Geography essential questions eoy 2012 with answers
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Geography essential questions eoy 2012 with answers Document Transcript

  • 1. GeographyEssentialQuestionsEOY 2012.
  • 2. Geography EssentialQuestions, 2012. [EOY]1. Describe the reasons for the rising demand for land.[6Marks]The increase in population requires a growth in industries to provide for increasing demand for jobsand businesses. This increase in industries to provide more jobs and businesses to keepunemployment rate down requires a huge amount of land. For example, in Singapore, industries use10% of total land area. Thus, causing the rising demand for land.The increase in population requires an increasing demand for recreational space for families.Recreational spaces are needed to provide for the growing population, for example swimming pools,parks, nature reserves. Therefore leading to a rising demand for land.The increase of population requires a growth in agriculture to produce more food to feed thepeople. This increase in agriculture requires more land as 80% of the Earth’s land is unsuitable foragriculture due to unsuitable soils or climates. Hence, causing the increase in rising demand for land.Marks awarded: ( Marks)Comments: ( )2. Explain how increasing the price for land can beused as a response to the rising demand.The increase in population causes a growth of housing. The land area available for use in acountry or city is limited. When the demand for land increases, this equates to the increaseof price for the land. The minority might be willing to pay a higher price for the same land.However, the majority would not be willing to pay or they would buy cheaper lands andthus this would ultimately stop the overall demand for land.Marks awarded: ( Marks)Comments: ( )___________________________________________________________________________
  • 3. 3. Evaluate the various responses of increasing thesupply of land. (Land clearance, landfill, empolderingand reclaiming derelict land.)Land area is limited, and as the demand of land raises the greater the need to increase thesupply of land. One such various response to increasing land supply is Land Clearance. Landclearance is a process where land is cleared by demolishing old buildings or bydeforestation. However, deforestation causes loss of habitats for plants and animals as wellas the extinction of plant and animal species. An example of land clearance would be inSingapore, all graves in Bidadari Cemetery at Upper Aljunied Road/ Upper Serangoon Road,was exhumed to make way for new development projects. An advantage by land clearanceis that it is easier and is able to increase the amount of land available at a faster rate. Adisadvantage to land clearance would be deforestation, the burning of trees causing globalwarming which is not friendly to the environment.Another example of various responses to increase land supply is Landfill. Landfill is a methodby draining the desired land area and filling it with material to create dry land. With todaytechnology, it only allows reclamation of land for waters up to 15 metres in depth. Anexample of landfill in Singapore would be places such as Bedok, Jurong Island and ChangiAirport. There is always an advantage and disadvantage. An advantage of Landfill would bethat land is being freed and using land which used to be part of the ocean, sea to now buildbuildings or farms. A disadvantage to landfill is that land reclamation projects for landfillshave changed the seabed in the territories affecting shipping routes. This would affectSingapore’s ports as sea space is required to maintain accessibility.Another example of various responses to increase land supply is empoldering. Empolderingnormally refers to the creation of a piece of land in a low-lying area reclaimed from a bodyof water by building dykes and by drainage, which is called polder. Polders normallyconstitute areas of land reclaimed from a body of water, such as the lake or the sea, and areconsequently below the surrounding water level. The most successful empoldering projectup to date has been the Zuider Zee project in the Netherlands. An advantage of landempoldering is that the polder can be reused for agriculture and other purposes. Also,farmers are able to benefit from empoldering as they could control the water supply in theirfields.Lastly another example of a response to increase land supply is reclaiming of derelict land.Reclaiming of derelict land is to reclaim land that is damaged by natural disasters orimproper human activities. Improper human activities include improper farming or miningas well as improper waste disposal. Derelict land can be made arable again by addingfertilisers to restore nutrients lost through poor farming methods, removing or levelling outwaste heaps, filling mining pools and planting new vegetation to prevent soil erosion. Anadvantage of reclaiming derelict land is that it could make useless land to be useful again.An disadvantage of reclaiming derelict land is that it is very costly and time consuming.Marks awarded: ( Marks)Comments: ( )
  • 4. 4. Describe the process of landfill and empoldering.The landfill process is done by draining the desired area and filling it with material to createdry land. Firstly, columns of sand forced into soft clay of the seabed to make it more stable.A machine would be used to force the columns of sands (piles) into the seabed. Secondly, asand wall is built around the area to be reclaimed to keep sea water out. Sand is loaded intothe sea just outside the sand wall and stored there until it is needed. Thirdly, the sand thatwas previously loaded into the sea is sucked up and pumped into the enclosed area. Asadditional sand raises the level of the seabed to above sea level. Fourthly, the sand is thencompressed as compacted sand reduces time needed for settling. A granite wall is also builton the side facing the sea to prevent the area from being eroded by waves. Lastly, trees andvegetation are grown on the reclaimed land to prevent soil erosion. After which the land isleft to rest, the duration of rest depends on the purpose of the land in future, resting allowssand to stabilise.Empoldering normally refers to the creation of a piece of land in a low-lying area reclaimedfrom a body of water by building dykes and by drainage, which is called polder. Firstly, adike is constructed around the area to be reclaimed to keep water from coming in.Secondly, the area is drained using pumps and drainage canals. Thirdly, reeds a type ofplant, are sown by air craft to help form soil. Fourthly, after three years, the reeds are burntand the ash is used as fertilisers for the soil. Lastly, after a period of up to 15 years, thepolder is ready for growing crops, building houses and constructing roads.Marks awarded: ( Marks)Comments: ( )___________________________________________________________________________
  • 5. 5. Describe how existing land uses can be maximized.Existing land uses can be maximized by maximising use of urban land use. Mixed landdevelopments refer to areas that comprise a mixture of activities, example financial andcommercial, residential. Previously, cities were planned based on zones where differentareas on a piece of land were assigned different functions. This planning process is calledland use planning. It was impractical because people had to travel long distance to movefrom one zone to another. With mixed land use, various land uses are now connected byeffective transport systems. The competition for land is more intense in cities. High densitybuilding are in areas where there are many people living or working per unit area.Therefore, buildings are built close together to allow more residential flats to house growingpopulation and offer more offices to accommodate expanding economic activities. Today’stechnology allows the construction of taller buildings where land is scarce but high indemand. For example, Singapore has tall HDB flats in older housing estates like Bishan andToa Payoh.Existing land uses can be maximized by maximising agricultural land use. Irrigation is thewatering of crops through artificial means. It also increase yields in existing farmlands bylengthening the growing seasons. Traditional irrigation methods include diverting water tothe fields by simpler canals. Nowadays, dams are built and these dams provide irrigation allyear around. Sprinklers driven by electric pumps from dams are also widely used on modernfarms to increase the efficiency of irrigation. Terracing involves creating flat strips of land bycutting a series of steps into hill slopes. Terracing increases the area of arable land, thusmaximizing the exiting land use. Low walls built at the end of each step slow down therunoff of rain water, thus preventing soil erosion. This allows rainwater to seep into the soiland then be absorbed by plant roots. This wall also creates flooded conditions ideal forcultivation for padi.Marks Awarded: ( Marks)Comments: ( )
  • 6. 6. Evaluate the various responses of maximizing theexisting use of land.Existing land uses can be maximized by mixed land use. Mixed land developments refer to areas thatcomprise a mixture of activities, example financial and commercial, residential. Previously, citieswere planned based on zones where different areas on a piece of land were assigned differentfunctions. This planning process is called land use planning. It was impractical because people had totravel long distance to move from one zone to another. With mixed land use, various land uses arenow connected by effective transport systems. An advantage by mixed land use is that people wouldhave easy access to shops, work, recreation and schools. But an disadvantage is that residentialareas close to other functions such as industries and shopping areas may lead to traffic congestion aswell as noise and air pollution due to the increased amounts of human and vehicle traffic.Existing land uses can be maximized by high density buildings. The competition for land is moreintense in cities. High density building are in areas where there are many people living or workingper unit area. Therefore, buildings are built close together to allow more residential flats to housegrowing population and offer more offices to accommodate expanding economic activities. Today’stechnology allows the construction of taller buildings where land is scarce but high in demand. Forexample, Singapore has tall HDB flats in older housing estates like Bishan and Toa Payoh. Anadvantage for high density buildings is that it helps to reduce the rate at which the country’sremaining green spaces are developed. An disadvantage for high density buildings is that the largenumber of people in a small area may result in a more crowded environment, traffic congestion andhigher noise levels. All these may lead to increased stress levels among people and reduce theirquality of life.Existing land uses can be maximized by irrigation. Irrigation is the watering of crops through artificialmeans. It also increase yields in existing farmlands by lengthening the growing seasons. Traditionalirrigation methods include diverting water to the fields by simpler canals. Nowadays, dams are builtand these dams provide irrigation all year around. Sprinklers driven by electric pumps from dams arealso widely used on modern farms to increase the efficiency of irrigation. An advantage for irrigationis that it ensures a regular supply of water, which allows farmers to grow greater amounts and widervarieties of crops. An disadvantage is that the cost of maintenance of canals is very high.Existing land uses can be maximized by terracing. Terracing involves creating flat strips of land bycutting a series of steps into hill slopes. Terracing increases the area of arable land, thus maximizingthe exiting land use. Low walls built at the end of each step slow down the runoff of rain water, thuspreventing soil erosion. This allows rainwater to seep into the soil and then be absorbed by plantroots. This wall also creates flooded conditions ideal for cultivation for padi. An advantage for is thatterracing is an inexpensive method of increasing the area of arable land. An disadvantage forterracing is that they are difficult to construct and requires a lot of human energy and time to cutsteps into hill slopes.Marks Awarded: ( Marks)Comments: ( )
  • 7. 7. Describe the reasons for the increasing demand forwater.Increase population requires a growth in agriculture to produce more food to feed the people. Thisincrease in agriculture requires more water for watering plants and water for animals to drink. Theamount of water used for agricultural purposes in the world is 69%. Therefore, there is an increasingdemand for water.Increasing population requires a growth in industries to provide for increasing demand for productsand services. This increase in industries requires more water for cleaning and cooling the machines,as well as a raw material in making products. Thus, the increasing demand for water.Increasing population requires a change in life style as the country becomes more develop, thestandard of living as well as the incomes of the people generally increases. Basic household waterrequirements have been estimated around 50 litres per person, per day, excluding water forgardens, which is much higher in developed countries. It is estimated that 15% of water useworldwide is for household purposes. Hence, the increasing demand for water.Marks Awarded: ( Marks)Comments: ( )
  • 8. 8. Evaluate the various responses to the rising demandFor water. There are many responses to the rising demand for water. An response made to the rising demand for water would be the increasing price of water. Some countries increase the price of water to control demand of water. Due to the increasing price of water, people who do not want to pay more for water use less water. An advantage to this is that the price increase helps to reduce the rising costs of producing and distributing water. The disadvantage to increasing the price of water is that the impact on people will be uneven and those who can afford to pay more will continue to use large amounts of water. But the poor will suffer more when the price of water increases. Another response made to control the demand of water is increasing of water supply. A water catchment area is built to collect water. Rain water is intercepted by trees and then absorbed into the soil. The water eventually flows into a reservoir for storage. An advantage is the low cost needed, rain water is easier and cheaper to purify because it is much cleaner than used water and does not contain salt. A disadvantage is that this response it is not viable for small countries, which cannot afford to set aside too much land. Finally, the conserving of water helps to control the demand for water. Water conservation refers to careful use of water resources to ensure minimal wastage. Educating the public through campaigns and educating industries through talks and introduction of guidelines is a way to encourage water conservation. An advantage to water conservation is that It reduces risk of future water shortage for families and industries. As they are encouraged to use less water to prevent water supplies in reservoirs from being depleted. A disadvantage is that it is very hard to get everyone to cooperate and conserve water. Marks Awarded: ( Marks) Comments: ( )
  • 9. 9. What are the causes of air/land/water pollution?There are many causes of air pollution; one such cause is by industries. Due to the fact thatindustries burn fossil fuels, it produces harmful pollutants such as soot, sulphur dioxide andexcessive heat. Another cause of air pollution would be motor vehicles. As motor vehicles burns fuelto get energy, dust, smoke, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides are being released by the vehicleinto the air. Another cause of air pollution would be construction work, example the constructing ofthe circle line. Construction work requires clearing of land for construction of buildings andtransporting of construction materials. Dust and smoke is being released. A major cause of airpollution would be volcanic eruptions. Natural volcanic eruptions produce volcanic ash, smoke, sootand poisonous gases. These poisonous gases are being spread around in the air easily. Lastly, forestfires are also causes of air pollution as it produces dust, smoke and ashes.One cause of water pollution is the improper disposal of sewage. Sewage contains, chemicals,untreated human waste and non-biodegradable detergents. This untreated sewage is released intowater bodies. Some non-biodegradable substances, example detergents, cannot be broken down.Another cause of water pollution is oil spills. Oil spills accidents occurs at sea, it occurs when the hullof an oil tanker is torn by sharp rocks, or if the tanker collides with another ship, causing oil that isbeing carried to spill into the sea. Oil spills are very difficult to clean up, as they spread over largeareas and are not easily broken down. Another cause of water pollution is Agriculture. Agricultureuses excessive of chemical fertilisers, pesticides and herbicides and these substances are washedinto water bodies. Examples of which are Phosphates and Nitrates. These wastes encourage anexplosion in growth of algae leading to insufficient oxygen in the water. This causes plants andaquatic animals to suffocate and die. Aquatic life are also being decomposed, this further reducesoxygen levels.One cause of land pollution is domestic activities. Domestic activities causes land pollution as thereis a lack of suitable places for waste disposal. It also causes land pollution as there are insufficientcontrols over the disposal of waste. Pollutants such as non-biodegradable wastes like plastic andmetals are released. Another cause of land pollution is industries. As industries produces largeamounts of chemicals and hard wastes, it is not disposed properly thus, causing land pollution. Toxicchemicals, metals and industrial wastes are released. Another cause of land pollution is mining.Mining causes land pollution as large amounts of waste materials from mining sites are left behindafter minerals have been extracted. These waste materials include toxic chemicals, radioactivewastes and mining wastes. Lastly, another cause of land pollution is agricultural activities.Agricultural activities causes land pollution as soil contamination through excessive use of chemicalfertilisers, pesticides and herbicides. Due to the excessive use of pesticides, pests develop resistanceto pesticides overtime. Farmers are then being forced to use even more pesticides, worsening soilcontamination.Marks Awarded: ( Marks)Comments: ( )
  • 10. 10. What are the effects of air/land/water pollution?Industry causes land pollution and these pollutants they release causes health hazards to those withrespiratory disease, example asthma, bronchitis. These pollutants causes heart and lung diseases orcancer, it also dirties and corrodes buildings due to the acidic substance. Acid rain kills fishes in riversand lakes and visibility is reduced. Motor Vehicles cause a huge 90% of air pollution in urban areas,as due to the advance in technology, there are more motor vehicles used. The carbon monoxide andnitrogen oxide released worsens the human respiratory system. Construction work also worsens thehuman respiratory system and dirties buildings. Also, the pollutants being released can be carried bywind easily to nearby residential areas. Volcanic eruptions and forest fires, causes damage to naturalvegetation, wildlife and settlements. Due to the amount of ash, soot and smoke produces, nearbycountries can be affected by the resulting haze, visibility is reduced and air traffic affected. Healthhazards as well are caused to those with respiratory problems like asthmatic people.Improper disposal of sewage destroys aquatic life. Chemicals encourage algae to grow this preventssunlight from reaching aquatic plants. Health hazard for people who consume polluted aquaticplants and animals example birth deformities. To clear this pollution is very costly and it may takeyears for plants and animal life to be restored. Oil spills prevents aquatic plants fromphotosynthesising as there is a layer of oil on water surface. Sea birds and mammals freeze to deathfrom cold when layer of oil prevents them from trapping air between their bodies and hair. Hair ismade for animals to act as a layer of insulation. Sea birds may drown as the oil on their wingsprevents them from flying. The livelihoods of fishermen are affected, as they will have lesser animalsto catch and sell, tourism revenue is also affected. To clear oil spills, is very costly and takes manyworkers and many years to complete. Agriculture pollution of the water affects the aquatic life andcauses death. Chemicals that are washed into the water bodies accumulate in plants and animalswhich are in contact with polluted water bodies. These are a health hazard to humans as whenconsumed, birth deformities occur.Domestic activities affects the quality of life in surrounding area due to bad smells and also causesenvironmental eyesore. These are a health hazard to humans because improperly disposed wastesattract pests like rats and insects, which can spread diseases. Industrial activities contaminate plantsand animals in turn become a health hazard to humans when consumed. It is costly to dispose ofproperly, and costly to treat it. Mining destroys surrounding vegetation and wildlife, after which theland becomes unusable. Agricultural activities causes cancer, birth defects, miscarriages, skinproblems. These are effects that can be caused by health hazard due to agricultural activities.Poisoning of wildlife, example brittle shells in birds’ eggs, deformed chicks leads to a danger ofextinction in some species.Marks Awarded: ( Marks)Comments: ( )
  • 11. 11. Evaluate the various measures taken to reduceair/land/water pollution at different levels (individual,national and international.).As individuals, one of the main ways is “Reduce, Reuse and Recycle”. Examples of “Reduce, Reuseand Recycle” are, firstly reducing the amount of polluting materials such as disposal products such aspaper and cups and pesticides that are used on land. Secondly, we individuals could reuse materialssuch as plastic bags, or any waste materials which come from forests and factories. Lastly,individuals, could recycle, materials which are recyclable into new forms examples, plastics madeinto furniture and newspapers recycled into new paper products. But, it has to be acknowledgedthat there are always disadvantaged and advantages. An advantage of this is that, it is easy toimplement, but a disadvantage is that it cannot be enforced, people can only be encouraged tocomply with measures but not forced.As a national level, governments can make laws to require organizations to recycle materials and tominimize land, water and air pollution. Laws can be passed to require individuals to dispose wasteproperly and to refrain from making excessive noise. Fines and taxes are used to enforce these laws.Governments can also limit the use of toxic chemicals, or banning the use of very acidic chemicals toprevent pollution. Public education to reduce, reuse and recycle materials can also be made, byadvertisements, school programmes and workshops for industries to make people better informedand act more responsibly to reduce pollution. They could also decide where waste matter is put, andin state, sealed, incinerated or buried in a land fill. An advantage would be that measures can beenforced through laws. People, who do not, can be met with penalties such as fines. A disadvantageis that some measures may affect industries economically and these industries may choose to locateelsewhere affecting the economy of the country.At the international level, an example is the agreement that was made between Singapore,Indonesia and Malaysia to check and monitor ocean-going ships passing through the straits ofMalacca and Singapore Straits to minimise sea pollution. Agreements were also made between theAssociation of South-East Asian Nations to reduce slash and burn activities in the forests of theIndonesian islands of Borneo and Sumatra to minimise impact of haze on neighbouring countries. Anadvantage is that if all countries comply with the agreed measures, the effects of these measuresdue to the extent at which the solutions are carried out. A disadvantage is that Countries cannot beforced to adopt the measures. Even if countries adopt the measures, it will be difficult to enforce ifthe country does not comply with the agreed measures.Marks Awarded: ( Marks)Comments: ( )
  • 12. 12. Explain the greenhouse effect.The greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon in which gases which make up the Earth’satmosphere absorb heat from the Sun, warming the Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere. TheEarth radiates heat into the atmosphere, some of this heat escapes into space. Some of the heat isabsorbed by the greenhouse gases which heats up and radiate the heat back to Earth.Marks Awarded: ( Marks)Comments: ( )13. Describe the causes of global warming.One of the causes of global warming is the burning of fossil fuels. The main reason why fossil fuelsare burnt, is because it generate electricity that we need daily. During burning at factories, fossilfuels which contain carbon in solid form, is changed into carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide itself trapsheat, with this additional amount of carbon dioxide added into the air, more heat is being trappedwhich increases the temperature.Another reason for global warming is deforestation. Around 15 million hectares of rainforests arecleared every year and burning forests to clear land releases carbon dioxide. When trees are burnt,we release carbon dioxide trapped in the trees in form of carbon. As trees also change carbondioxide into oxygen by photosynthesis, fewer trees would mean that more carbon dioxide is notchanged into oxygen.Marks Awarded: ( Marks)Comments: ( )
  • 13. 14. Describe the consequences of global warming.Changes in weather conditions are consequences of global warming. It is estimated that by 2100, theearth’s average temperature will increase by another 1.5 degree Celsius to 4.5 degree Celsius. Thiswill lead to an huge increase in evaporation rates, resulting in severe droughts since drier areas ofthe world will become even drier. Water shortages will affect plant, animal and human lives.Rising sea levels are another consequences of global warming. Sea levels are likely to rise as a resultof global warming because water expands when it’s temperature increases. The increasingtemperature also causes polar ice caps in the North and South Pole to melt, leading to a rise in sealevels of 20 to 50 centimetres by 2050. This put low-lying islands and cities at major risks of beingflooded and eventually submerged under water.Lastly, there will be a huge impact on plants. Excessive use of chemical fertilisers, pesticides andherbicides for plants are being washed into water bodies. These wastes encourage an explosion ingrowth of aquatic plants leading to insufficient oxygen in the water. Both plants and aquatic animalssuffocate and die, due to the lack of oxygen. Death of aquatic life, further reduces oxygen levels dueto decomposition.Marks Awarded: ( Marks)Comments: ( )
  • 14. 15. Evaluate the measures to reduce the impact ofglobal warming. (Individual, national and international.)As individuals, we could start to reduce the impact of global warming by using low-energy electriclight bulbs, with high energy-saving ratings. Not only so, individuals could play a part by offingelectrical appliances if not in use. Examples, lights and fans not at home but also in school and airconditioners. Also, we could reduce our usage of paper as paper comes from trees; this reduces theamount of trees being cut down. As trees helps us change carbon dioxide into oxygen. We can reuseour old papers as rough paper to draft out any ideas if necessary instead of taking new pieces ofpaper. Individuals could also recycle the paper we use, putting them into the recycling bin instead ofthrowing it away and letting it be burned. Using public transport, walking and cycling instead ofusing cars can reduce carbon dioxide emissions from motor vehicles and lower energy needs. Anadvantage is that it is easy to implement. A disadvantage is that, it cannot be enforced. People canonly be encouraged to comply with measures but not forced to do it.Governments could close down older, coal-fired power stations and switching to cleaner, gas firedones, or those that use nuclear or hydro-electric energy. Developing renewable sources of energysuch as wind farms and solar panels that do not produce greenhouse gases could be built too. Usingsolar panels we can recycle heat and change it into energy, instead of burning fossil fuels.Governments could also regulate car manufacturing to reduce petrol consumption and exhaustemissions; this reduces the amount of greenhouse gases produce. Lastly, they could provide anefficient and pleasant public transport system. Cars could use gases instead of burning oil. Anadvantage is that measures can be enforced through laws. Non-compliance can be met withpenalties such as fines. An disadvantage is that some measures may affect industries economicallyand these industries may choose to locate else where affecting the economy of the country.International efforts could be made by gathering all the countries to agree on cutting greenhousegases. An example of one such event is the Kyoto Protocol. World leaders met in Kyoto, Japan in1997 and agreed to cut greenhouse gases by an average of 5.5% by 2010 from the 1990 levels. Mostcountries agreed to it except the United States of America, Russia and Australia, agreed to the cuts.Also countries could encourage one another by helping in production of low energy electric lightbulbs, air conditioners, yet highly efficient. Also set a standard for exhaust emissions by cars,regulating them to reduce petrol consumption. An advantage of international efforts is that if allcountries comply with the agreed measures, the effects of these measures adopted can be veryeffective due to the extent at which the solutions are carried out. A disadvantage to it is thatcountries cannot be forced to adopt the measures. Even if countries adopt the measures, it will bedifficult to enforce if the country does not comply with the agreed measures.Marks Awarded: ( Marks)Comments: ( )