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Molecules and Compounds
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Molecules and Compounds Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Welcome to Chapter 8 Molecules and Compounds
  • 2. Starring Agent P
  • 3. With Special Guests Al, Bill, Francis, Ben and Sue
  • 4. Question # 1 Score Board What is a compound? Al Bill Francis Ben Sue Al? 0 0 0 0 0
  • 5. A compound contains two Score Board or more different elements that are chemically bonded together. For Al example, water (H2O) is a compound of Bill Francis Ben Sue 0 0 0 0 0 hydrogen and oxygen atoms bonded together.
  • 6. Score Board That’s correct, score 1 point for Al Bill Francis Ben Sue Al! 1 0 0 0 0 Moo
  • 7. Question # 2 Score Board What is a mixture? Oh, it seems that Al is first with Al Bill Francis Ben Sue the hand. 1 0 0 0 0
  • 8. A mixture contains Score Board two or more elements and/or compounds that are not chemically Al Bill bonded together. The Sue Francis Ben atmosphere is a 1 0 0 0 0 mixture of oxygen and nitrogen but not a compound.
  • 9. Score Board That’s correct, another 1 point for Al Bill Francis Ben Sue Al! 2 0 0 0 0 Moo
  • 10. Question # 3 Score Board When does a chemical bond form? Al Bill Francis Ben Sue Sorry Al, but Bill just beat you. 2 0 0 0 0
  • 11. Score Board Al Bill Francis Ben At Sue 3:00 o’clock A.M? 2 0 0 0 0
  • 12. Score Board Al Bill Francis Ben Sue Sorry Bill, that is incorrect. Al? 2 -1 0 0 0 Boo!
  • 13. Score Board A chemical bond forms when atoms Al Bill Francis transferBen share electrons. Sue or 2 -1 0 0 0
  • 14. Absolutely! Score Board Another point for Al. Let’s Al Bill Francis Ben Sue review the score. That’s 3 for Al, 3 -1 0 0 0 -1 for Bill and zero for everyone else. I’m hungry!
  • 15. It’s time for our first bonus Score Board question. Here it is... Describe a Al Bill Francis Ben Sue covalent bond and give 4 3 -1 0 0 0 examples. Once again it’s Al... I’m 4 years old!
  • 16. Scorecovalent bond forms when atoms A Board Al Bill Francis Ben Sue share electrons. 3 -1 0 0 0 Not fair, I can’t raise my hand!
  • 17. Score Board Yes, that’s it exactly. 5 bonus Al Bill Francis Ben Sue points for Al. 8 -1 0 0 0 He’s good!
  • 18. Score Board Back to our regular questions now. For one point-describe a Al Bill Francis Ben Sue molecule and give 4 examples. 8 -1 0 0 0 Ok, Sue... Me! Me!
  • 19. Score Board Al Bill Francis Ben Sue 8 -1 0 0 0 A group of atoms held together by covalent bonds is called a molecule. Water is a molecule, other examples of molecules are methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), oxygen (O2) and nitrogen (N2).
  • 20. Score Board Al Bill Francis Ben Sue That’s is correct! A point for Sue. 8 -1 0 0 1 I totally rock!
  • 21. Score Board Remember, in a covalent bond the shared electrons act like ties that hold a Al Bill Francis Ben Sue molecule together. 8 -1 0 0 1
  • 22. Ok, next Score Board question...What is a chemical formula and what does it tell you? Al Bill Francis Ben Sue Quietly please as Sue has dropped 8 -1 0 0 1 off to sleep. Alright, Bill, take a shot. ZZZ!
  • 23. Score Board ???????? I’m sorry Bill, that is really wrong. A chemical formulaBill the food Al is Francis Ben Sue Al? 8 -1 0 0 1 that you feed to babies! What!?
  • 24. Score Board Molecules are represented by a chemical formula. The chemical formula tells you the precise number of each kind of atom in the molecule. For Once again, Al is correct. Al Bill Francis Ben Sue example, the chemical formula for water is H2O. The 8 -1 0 0 1 subscript 2 indicates there are two hydrogen atoms in the molecule. The chemical formula also tells you that water always contains twice as many hydrogen atoms as oxygen atoms. This is important to know if you wish to make water from elemental oxygen and hydrogen.
  • 25. For those of you watching Score Board at home, it will be very important for you to know how to Al Bill Francis Ben Sue read a formula. Look at the 9 -2 0 0 1 example to my right.
  • 26. Next question. What Score Board determines the properties of a Al Bill Francis Ben Sue molecule? It’s formula or it’s 9 -2 0 0 1 shape? Francis? I have a Nobel Prize for determining this. I must be allowed to answer!!!
  • 27. Next question. What Score Board determines the properties of a Al Bill Francis Ben Sue molecule? It’s formula or it’s 9 -2 0 0 1 shape? Francis? Both are equaling important. If you change It’s in shapes or add/remove atoms, you have an entirely his DNA. different molecule.
  • 28. Excellent answer, Francis. All three compounds Score Board to my right have the same Al Bill Francis Ben Sue chemical formula, but they have 9 -2 1 0 1 very different properties because of their shapes.
  • 29. Let’s move on now to round 2, Score Board Ionic Compounds. All the Al Bill Francis Ben Sue questions are be worth 3 points. 9 -2 1 0 1 Ben is still not on the board. So what? I’m on the C note!
  • 30. Score Board Question 1. What is an ion? Al Bill Francis Ben Sue Al? 9 -2 1 0 1
  • 31. When atoms gain or lose an electron they become ions. An ion is a charged Score Board atom. By losing an electron, the sodium atom becomes a sodium ion with a charge of +1. By gaining an Al electron,Bill chlorine atom becomes a the Francis Ben Sue 9 -2 1 0 1 chloride ion with a charge of -1 (when chlorine becomes an ion, the name changes to chloride).
  • 32. Score Board Very good Al. That’s worth 3 points. Next, what is a Al Bill Francis Ben Sue ionic bond? Looks like Bill is ready 12 -2 1 0 1 to take another chance.
  • 33. Score Board Al Bill Francis Ben Sue Once again, wrong! Ionic Bond is a secret Al? 12 -2 1 0 1 agent for MI 6. If I wasn’t just a drawing, I would roll my eyes.
  • 34. Score Board Sodium and chlorine formBill ionic Al an Francis Ben Sue Once again, wrong! bond because the positive sodium Al? 12 -2 1 0 1 ion is attracted to the negative chloride ion. Ionic bonds are bonds in which electrons are transferred from one atom to another. If I wasn’t just a drawing, I would roll my eyes.
  • 35. Score Board Next question. Al Bill Francis Ben Sue Do ions form molecules? 15 -5 1 0 1 Sue?
  • 36. Ionic bonds are not limited to a single pair of atoms like covalent bonds. In sodium Score Board chloride each positive sodium ion is attracted to all of the neighboring chloride ions. Likewise, each chloride ion is attracted to all the Al Bill Francis Ben Sue Very good, Sue! neighboring sodium atoms. Because the bonds are not just between pairs of 3 points to you. 15 -5 1 0 1 atoms, ionic compounds do not form molecules! In an ionic compound, each atom bonds with all of its neighbors through attraction between positive and negative charge.
  • 37. Score Board Al Bill Francis Ben Sue 15 -5 1 0 4 Sodium chloride is an ionic compound in which each positive sodium ion is attracted to all of its negative chloride neighbors and vice versa.
  • 38. The next question is a true or false question. True or false, chemical formulas can Score Board only be used for molecules. Bill? Al Aaaaaah, Francis Bill let me Ben Sue 15 -5 1 0 4 think.... I know!!! George Washington discovered the lawn mower! George never told me that.
  • 39. I’m sorry Bill, but once again you are incorrect. Al, do Score Board you have the answer? Al Bill Francis Of Ben course, Sue 15 -5 1 0 4 the answer is false. Like molecular compounds, ionic compounds also have fixed ratios of elements. For example, there is one sodium ion per chloride ion in sodium chloride. This means we can use the same type of chemical formula for ionic compounds and molecular compounds. George never told me that either.
  • 40. Alright then, next question. Can ions be multiply charged? Score Board How about it, Al? Al Bill Francis Ben Sue Of course they can. Sodium chloride involves the 15 -8 1 0 4 transfer of one electron however, ionic compounds may also be formed by the transfer of two or more electrons. A good example is magnesium chloride (MgCl2). The magnesium atom gives up two electrons to become a magnesium ion with a charge of +2 (Mg2+). Each chlorine atom gains one electron to become a chloride ion with a charge of -1 (Cl-). The ion charge is written as a superscript after the element (Mg2+, Fe3+,Cl-, etc.).
  • 41. And now, a word from our sponsor. Score Board Al Bill Francis Ben Sue 18 -8 1 0 4
  • 42. Hi Mavericks, Sue here. Remember atoms form bonds in order to release energy. Some atoms are more reactive than others. The closer they are to having the same electron structure as a noble gas, the more reactive they are. This is why the lithium and fluorine groups are so reactive.
  • 43. Well, that wraps up our show. Today’s winner is Al. Next up we have some questions so you Score Board can play along at home. Try them and don’t cheat. Al Bill Francis Ben Sue 18 -8 1 0 4