Intelligent Tutoring Systems: The DynaLearn Approach
Intelligent Tutoring Systems The DynaLearn Approach Wouter Beek, Bert Bredeweg firstname.lastname@example.org, B.Bredeweg@uva.nl Informatics Institute University of Amsterdam The NetherlandsThis work is co-funded by the EC within FP7, Project no. 231526, http://www.DynaLearn.eu
Problem statement• Worrying decline in science curricula – Less students sign up; more students drop out.• Main reasons: – Lack of engagement and motivation in science teaching (Osborne et al. 2003). – Teaching practice involves surface knowledge in terms of formulas and uninterpreted numeric data. – Lack of interactive tools to construct conceptual knowledge.
Conceptual science educationHaving learners acquiring conceptual knowledgeof system’s behaviour:• Deep knowledge in terms of the concepts that are involved.• Learn basic principles that can be carried over to other problem instances.• Learn to adequately explain and predict the behaviour of systems to utilise their functioning for human benefit.• A prerequisite for working with numerical models and equations.• Communicate insights to the general public.
Knowledge construction• Develop an interactive learning environment that allows learners to construct their conceptual system knowledge.• Characteristics: – Accommodate the true nature of conceptual knowledge. – Automate feedback for open-ended construction tasks. – React to the individual knowledge needs of learners. – Applied to the interdisciplinary curriculum of environmental science. – Be engaging by using personified agent technology.
Learning by Conceptual Modelling• Modelling is fundamental to human cognition and scientific inquiry (Schwarz & White 2005)• Simulations mimic the behaviour of real-world systems.• Conceptual Reasoning captures the human interpretation of reality: – Couched in the appropriate vocabulary. – Remove numerical ‘overhead’. – Provides handles to automate interaction.
Quantitative & Qualitative Knowledge F m F=m*a– An increase (or decrease) in Force causes an increase (or decrease) in Acceleration– An increase (or decrease) in Mass causes an decrease (or increase) in Acceleration– An increase (or decrease) in Acceleration causes a decrease (or increase) in Mass.
Explicitizing the semantics of the domain• Scope: Which aspects of the system should be included in the model? (relevant/irrelevant)• Granularity: What is the level of detail that should be modeled?• Compositionality: How must knowledge be put in modules in order to allow knowledge reuse?• Conditionality: Under what conditions do certain knowledge modules apply?
build simulate 1 1 1 Causal relations Derivative values 2 2 2 State graph Magnitude values Quantity spaces 3 3 3 Value history Transition history Quantity values e Causal influence n Correspondences (In)equalities 4 4 g 4 4 Equation history External factors i Calculi Dependencies Conditionals 5 5 n e 5 5 Causal view Model fragments Knowledge library Hierarchies Multiple scenarios 6 6 6 6
Example: Population dynamics• How do populations in general behave?• What processes determine their behaviour?• Issues: – Size (number of individuals) – Birth / Natality – Death / Mortality
Constructing knowledge (1) Generic class Specific instance QuantityCurrent value Derivative Possible values (direction of change)
Constructing knowledge (2)Influence: The amount of Birth increases Number ofProportionality: Changes in Number of determine changes in Birth
Feedback & Recommendations e.g., “You can complete your feedback model with a P+ proportionality” Expert Student Community of userse.g., “Users who modelled recommendationsdeath also modelled birth”