Exergy on urban scale - Exergy conference Paris


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Invited lecture at international exergy conference, Paris June 17th 2011: Exergy to define structure and quality of materials, energy and ecosystems

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  • Regenerative energy systems addressing energy savings and assimilation of RE 23/06/11
  • Fraction available to perform work 23/06/11
  • EN & spatial planning: different language and scale; energy potentials not fully used; knowledge gap on regional scale; energy not (yet) integrated in spatial planning 23/06/11
  • Many problems in urban area, but also solutions available 23/06/11
  • 23/06/11 Coupling of energy producing greenhouses and ultra low-exergetic households; greenhouses produce excess heat during summer, stored underground via pumps; used in winter for heat demand dwellings and greenhouses  solar energy as sole energy source for space heating
  • Exergy = use remaining qualities to increase efficiency, to reach sustainable cities/regions 23/06/11
  • Exergy on urban scale - Exergy conference Paris

    1. 1. Exergy on urban scale Wouter Leduc Chair group Landscape Architecture (Wageningen University) RiBuilT – Built Environment & Regional Development (HS Zuyd) SREX -project: S ynergy between R egional Planning and Ex ergy Exergy Conference, Paris, June 17th 2011
    2. 2. Content <ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><li>How to tackle </li></ul><ul><li>Examples and Research results </li></ul><ul><li>Take home message </li></ul>
    3. 3. Million barrels day oil equivalent Source: GENI, Global Energy Network Institute
    4. 4. Problem <ul><li>High energy consumption: built environment uses 40-50 % of total energy </li></ul><ul><li>Growing urbanization – more than 50% worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>High fossil fuel use  non-sustainable + non-efficient </li></ul><ul><li>Low or no interaction between urban functions (resources) </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of waste heat and emissions </li></ul>
    5. 5. Sustainable energy transition <ul><li>Gradual change from fossil fuels towards regenerative energy systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy savings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assimilation of renewable energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Optimal planning approach taking into account: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>energy quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secondary resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Also see e.g. KNAW, 2007 Duurzaamheid duurt het langst: Onderzoeksuit-dagingen voor een duurzame energievoorziening (KNAW, Amsterdam) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Exergy <ul><li>Need for more efficient use of resources, less wasting </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore: </li></ul><ul><li>Use Exergy = non-used fraction of energy or other resource </li></ul><ul><li>i.e. use remaining, un-used qualities (Q): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residuals: Waste = residual resource </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. SREX-research <ul><li>Stimulate synergy between exergy and spatial planning on regional level </li></ul><ul><li>Using exergy as steering principle for development of generally applicable and sustainable spatial design principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Case-study in NL </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Combining several options towards a sustainable region Titel presentatie? Combined heat Power Solar power Heat flows exchange Biomass Heat grid Planned heat grid
    9. 9. (Stremke, 2010) Proposed heat cascade in Emmen-Noordbarge Source: Dobbelsteen et al., 2006 Source power plant industry greenhouses offices residential areas
    10. 10. Parkstad Limburg <ul><li>Interaction between urban functions  cascades </li></ul><ul><li>Local production </li></ul><ul><li>Exploit local potentials </li></ul><ul><li>Red = Multi-functional urban clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Black = trace/plan ring road </li></ul>(Van Kann, 2011)
    11. 11. Regional scale: Samsoe, Denmark <ul><li>District heating: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Straw bales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wood chips burning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar heating system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual heating systems </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable electricity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land-based WT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offshore WT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PV-cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Savings </li></ul>
    12. 13. Towards sustainable cities - Strategy <ul><li>Reduce consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Re-use waste energy streams ( exergy  remaining Q) </li></ul><ul><li>Use renewable energy sources and ensure waste is re-used as food (re-cycling, cascading) </li></ul><ul><li>Developed within REAP (Rotterdam Energy Approach and Planning), by Dobbelsteen et al., 200 9 </li></ul><ul><li>At different spatial scales: city, district, neighborhood, (building) </li></ul>
    13. 14. Towards sustainable cities - Research <ul><li>City = reservoir of un-used or un-tapped energy qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable </li></ul><ul><li>Residual </li></ul>
    14. 15. Towards sustainable cities - Research Use of decision tree (Leduc, 2010)
    15. 16. Using available space for renewable energy exploitation
    16. 17. Biomass power plant Solar power Wind power Zero energy city
    17. 18. Towards sustainable cities <ul><li>Harvest available urban resources  circular metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Increase self-sufficiency & decrease dependency </li></ul><ul><li>Local potentials and characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-functionality </li></ul><ul><li>Connectivity & proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Production back to city </li></ul><ul><li>Waste = remaining quality: by re-use, cascade </li></ul>
    18. 19. Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm, Sweden Source: Hammarby Sjöstad
    19. 20. Zonneterp Coupling of energy producing greenhouse and low-energy houses (Mels, Kristinsson, et al., 2005) Cooling and heating Water purification Tap water purification Energy from biogas
    20. 21. Eva-Lanxmeer, Culemborg, NL Curitiba, Brasil Combine living and working, minimize and more efficient transport
    21. 22. Vauban, Freiburg, Germany
    22. 23. <ul><li>0-energy city possible (case Kerkrade-West): electricity, heating, transport fuels  self-sufficient and fossil fuel free </li></ul><ul><li>Limit demand: insulation, transport measures </li></ul><ul><li>Increase efficiency: efficient and green industry, cascade residual qualities </li></ul><ul><li>Massive exploitation of renewable qualities: PV and solar boilers on roofs, wind turbines (WT), biogas, biofuel (algae); and hydrogen (via WT) for high-temperature heat </li></ul>Results
    23. 24. <ul><li>Use exergy: to increase efficiency, to limit waste of qualities, to study and support interaction </li></ul><ul><li>City can provide large part of its energy demand, if local potentials are studied and applied (decision difficult) </li></ul><ul><li>Harvesting local renewable and residual resources crucial towards 0-energy cities </li></ul>Summary
    24. 25. <ul><li>Urban planning: towards 0-energy, 0-material and 0-water cities </li></ul><ul><li>NO qualities lost </li></ul><ul><li>Aim for integrated urban system </li></ul><ul><li>Harvest local resources + combine urban functions + combine urban flows </li></ul>Summary - integration
    25. 26. Exergy as guiding principle for planning Urban systems integration (Agudelo, 2011)
    26. 27. Take home message <ul><li>City = reservoir of un-used, untapped resource qualities </li></ul><ul><li>No waste, but residual resources  waste = food </li></ul><ul><li>Demand reduction!! </li></ul><ul><li>Parameters: supply and demand (qualities and quantities), and spatial and temporal implications  integration </li></ul><ul><li>In the end: EXERGY </li></ul>
    27. 28. Thanks to my colleagues <ul><li>Paul Ramsak – NL Agency </li></ul><ul><li>Andy van den Dobbelsteen, Leo Gommans, Siebe Broersma – Delft University of Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Gert de Roo, Ferry Van Kann – University of Groningen </li></ul><ul><li>Jusuck Koh, Sven Stremke – Wageningen University </li></ul><ul><li>Ronald Rovers – Zuyd Professional University </li></ul><ul><li>Rob van der Krogt – TNO/Deltares </li></ul>
    28. 29. <ul><li>Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Stremke S. ‘Designing Sustainable Energy Landscapes – PhD-thesis (Wageningen University) </li></ul><ul><li>Gommans L. ‘Exergetic system optimalization on regional scale’ – PhD-thesis* (Delft University) </li></ul><ul><li>Van Kann F. ‘Energy and Spatial Planning, based on exergy’ – PhD-thesis* (University Groningen) </li></ul><ul><li>Leduc W. ‘Planning 0-energy cities using local energy sources’, in Rovers et al., Towards 0-Impact Buildings and Built Environments </li></ul><ul><li>In progress: book about project </li></ul><ul><li>See www.exergieplanning.n l for more publications and info </li></ul>
    29. 30. Thanks for your attention Any questions? [email_address]