strategy
    • Reduce consumption
    • Re-use waste energy streams ( exergy  remaining Q)
    • Use renewable energy sources and ensure waste is re-used as food (re-cycling, cascading)
    • Developed within REAP (Rotterdam Energy Approach and Planning), by Dobbelsteen et al., 200 9
    • At different spatial scales: city, district, neighborhood, (building)
  • 14. Towards sustainable cities - Research
    • City = reservoir of un-used or un-tapped energy qualities
    • Renewable
    • Residual
  • 15. Towards sustainable cities - Research Use of decision tree (Leduc, 2010)
  • 16. Using available space for renewable energy exploitation
  • 17. Biomass power plant Solar power Wind power Zero energy city
  • 18. Towards sustainable cities
    • Harvest available urban resources  circular metabolism
    • Increase self-sufficiency & decrease dependency
    • Local potentials and characteristics
    • Multi-functionality
    • Connectivity & proximity
    • Production back to city
    • Waste = remaining quality: by re-use, cascade
  • 19. Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm, Sweden Source: Hammarby Sjöstad
  • 20. Zonneterp Coupling of energy producing greenhouse and low-energy houses (Mels, Kristinsson, et al., 2005) Cooling and heating Water purification Tap water purification Energy from biogas
  • 21. Eva-Lanxmeer, Culemborg, NL Curitiba, Brasil Combine living and working, minimize and more efficient transport
  • 22. Vauban, Freiburg, Germany
  • 23.
    • 0-energy city possible (case Kerkrade-West): electricity, heating, transport fuels  self-sufficient and fossil fuel free
    • Limit demand: insulation, transport measures
    • Increase efficiency: efficient and green industry, cascade residual qualities
    • Massive exploitation of renewable qualities: PV and solar boilers on roofs, wind turbines (WT), biogas, biofuel (algae); and hydrogen (via WT) for high-temperature heat
    Results
  • 24.
    • Use exergy: to increase efficiency, to limit waste of qualities, to study and support interaction
    • City can provide large part of its energy demand, if local potentials are studied and applied (decision difficult)
    • Harvesting local renewable and residual resources crucial towards 0-energy cities
    Summary
  • 25.
    • Urban planning: towards 0-energy, 0-material and 0-water cities
    • NO qualities lost
    • Aim for integrated urban system
    • Harvest local resources + combine urban functions + combine urban flows
    Summary - integration
  • 26. Exergy as guiding principle for planning Urban systems integration (Agudelo, 2011)
  • 27. Take home message
    • City = reservoir of un-used, untapped resource qualities
    • No waste, but residual resources  waste = food
    • Demand reduction!!
    • Parameters: supply and demand (qualities and quantities), and spatial and temporal implications  integration
    • In the end: EXERGY
  • 28. Thanks to my colleagues
    • Paul Ramsak – NL Agency
    • Andy van den Dobbelsteen, Leo Gommans, Siebe Broersma – Delft University of Technology
    • Gert de Roo, Ferry Van Kann – University of Groningen
    • Jusuck Koh, Sven Stremke – Wageningen University
    • Ronald Rovers – Zuyd Professional University
    • Rob van der Krogt – TNO/Deltares
  • 29.
    • Publications
    • Stremke S. ‘Designing Sustainable Energy Landscapes – PhD-thesis (Wageningen University)
    • Gommans L. ‘Exergetic system optimalization on regional scale’ – PhD-thesis* (Delft University)
    • Van Kann F. ‘Energy and Spatial Planning, based on exergy’ – PhD-thesis* (University Groningen)
    • Leduc W. ‘Planning 0-energy cities using local energy sources’, in Rovers et al., Towards 0-Impact Buildings and Built Environments
    • In progress: book about project
    • See www.exergieplanning.n l for more publications and info
  • 30. Thanks for your attention Any questions? [email_address]