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Introduction to AI - First Lecture

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  • The Liezi (Chinese: 列子; pinyin: Lièzĭ; Wade-Giles: Lieh Tzu; literally "Master Lie") is a Daoist text attributed to Lie Yukou, a circa 5th century BCE Hundred Schools of Thought philosopher, but Chinese and Western scholars believe it was compiled around the 4th century CE.King Mu of Zhou (ch 周穆王ZhōuMùWáng) or King Mu of Chou or Mu Wang was the fifth sovereign of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty.
  • The Antikythera mechanism (pronounced /ˌæntɪkɪˈθɪərə/ AN-ti-ki-THEER-ə, or pronounced /ˌæntɪˈkɪθərə/ anti-KI-thərə - which is closer to the Greek), is an ancient mechanical computer[1][2] designed to calculate astronomical positions. It was recovered in 1900–01 from the Antikythera wreck,[3] but its complexity and significance were not understood until decades later. It is now thought to have been built about 150–100 BC. The degree of mechanical sophistication is comparable to late medieval Swiss watchmaking. Technological artifacts of similar complexity and workmanship did not reappear until the 14th century, when mechanical astronomical clocks appeared in Europe.[4]
  • PubliusOvidiusNaso (20 March 43 BC – 17 or 18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was aRoman poet who is best known as the author of the three major collections of erotic poetry: Heroides, Amores, andArsAmatoria. He is also well known for the Metamorphoses, a mythological hexameter poem, the Fasti, about the Roman calendar, and the Tristia and Epistulae ex Ponto, two collections of poems written in exile on the Black Sea. Ovid was also the author of several smaller pieces, the RemediaAmoris, the MedicaminaFacieiFemineae, and the long curse-poem Ibis. He also authored a lost tragedy, Medea. He is considered a master of the elegiac couplet, and is traditionally ranked alongside Virgil and Horace as one of the three canonic poets of Latin literature. The scholarQuintilian considered him the last of the canonical Latin love elegists.[1] His poetry, much imitated during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, decisively influenced European art and literature and remains as one of the most important sources of classical mythology.[2]The Metamorphoses, by the Roman poet Ovid, is a narrative poem in fifteen books that describes the history of the world from creation to the deification of Julius Caesar within a loose mythico-historical framework. Completed in AD 8, it is recognized as a masterpiece of Golden Age Latin literature. The most read of all classical works during the Middle Ages, the Metamorphoses continues to exert a profound influence on Western culture. It also remains the favourite work of reference for Greek myth upon which Ovid based these tales, albeit often with stylistic adaptations.In Ovid's narrative, Pygmalion was a Cypriot sculptor who carved a woman out of ivory. According to Ovid, after seeing thePropoetides prostituting themselves (more accurately, they denied the divinity of Aphrodite and she thus ‘reduced’ them to prostitution), he was 'not interested in women',[4] but his statue was so fair and realistic that he fell in love with it. In the vertex,Venus (Aphrodite)'s festival day came. For the festival, Pygmalion made offerings to Venus and made a wish. "I sincerely wished the ivory sculpture will be changed to a real woman." However, he couldn’t bring himself to express it. When he returned home, Cupid sent by Venus kissed the ivory sculpture on the hand. At that time, it was changed to a beautiful woman. A ring was put on her finger. It was Cupid’s ring which made love achieved. Venus granted his wish.Het mechanische aspect staathiernietcentraal, wel het door de mens tot levengewekteevenbeeld.
  • @Hero van Alexandrië: Kelly, Kevin (1994). Out of control: the new biology of machines, social systems and the economic world. Aanvang van de cybernetics.Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems. Cybernetics is closely related to control theory and systems theory. Both in its origins and in its evolution in the second-half of the 20th century, cybernetics is equally applicable to physical and social (that is, language-based) systems.
  • "Pulling a plug on the peacock's tail releases water out of the beak; as the dirty water from the basin fills the hollow base a float rises and actuates a linkage which makes a servant figure appear from behind a door under the peacock and offer soap. When more water is used, a second float at a higher level trips and causes the appearance of a second servant figure — with a towel!"
  • KarelČapek (Czech pronunciation: [ˈkarɛl ˈtʃapɛk]  ( listen)) (January 9, 1890 – December 25, 1938) was one of the most influential Czech writers of the 20th century.R.U.R. (Rossum's Universal Robots) (Czech: Rossumoviuniverzálníroboti) is a science fiction play in theCzech language by KarelČapek. It premiered in 1921 and is noted for introducing the term "robot". The play begins in a factory that makes artificial people called "robots." Unlike the modern usage of the term, these creatures are closer to the modern idea of androids or even clones, as they can be mistaken for humans and can think for themselves. They seem happy to work for humans, although that changes and a hostile robotrebellion leads to the extinction of the human race. After finishing the manuscript, Čapek realized that he had created a modern version of the Jewish Golem legend. He later took a different approach to the same theme inWar with the Newts, in which non-humans become a servant class in human society.The word robot comes from the word robota meaning literally serf labor, and, figuratively, "drudgery" or "hard work" in Czech, Slovak and Polish. The origin of the word is the Old Church Slavonic rabota "servitude" ("work" in contemporaryRussian), which in turn comes from the Indo-European root *orbh-. Robot is cognate with the German word Arbeiter(worker).In Jewish folklore, a golem (גולם; English pronunciation: /ˈɡoʊləm/ GOH-ləm) is an animated anthropomorphic being, created entirely from inanimate matter. The word was used to mean an amorphous, unformed material in Psalms and medieval writing.[1] The most famous golem narrative involves Judah Loew ben Bezalel, the late 16th century chief rabbi of Prague.The Golem: How He Came Into the World (original German title: Der Golem, wieer in die Welt kam) is a 1920silent horror film by Paul Wegener. It was directed by Carl Boese and Wegener, written by Wegener and HenrikGaleen, and starred Wegener as the golem. The script was adapted from the 1915 novel The Golem by Gustav Meyrink.[1][2][3] The film was the third of three films that Wegener made featuring the golem, the other two being The Golem (1915) and the short comedy The Golem and the Dancing Girl (1917), in which Wegener dons the Golem make-up in order to frighten a young lady he is infatuated with. It is a prequel to The Golem and is today the most widely known of the series.
  • The Terminator  is a 1984 science fiction action film directed and co-written by James Cameron and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, and Michael Biehn. Produced by the British independent film company Hemdale Film Corporation and distributed by Orion Pictures, the film is set and was shot in Los Angeles. Schwarzenegger plays the Terminator, a cyborg assassin sent back in time from the year 2029 to 1984 to kill Sarah Connor, played by Hamilton. Biehn plays Kyle Reese, a soldier from the future sent back in time to protect Sarah.2001: A Space Odyssey (often referred to simply as 2001) is a 1968 epic science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and written by Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke. The film deals with thematic elements of human evolution, technology, artificial intelligence, and extraterrestrial life, and is notable for its scientific realism, pioneering special effects, ambiguous imagery that is open-ended to a point approaching surrealism, sound in place of traditional narrative techniques, and minimal use of dialogue.Folding@home ("Folding at Home") (sometimes abbreviated as FAH or F@h) is a distributed computing (DC) project designed to perform computationally intensive simulations of protein folding and other molecular dynamics(MD), and to improve on the methods available to do so. It was launched on October 1, 2000, and is currently managed by the Pande Group, within Stanford University's chemistry department, under the supervision of Professor Vijay Pande.RoboCop is a 1987 American science fiction-action film directed by Paul Verhoeven. Set in a crime-ridden Detroit, Michigan in the near future, RoboCop centers on a police officer who is brutally murdered and subsequently re-created as a super-human cyborg known as "RoboCop". In addition to being an action film, RoboCop includes larger themes regarding the media, gentrification, corruption, and human nature. It has spawned merchandise, two sequels,a television series, two animated tv series, and a television mini-series, video games and two comic book adaptations.Silent Running is a 1972 environmentally-themed science fiction film starring Bruce Dern and directed by Douglas Trumbull,[1] who had previously worked as a special effects supervisor on such science fiction films as 2001: A Space Odyssey and The Andromeda Strain. The film costars Cliff Potts, Ron Rifkin and Jesse Vint.Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist film in the science-fiction genre directed by Fritz Lang. Produced inGermany during a stable period of the Weimar Republic, Metropolis is set in a futuristic urban dystopia and makes use of this context to explore the social crisis between workers and owners in capitalism. The film was produced in the Babelsberg Studios by Universum Film A.G. (UFA). The most expensive silent film ever made, it cost approximately 5 million Reichsmark.[2]The Maschinenmensch (German for "machine-human") from Metropolis, a gynoid played by German actress Brigitte Helm in both her robotic and human incarnations, is one of cinema's most famous icons.AIBO (Artificial Intelligence roBOt, homonymous with "pal" in Japanese) was one of several types of robotic petsdesigned and manufactured by Sony; there have been several different models since their introduction on May 11, 1999. AIBO was discontinued in 2006.Blade Runner is a 1982 American science fiction film, directed by Ridley Scott and starring Harrison Ford, RutgerHauer, and Sean Young. The screenplay, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, is based loosely on the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick.
  • The Terminator  is a 1984 science fiction action film directed and co-written by James Cameron and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, and Michael Biehn. Produced by the British independent film company Hemdale Film Corporation and distributed by Orion Pictures, the film is set and was shot in Los Angeles. Schwarzenegger plays the Terminator, a cyborg assassin sent back in time from the year 2029 to 1984 to kill Sarah Connor, played by Hamilton. Biehn plays Kyle Reese, a soldier from the future sent back in time to protect Sarah.2001: A Space Odyssey (often referred to simply as 2001) is a 1968 epic science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and written by Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke. The film deals with thematic elements of human evolution, technology, artificial intelligence, and extraterrestrial life, and is notable for its scientific realism, pioneering special effects, ambiguous imagery that is open-ended to a point approaching surrealism, sound in place of traditional narrative techniques, and minimal use of dialogue.Folding@home ("Folding at Home") (sometimes abbreviated as FAH or F@h) is a distributed computing (DC) project designed to perform computationally intensive simulations of protein folding and other molecular dynamics(MD), and to improve on the methods available to do so. It was launched on October 1, 2000, and is currently managed by the Pande Group, within Stanford University's chemistry department, under the supervision of Professor Vijay Pande.RoboCop is a 1987 American science fiction-action film directed by Paul Verhoeven. Set in a crime-ridden Detroit, Michigan in the near future, RoboCop centers on a police officer who is brutally murdered and subsequently re-created as a super-human cyborg known as "RoboCop". In addition to being an action film, RoboCop includes larger themes regarding the media, gentrification, corruption, and human nature. It has spawned merchandise, two sequels,a television series, two animated tv series, and a television mini-series, video games and two comic book adaptations.Silent Running is a 1972 environmentally-themed science fiction film starring Bruce Dern and directed by Douglas Trumbull,[1] who had previously worked as a special effects supervisor on such science fiction films as 2001: A Space Odyssey and The Andromeda Strain. The film costars Cliff Potts, Ron Rifkin and Jesse Vint.Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist film in the science-fiction genre directed by Fritz Lang. Produced inGermany during a stable period of the Weimar Republic, Metropolis is set in a futuristic urban dystopia and makes use of this context to explore the social crisis between workers and owners in capitalism. The film was produced in the Babelsberg Studios by Universum Film A.G. (UFA). The most expensive silent film ever made, it cost approximately 5 million Reichsmark.[2]The Maschinenmensch (German for "machine-human") from Metropolis, a gynoid played by German actress Brigitte Helm in both her robotic and human incarnations, is one of cinema's most famous icons.AIBO (Artificial Intelligence roBOt, homonymous with "pal" in Japanese) was one of several types of robotic petsdesigned and manufactured by Sony; there have been several different models since their introduction on May 11, 1999. AIBO was discontinued in 2006.Blade Runner is a 1982 American science fiction film, directed by Ridley Scott and starring Harrison Ford, RutgerHauer, and Sean Young. The screenplay, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, is based loosely on the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick.
  • The Terminator  is a 1984 science fiction action film directed and co-written by James Cameron and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, and Michael Biehn. Produced by the British independent film company Hemdale Film Corporation and distributed by Orion Pictures, the film is set and was shot in Los Angeles. Schwarzenegger plays the Terminator, a cyborg assassin sent back in time from the year 2029 to 1984 to kill Sarah Connor, played by Hamilton. Biehn plays Kyle Reese, a soldier from the future sent back in time to protect Sarah.2001: A Space Odyssey (often referred to simply as 2001) is a 1968 epic science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and written by Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke. The film deals with thematic elements of human evolution, technology, artificial intelligence, and extraterrestrial life, and is notable for its scientific realism, pioneering special effects, ambiguous imagery that is open-ended to a point approaching surrealism, sound in place of traditional narrative techniques, and minimal use of dialogue.Folding@home ("Folding at Home") (sometimes abbreviated as FAH or F@h) is a distributed computing (DC) project designed to perform computationally intensive simulations of protein folding and other molecular dynamics(MD), and to improve on the methods available to do so. It was launched on October 1, 2000, and is currently managed by the Pande Group, within Stanford University's chemistry department, under the supervision of Professor Vijay Pande.RoboCop is a 1987 American science fiction-action film directed by Paul Verhoeven. Set in a crime-ridden Detroit, Michigan in the near future, RoboCop centers on a police officer who is brutally murdered and subsequently re-created as a super-human cyborg known as "RoboCop". In addition to being an action film, RoboCop includes larger themes regarding the media, gentrification, corruption, and human nature. It has spawned merchandise, two sequels,a television series, two animated tv series, and a television mini-series, video games and two comic book adaptations.Silent Running is a 1972 environmentally-themed science fiction film starring Bruce Dern and directed by Douglas Trumbull,[1] who had previously worked as a special effects supervisor on such science fiction films as 2001: A Space Odyssey and The Andromeda Strain. The film costars Cliff Potts, Ron Rifkin and Jesse Vint.Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist film in the science-fiction genre directed by Fritz Lang. Produced inGermany during a stable period of the Weimar Republic, Metropolis is set in a futuristic urban dystopia and makes use of this context to explore the social crisis between workers and owners in capitalism. The film was produced in the Babelsberg Studios by Universum Film A.G. (UFA). The most expensive silent film ever made, it cost approximately 5 million Reichsmark.[2]The Maschinenmensch (German for "machine-human") from Metropolis, a gynoid played by German actress Brigitte Helm in both her robotic and human incarnations, is one of cinema's most famous icons.AIBO (Artificial Intelligence roBOt, homonymous with "pal" in Japanese) was one of several types of robotic petsdesigned and manufactured by Sony; there have been several different models since their introduction on May 11, 1999. AIBO was discontinued in 2006.Blade Runner is a 1982 American science fiction film, directed by Ridley Scott and starring Harrison Ford, RutgerHauer, and Sean Young. The screenplay, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, is based loosely on the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick.
  • The Terminator  is a 1984 science fiction action film directed and co-written by James Cameron and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, and Michael Biehn. Produced by the British independent film company Hemdale Film Corporation and distributed by Orion Pictures, the film is set and was shot in Los Angeles. Schwarzenegger plays the Terminator, a cyborg assassin sent back in time from the year 2029 to 1984 to kill Sarah Connor, played by Hamilton. Biehn plays Kyle Reese, a soldier from the future sent back in time to protect Sarah.2001: A Space Odyssey (often referred to simply as 2001) is a 1968 epic science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and written by Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke. The film deals with thematic elements of human evolution, technology, artificial intelligence, and extraterrestrial life, and is notable for its scientific realism, pioneering special effects, ambiguous imagery that is open-ended to a point approaching surrealism, sound in place of traditional narrative techniques, and minimal use of dialogue.Folding@home ("Folding at Home") (sometimes abbreviated as FAH or F@h) is a distributed computing (DC) project designed to perform computationally intensive simulations of protein folding and other molecular dynamics(MD), and to improve on the methods available to do so. It was launched on October 1, 2000, and is currently managed by the Pande Group, within Stanford University's chemistry department, under the supervision of Professor Vijay Pande.RoboCop is a 1987 American science fiction-action film directed by Paul Verhoeven. Set in a crime-ridden Detroit, Michigan in the near future, RoboCop centers on a police officer who is brutally murdered and subsequently re-created as a super-human cyborg known as "RoboCop". In addition to being an action film, RoboCop includes larger themes regarding the media, gentrification, corruption, and human nature. It has spawned merchandise, two sequels,a television series, two animated tv series, and a television mini-series, video games and two comic book adaptations.Silent Running is a 1972 environmentally-themed science fiction film starring Bruce Dern and directed by Douglas Trumbull,[1] who had previously worked as a special effects supervisor on such science fiction films as 2001: A Space Odyssey and The Andromeda Strain. The film costars Cliff Potts, Ron Rifkin and Jesse Vint.Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist film in the science-fiction genre directed by Fritz Lang. Produced inGermany during a stable period of the Weimar Republic, Metropolis is set in a futuristic urban dystopia and makes use of this context to explore the social crisis between workers and owners in capitalism. The film was produced in the Babelsberg Studios by Universum Film A.G. (UFA). The most expensive silent film ever made, it cost approximately 5 million Reichsmark.[2]The Maschinenmensch (German for "machine-human") from Metropolis, a gynoid played by German actress Brigitte Helm in both her robotic and human incarnations, is one of cinema's most famous icons.AIBO (Artificial Intelligence roBOt, homonymous with "pal" in Japanese) was one of several types of robotic petsdesigned and manufactured by Sony; there have been several different models since their introduction on May 11, 1999. AIBO was discontinued in 2006.Blade Runner is a 1982 American science fiction film, directed by Ridley Scott and starring Harrison Ford, RutgerHauer, and Sean Young. The screenplay, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, is based loosely on the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick.
  • The Terminator  is a 1984 science fiction action film directed and co-written by James Cameron and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, and Michael Biehn. Produced by the British independent film company Hemdale Film Corporation and distributed by Orion Pictures, the film is set and was shot in Los Angeles. Schwarzenegger plays the Terminator, a cyborg assassin sent back in time from the year 2029 to 1984 to kill Sarah Connor, played by Hamilton. Biehn plays Kyle Reese, a soldier from the future sent back in time to protect Sarah.2001: A Space Odyssey (often referred to simply as 2001) is a 1968 epic science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and written by Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke. The film deals with thematic elements of human evolution, technology, artificial intelligence, and extraterrestrial life, and is notable for its scientific realism, pioneering special effects, ambiguous imagery that is open-ended to a point approaching surrealism, sound in place of traditional narrative techniques, and minimal use of dialogue.Folding@home ("Folding at Home") (sometimes abbreviated as FAH or F@h) is a distributed computing (DC) project designed to perform computationally intensive simulations of protein folding and other molecular dynamics(MD), and to improve on the methods available to do so. It was launched on October 1, 2000, and is currently managed by the Pande Group, within Stanford University's chemistry department, under the supervision of Professor Vijay Pande.RoboCop is a 1987 American science fiction-action film directed by Paul Verhoeven. Set in a crime-ridden Detroit, Michigan in the near future, RoboCop centers on a police officer who is brutally murdered and subsequently re-created as a super-human cyborg known as "RoboCop". In addition to being an action film, RoboCop includes larger themes regarding the media, gentrification, corruption, and human nature. It has spawned merchandise, two sequels,a television series, two animated tv series, and a television mini-series, video games and two comic book adaptations.Silent Running is a 1972 environmentally-themed science fiction film starring Bruce Dern and directed by Douglas Trumbull,[1] who had previously worked as a special effects supervisor on such science fiction films as 2001: A Space Odyssey and The Andromeda Strain. The film costars Cliff Potts, Ron Rifkin and Jesse Vint.Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist film in the science-fiction genre directed by Fritz Lang. Produced inGermany during a stable period of the Weimar Republic, Metropolis is set in a futuristic urban dystopia and makes use of this context to explore the social crisis between workers and owners in capitalism. The film was produced in the Babelsberg Studios by Universum Film A.G. (UFA). The most expensive silent film ever made, it cost approximately 5 million Reichsmark.[2]The Maschinenmensch (German for "machine-human") from Metropolis, a gynoid played by German actress Brigitte Helm in both her robotic and human incarnations, is one of cinema's most famous icons.AIBO (Artificial Intelligence roBOt, homonymous with "pal" in Japanese) was one of several types of robotic petsdesigned and manufactured by Sony; there have been several different models since their introduction on May 11, 1999. AIBO was discontinued in 2006.Blade Runner is a 1982 American science fiction film, directed by Ridley Scott and starring Harrison Ford, RutgerHauer, and Sean Young. The screenplay, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, is based loosely on the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick.
  • The Terminator  is a 1984 science fiction action film directed and co-written by James Cameron and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, and Michael Biehn. Produced by the British independent film company Hemdale Film Corporation and distributed by Orion Pictures, the film is set and was shot in Los Angeles. Schwarzenegger plays the Terminator, a cyborg assassin sent back in time from the year 2029 to 1984 to kill Sarah Connor, played by Hamilton. Biehn plays Kyle Reese, a soldier from the future sent back in time to protect Sarah.2001: A Space Odyssey (often referred to simply as 2001) is a 1968 epic science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and written by Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke. The film deals with thematic elements of human evolution, technology, artificial intelligence, and extraterrestrial life, and is notable for its scientific realism, pioneering special effects, ambiguous imagery that is open-ended to a point approaching surrealism, sound in place of traditional narrative techniques, and minimal use of dialogue.Folding@home ("Folding at Home") (sometimes abbreviated as FAH or F@h) is a distributed computing (DC) project designed to perform computationally intensive simulations of protein folding and other molecular dynamics(MD), and to improve on the methods available to do so. It was launched on October 1, 2000, and is currently managed by the Pande Group, within Stanford University's chemistry department, under the supervision of Professor Vijay Pande.RoboCop is a 1987 American science fiction-action film directed by Paul Verhoeven. Set in a crime-ridden Detroit, Michigan in the near future, RoboCop centers on a police officer who is brutally murdered and subsequently re-created as a super-human cyborg known as "RoboCop". In addition to being an action film, RoboCop includes larger themes regarding the media, gentrification, corruption, and human nature. It has spawned merchandise, two sequels,a television series, two animated tv series, and a television mini-series, video games and two comic book adaptations.Silent Running is a 1972 environmentally-themed science fiction film starring Bruce Dern and directed by Douglas Trumbull,[1] who had previously worked as a special effects supervisor on such science fiction films as 2001: A Space Odyssey and The Andromeda Strain. The film costars Cliff Potts, Ron Rifkin and Jesse Vint.Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist film in the science-fiction genre directed by Fritz Lang. Produced inGermany during a stable period of the Weimar Republic, Metropolis is set in a futuristic urban dystopia and makes use of this context to explore the social crisis between workers and owners in capitalism. The film was produced in the Babelsberg Studios by Universum Film A.G. (UFA). The most expensive silent film ever made, it cost approximately 5 million Reichsmark.[2]The Maschinenmensch (German for "machine-human") from Metropolis, a gynoid played by German actress Brigitte Helm in both her robotic and human incarnations, is one of cinema's most famous icons.AIBO (Artificial Intelligence roBOt, homonymous with "pal" in Japanese) was one of several types of robotic petsdesigned and manufactured by Sony; there have been several different models since their introduction on May 11, 1999. AIBO was discontinued in 2006.Blade Runner is a 1982 American science fiction film, directed by Ridley Scott and starring Harrison Ford, RutgerHauer, and Sean Young. The screenplay, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, is based loosely on the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick.
  • The Terminator  is a 1984 science fiction action film directed and co-written by James Cameron and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, and Michael Biehn. Produced by the British independent film company Hemdale Film Corporation and distributed by Orion Pictures, the film is set and was shot in Los Angeles. Schwarzenegger plays the Terminator, a cyborg assassin sent back in time from the year 2029 to 1984 to kill Sarah Connor, played by Hamilton. Biehn plays Kyle Reese, a soldier from the future sent back in time to protect Sarah.2001: A Space Odyssey (often referred to simply as 2001) is a 1968 epic science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and written by Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke. The film deals with thematic elements of human evolution, technology, artificial intelligence, and extraterrestrial life, and is notable for its scientific realism, pioneering special effects, ambiguous imagery that is open-ended to a point approaching surrealism, sound in place of traditional narrative techniques, and minimal use of dialogue.Folding@home ("Folding at Home") (sometimes abbreviated as FAH or F@h) is a distributed computing (DC) project designed to perform computationally intensive simulations of protein folding and other molecular dynamics(MD), and to improve on the methods available to do so. It was launched on October 1, 2000, and is currently managed by the Pande Group, within Stanford University's chemistry department, under the supervision of Professor Vijay Pande.RoboCop is a 1987 American science fiction-action film directed by Paul Verhoeven. Set in a crime-ridden Detroit, Michigan in the near future, RoboCop centers on a police officer who is brutally murdered and subsequently re-created as a super-human cyborg known as "RoboCop". In addition to being an action film, RoboCop includes larger themes regarding the media, gentrification, corruption, and human nature. It has spawned merchandise, two sequels,a television series, two animated tv series, and a television mini-series, video games and two comic book adaptations.Silent Running is a 1972 environmentally-themed science fiction film starring Bruce Dern and directed by Douglas Trumbull,[1] who had previously worked as a special effects supervisor on such science fiction films as 2001: A Space Odyssey and The Andromeda Strain. The film costars Cliff Potts, Ron Rifkin and Jesse Vint.Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist film in the science-fiction genre directed by Fritz Lang. Produced inGermany during a stable period of the Weimar Republic, Metropolis is set in a futuristic urban dystopia and makes use of this context to explore the social crisis between workers and owners in capitalism. The film was produced in the Babelsberg Studios by Universum Film A.G. (UFA). The most expensive silent film ever made, it cost approximately 5 million Reichsmark.[2]The Maschinenmensch (German for "machine-human") from Metropolis, a gynoid played by German actress Brigitte Helm in both her robotic and human incarnations, is one of cinema's most famous icons.AIBO (Artificial Intelligence roBOt, homonymous with "pal" in Japanese) was one of several types of robotic petsdesigned and manufactured by Sony; there have been several different models since their introduction on May 11, 1999. AIBO was discontinued in 2006.Blade Runner is a 1982 American science fiction film, directed by Ridley Scott and starring Harrison Ford, RutgerHauer, and Sean Young. The screenplay, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, is based loosely on the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick.
  • The Terminator  is a 1984 science fiction action film directed and co-written by James Cameron and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, and Michael Biehn. Produced by the British independent film company Hemdale Film Corporation and distributed by Orion Pictures, the film is set and was shot in Los Angeles. Schwarzenegger plays the Terminator, a cyborg assassin sent back in time from the year 2029 to 1984 to kill Sarah Connor, played by Hamilton. Biehn plays Kyle Reese, a soldier from the future sent back in time to protect Sarah.2001: A Space Odyssey (often referred to simply as 2001) is a 1968 epic science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and written by Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke. The film deals with thematic elements of human evolution, technology, artificial intelligence, and extraterrestrial life, and is notable for its scientific realism, pioneering special effects, ambiguous imagery that is open-ended to a point approaching surrealism, sound in place of traditional narrative techniques, and minimal use of dialogue.Folding@home ("Folding at Home") (sometimes abbreviated as FAH or F@h) is a distributed computing (DC) project designed to perform computationally intensive simulations of protein folding and other molecular dynamics(MD), and to improve on the methods available to do so. It was launched on October 1, 2000, and is currently managed by the Pande Group, within Stanford University's chemistry department, under the supervision of Professor Vijay Pande.RoboCop is a 1987 American science fiction-action film directed by Paul Verhoeven. Set in a crime-ridden Detroit, Michigan in the near future, RoboCop centers on a police officer who is brutally murdered and subsequently re-created as a super-human cyborg known as "RoboCop". In addition to being an action film, RoboCop includes larger themes regarding the media, gentrification, corruption, and human nature. It has spawned merchandise, two sequels,a television series, two animated tv series, and a television mini-series, video games and two comic book adaptations.Silent Running is a 1972 environmentally-themed science fiction film starring Bruce Dern and directed by Douglas Trumbull,[1] who had previously worked as a special effects supervisor on such science fiction films as 2001: A Space Odyssey and The Andromeda Strain. The film costars Cliff Potts, Ron Rifkin and Jesse Vint.Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist film in the science-fiction genre directed by Fritz Lang. Produced inGermany during a stable period of the Weimar Republic, Metropolis is set in a futuristic urban dystopia and makes use of this context to explore the social crisis between workers and owners in capitalism. The film was produced in the Babelsberg Studios by Universum Film A.G. (UFA). The most expensive silent film ever made, it cost approximately 5 million Reichsmark.[2]The Maschinenmensch (German for "machine-human") from Metropolis, a gynoid played by German actress Brigitte Helm in both her robotic and human incarnations, is one of cinema's most famous icons.AIBO (Artificial Intelligence roBOt, homonymous with "pal" in Japanese) was one of several types of robotic petsdesigned and manufactured by Sony; there have been several different models since their introduction on May 11, 1999. AIBO was discontinued in 2006.Blade Runner is a 1982 American science fiction film, directed by Ridley Scott and starring Harrison Ford, RutgerHauer, and Sean Young. The screenplay, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, is based loosely on the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick.
  • The Terminator  is a 1984 science fiction action film directed and co-written by James Cameron and starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton, and Michael Biehn. Produced by the British independent film company Hemdale Film Corporation and distributed by Orion Pictures, the film is set and was shot in Los Angeles. Schwarzenegger plays the Terminator, a cyborg assassin sent back in time from the year 2029 to 1984 to kill Sarah Connor, played by Hamilton. Biehn plays Kyle Reese, a soldier from the future sent back in time to protect Sarah.2001: A Space Odyssey (often referred to simply as 2001) is a 1968 epic science fiction film directed by Stanley Kubrick released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and written by Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke. The film deals with thematic elements of human evolution, technology, artificial intelligence, and extraterrestrial life, and is notable for its scientific realism, pioneering special effects, ambiguous imagery that is open-ended to a point approaching surrealism, sound in place of traditional narrative techniques, and minimal use of dialogue.Folding@home ("Folding at Home") (sometimes abbreviated as FAH or F@h) is a distributed computing (DC) project designed to perform computationally intensive simulations of protein folding and other molecular dynamics(MD), and to improve on the methods available to do so. It was launched on October 1, 2000, and is currently managed by the Pande Group, within Stanford University's chemistry department, under the supervision of Professor Vijay Pande.RoboCop is a 1987 American science fiction-action film directed by Paul Verhoeven. Set in a crime-ridden Detroit, Michigan in the near future, RoboCop centers on a police officer who is brutally murdered and subsequently re-created as a super-human cyborg known as "RoboCop". In addition to being an action film, RoboCop includes larger themes regarding the media, gentrification, corruption, and human nature. It has spawned merchandise, two sequels,a television series, two animated tv series, and a television mini-series, video games and two comic book adaptations.Silent Running is a 1972 environmentally-themed science fiction film starring Bruce Dern and directed by Douglas Trumbull,[1] who had previously worked as a special effects supervisor on such science fiction films as 2001: A Space Odyssey and The Andromeda Strain. The film costars Cliff Potts, Ron Rifkin and Jesse Vint.Metropolis is a 1927 German expressionist film in the science-fiction genre directed by Fritz Lang. Produced inGermany during a stable period of the Weimar Republic, Metropolis is set in a futuristic urban dystopia and makes use of this context to explore the social crisis between workers and owners in capitalism. The film was produced in the Babelsberg Studios by Universum Film A.G. (UFA). The most expensive silent film ever made, it cost approximately 5 million Reichsmark.[2]The Maschinenmensch (German for "machine-human") from Metropolis, a gynoid played by German actress Brigitte Helm in both her robotic and human incarnations, is one of cinema's most famous icons.AIBO (Artificial Intelligence roBOt, homonymous with "pal" in Japanese) was one of several types of robotic petsdesigned and manufactured by Sony; there have been several different models since their introduction on May 11, 1999. AIBO was discontinued in 2006.Blade Runner is a 1982 American science fiction film, directed by Ridley Scott and starring Harrison Ford, RutgerHauer, and Sean Young. The screenplay, written by Hampton Fancher and David Peoples, is based loosely on the novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? by Philip K. Dick.
  • Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852), born Augusta Ada Byron, was an English writer chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the analytical engine. Her notes on the engine include what is recognised as the first algorithm intended to be processed by a machine; as such she is regarded as the world's first computer programmer.[1][2]
  • Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (pronounced /ˈtjʊərɪŋ/; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954), was an Englishmathematician, logician, cryptanalyst and computer scientist. He was influential in the development of computer science and providing a formalisation of the concept of the algorithm and computation with the Turing machine, playing a significant role in the creation of the modern computer.[1]During the Second World War, Turing worked for the Government Code and Cypher School at Bletchley Park, Britain's codebreaking centre. For a time he was head of Hut 8, the section responsible for German navalcryptanalysis. He devised a number of techniques for breaking German ciphers, including the method of thebombe, an electromechanical machine that could find settings for the Enigma machine. After the war he worked at the National Physical Laboratory, where he created one of the first designs for a stored-program computer, the ACE.Turing's homosexuality resulted in a criminal prosecution in 1952—homosexual acts were illegal in the United Kingdom at that time—and he accepted treatment with female hormones (chemical castration) as an alternative to prison. He died in 1954, several weeks before his 42nd birthday, from cyanide poisoning. An inquest determined it was suicide; his mother and some others believed his death was accidental. On 10 September 2009, following an Internet campaign, then-British Prime Minister Gordon Brown made an official public apology on behalf of the British government for the way in which Turing was treated after the war.[3]On 8 June 1954, Turing's cleaner found him dead; he had died the previous day. A post-mortem examination established that the cause of death was cyanide poisoning. When his body was discovered an apple lay half-eaten beside his bed, and although the apple was not tested for cyanide,[49] it is speculated that this was the means by which a fatal dose was delivered. An inquest determined that he had committed suicide, and he was cremated at Woking crematorium on 12 June 1954.
  • “The claim that "machines cannot make mistakes" seems a curious one. One is tempted to retort, "Are they any the worse for that?" But let us adopt a more sympathetic attitude, and try to see what is really meant. I think this criticism can be explained in terms of the imitation game. It is claimed that the interrogator could distinguish the machine from the man simply by setting them a number of problems in arithmetic. The machine would be unmasked because of its deadly accuracy. The reply to this is simple. The machine (programmed for playing the game) would not attempt to give the right answers to the arithmetic problems. It would deliberately introduce mistakes in a manner calculated to confuse the interrogator.” [Turing1950, p. 448]

Introduction to AI - First Lecture Introduction to AI - First Lecture Presentation Transcript

  • Introduction to AI- 1st Lecture -The Proto-history of AIWouter Beekme@wouterbeek.com6 October 2010
  • Part I
    ‘Artificial’ until 1950
  • -500 tot -300
    Liezi, III, in which king Mu of Zhou meets engineer Yan Shi:
    “The king stared at the figure in astonishment. It walked with rapid strides, moving its head up and down, so that anyone would have taken it for a live human being. The artificer touched its chin, and it began singing, perfectly in tune. […] As the performance was drawing to an end, the robot winked its eye and made advances to the ladies in attendance, whereupon the king became incensed and would have had Yen Shih executed on the spot had not the latter, in mortal fear, instantly taken the robot to pieces to let him see what it really was. And, indeed, it turned out to be only a construction of leather, wood, glue and lacquer.”
    The machine as imitation of man.
    The machine as competitor of man.
    Man requires control over the machine.
  • -150
    Antikythera mechanism
    150-100, mechanical computer for calculating astronomical configurations.
    The machine as a scientific tool.
  • -150
  • -8
    Ovid, 8 B.C., Metamorphoses X 
    Pygmalion, sculptor from Cyprus, married a the statue of a woman. Cupid, upon Venus’ instigation, brought the statue to life.
    Man and the creation of man live together.
    Transition between man and the creation of man fades.
    The machine as sexual phantasy.
  • -10 tot +70 – Cybernetics
    Hero of Alexandria (10-70), Automata, mechanical and pneumatic machines used in temples.
    αὐτόματος, automaton, means “acting out of its own will”
    Intentionality is attributed to machines.
  • 1206
    Al-Jazarī (1136-1206), Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices, 1206
    Moving fountains
    Mechanical serf offering a drink
    Automated orchestra
    Knowledge of automatons is maintained for the West via the Arab tradition.
    The machine makes man’s life more convenient.
  • 1495
    Leonardo da Vinci, 1495, robot making man-likemovements.
    Based on thisstudyVitruvianMan, 1487.
    The machine as the human ideal.
  • 1921 – The word ‘robot’
    KarelČapek, Czech playwright, 1921, R.U.R.
    Rossumoviuniverzálníroboti, akaRossum’s Universal Robots.
    ‘robota’ means ‘forced labor’ in Czech.
    Reminiscent of the Jewish tale of the Golem.
  • Themes
    The machine ass imitation of man.
    The machine as competitor of man.
  • Themes
    The machine ass imitation of man.
    The machine as competitor of man.
    Man requires control over the machine.
  • Themes
    The machine ass imitation of man.
    The machine as competitor of man.
    Man requires control over the machine.
    The machine as a scientific tool.
  • Themes
    The machine ass imitation of man.
    The machine as competitor of man.
    Man requires control over the machine.
    The machine as a scientific tool.
    Man and machine live (and work) together.
  • Themes
    The machine ass imitation of man.
    The machine as competitor of man.
    Man requires control over the machine.
    The machine as a scientific tool.
    Man and machine live (and work) together.
    Boundary between man and machine fades.
  • Themes
    The machine ass imitation of man.
    The machine as competitor of man.
    Man requires control over the machine.
    The machine as a scientific tool.
    Man and machine live (and work) together.
    Boundary between man and machine fades.
    The machine as sexual phantasy.
  • Themes
    The machine ass imitation of man.
    The machine as competitor of man.
    Man requires control over the machine.
    The machine as a scientific tool.
    Man and machine live (and work) together.
    Boundary between man and machine fades.
    The machine as sexual phantasy.
    Intentionality is attributed to the machine.
  • Themes
    The machine ass imitation of man.
    The machine as competitor of man.
    Man requires control over the machine.
    The machine as a scientific tool.
    Man and machine live (and work) together.
    Boundary between man and machine fades.
    The machine as sexual phantasy.
    Intentionality is attributed to the machine.
    The machine makes man’s life more convenient.
  • Themes
    The machine ass imitation of man.
    The machine as competitor of man.
    Man requires control over the machine.
    The machine as a scientific tool.
    Man and machine live (and work) together.
    Boundary between man and machine fades.
    The machine as sexual phantasy.
    Intentionality is attributed to the machine.
    The machine makes man’s life more convenient.
    The machine as human ideal.
  • Part II
    ‘Intelligence’ until 1950
  • -300
    Aristotele (384-322)
    συλλογισμός, syllogism
    Necessary deductions follow according to a limit number of stringently formulated reasoning principles.
    “A discourse in which certain things have been supposed, and from which something different than what has been supposed
    results of necessity.”
    [AnalyticaPriora24B18-20]
    All men are mortal.
    Socrates is a man.
    Socrates is mortal.
  • 1672-1694
    Leibnitz (1646-1716)
    Stepped Reckoner, 1672-1694, + - / *
    Calculus ratiocinator, formal inference machine
    Alphabet of thought, universal reasoning language
  • 1672-1694
    Leibniz though of a lingua characteristica, a language in which all knowledge could be formally expressed.
    The language would allow a calculus ratiocinator, i.e. a calculus of thought.
    In the future, whenever two people disagree, the will say “calculemus” (= “let us calculate”).
    They will formulate their dispute in the lingua characteristicaand thecalculus ratiocinator will decide who is right.
    The calculus ratiocinator allows reason to be mechanized.
    “cogitatioestcomputatio” [motto of Thomas Hobbes]
  • 1822-1837
    Charles Babbage (1791-1871)
    Difference Engine, calculates polynomials.
    1837, Analytical Engine, general-purpose computer
  • 1842-1843
    Ada Lovelace, “The Enchantress of Numbers” (1815-1852)
    Translated Luigi Menabrea’s description of Babbage’s Analytical Engine (1842-1843).
    And… added footnotes in which she included the first piece of software ever (a calculation of the sequence of the Bernoulli numbers).
    The first programmer.
  • Part III
    Alan Turing – 1950 – Computing machinery and Intelligence
  • Alan Turing (1912-1954)
    Mathematician, logician, cryptographer, computer scientist.
    Cracked the German Engima code in Worls War II, using the Bombe.
    Formalized the concepts of ‘computability’: 1936, On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem (Turing Machine).
    1952, sentenced to chemical castration in reaction to acts of homosexuality.
    Died by cyanide poisoning.
  • “Can machines think?”
    "I propose to consider the question 'Can machines think?‘” [Turing1950 – Computing Machinery and Intelligence]
    According to Turing, the question is underspecified, requiring two preliminary definitions (what is a ‘machine’ and what is ‘thought’).
    Once these definitions are provided, the question has already been answered.
    Instead of providing these two definitions, Turing describes a game and asks: “What will happen when a machine takes the part of A in this game?”
    “Will the interrogator decide wrongly as often when the game is played like this as he does when the game is played between a man and a woman? These questions replace our original, ‘Can machines think?’” [Turing1950, emphasis added]
  • TheTuring Test
    Original: a man and a woman are separated. A third person guesses which converser is the man / woman.
    The machine replaces the man or woman, and must mislead the third man in guessing the sex.
    Standard interpretation: The role of the third man is to guess what is the machine and who is the person.
    The machine must exhibit a broader notion of human intelligence (not only be misleading).
    It is unclear whether the third man should know that one of his interlocutors is a machine.
  • Benefits of the Turing Test
    Gives a pragmatic solution to a difficult question.
    Broad applicability, covering all manifestations of human intelligence.
  • Problems of the Turing Test
    People are incapable of recognizing intelligence reliably:
    Anthopomorphic fallacy
  • Problems of the Turing Test
    People are incapable of recognizing intelligence reliably:
    Anthopomorphic fallacy
    If the Turing Test would be applied to religious object, then statues, mountains, cats, pieces of wood and stones have passed the ‘test’ for being religious objects. [Michael Schermer]
    Men as the measure of all forms of intelligence:
    Not all human behavior is intelligent.
    Not all intelligent behavior can be displayed by humans.
    A behavioral or functional interpretation of ‘intelligence’. [Searle1980, Chinese Room experiment, see week 5]
    A purely quantitative conception of intelligence.
    “The criticism that a machine cannot have much diversity of behaviour is just a way of saying that it cannot have much storage capacity.” [p449]
  • Other themes
    Artificial Stupidity:
    Turing 1950, p. 448
    The winner of de bronze medal of de Loebner prize in 1992 won due to replicating human spelling errors.
    Traditional themes (from part I) appear in Turing1950, e.g. man requiring control over the machine:
    “We like to believe that Man is in some subtle way superior to the rest of creation. It is best if he can be shown to be necessarily superior, for then there is no danger of him losing his commanding position.” [Turing1950, p. 444]