Types of iron and steel

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Types of iron and steel

  1. 1. Types of Iron and Steel<br />By: Karan Vohra – B.Tech IIT BHU <br />(Department of Metallurgical Engineering)<br />
  2. 2. Pig iron<br />C- 3.5 to 4.5% (makes it brittle)<br />Si - 0.5 to 1.2%<br />Mn- 0.4 to 1.0%<br />P – 0.15%<br />S- 0.04%<br />Not suitable for any commercialapplication.Further sent for steel makingor foundries.<br />2<br />
  3. 3. Cast iron carbon content between 2.5%-4% <br /> because of its ease of castability…..<br />Si - 1 to 3 wt%<br /><ul><li>GREY CAST IRON (graphitic microstructure)</li></ul>C - 2.5 to 4.0% <br />Si - 1 to 3% (graphite stabilizing )<br />Mn- 0.5 to 0.8%, P – 0.2%, S- 0.1%<br />Excellent damping capacity, Low solidification shrinkage<br />Good lubricant<br /><ul><li>WHITE CAST IRON</li></ul>Cementitic microstructure<br />C - 2.5 to 4.0% <br />Si - 0.2 to 0.6% (low , so cementite stabilizing )<br />Mn- 0.5 to 0.8%, P – 0.2%, S- 0.1%<br />Excellent compression strength<br />WCI + GCI used in ball mills<br /><ul><li> MALLEABLE IRON –</li></ul>C - 0.08 to 0.5 wt% plus slag inclusions<br />Si - 1 to 3 wt%<br />Mn- 0.5 to 0.8%<br />P – 0.2%<br />S- 0.1%Electrical fittings, hand tools, pipe fittings<br />3<br />
  4. 4. DUCTILE / SG/ NODULAR IRON<br />C: 3.3 to 3.4% Si: 2.2 to 2.8% Mn: 0.1 to 0.5% Mg: 0.03 to 0.05% P: 0.005 to 0.04% S: 0.005 to 0.02%<br /> High Ductility due to nodular graphite inclusions<br /> Mg is the nodulizer<br /> Application: Trucks, Tractors, oil well pumps<br />
  5. 5. Steel carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1% <br /><ul><li>Low carbon steel contains approximately 0.05–0.15% carbon
  6. 6. Mild steel contains 0.16–0.29% carbon</li></ul>Amenability to welding and tooling. Application: Sheeting and structural forms<br /><ul><li>Mediumcarbon steel</li></ul> Approximately 0.30–0.59% carbon content.<br /> Balances ductility and strength and has good wear resistance<br />Application: in large parts, forging and automotive components, railway tracks<br /><ul><li>High carbon steel</li></ul> Approximately 0.6–0.99% carbon content.<br /> Great hardness and brittleness.<br /> Application: Dies and cutting tools <br /><ul><li>Ultra-high carbon steel</li></ul> Approximately 1.0–2.0% carbon content<br /> Application: knives, axles or punches <br /><ul><li>Spring steel</li></ul>1.50-1.80% Si, 0.70-1.00% Mn and 0.52-0.60% C<br />very high yield strength.<br />Si is the main element<br />5<br />
  7. 7. Alloy Steel (contains non-carbon elements)<br /><ul><li>Application: jet engines, aircrafts, nuclear reactors, electric motors, transformers
  8. 8. HSLA steel: high formability and weldability
  9. 9. Tool steel</li></ul>C - 0.7 to 1.5% <br />Ni-0.3% <br />Cr- 5% <br />Mn-0.5-1.5% (low to minimize the <br />Possibility of cracking during quenching) <br />Mo- 0.9-1.4%<br />V-0.15-1.0%<br />Heat treated state<br /><ul><li>Maraging steel</li></ul>17–19% nickel, <br />8–12% cobalt, <br />3–5% molybdenum, <br />0.2–1.6% titaniumSuperior strength and toughness<br />Low carbon<br />Application: PSLV/GSLV, golf sticks<br />6<br />
  10. 10. Alloy Steel (continued……)<br /><ul><li>Stainless steel</li></ul>Something which is “inoxydable”<br />Cr – minimum of 10-11% by mass<br />High tensile strength<br />Resistant to abrasion and corrosion<br />Application: Razor blades, swords, scissors, etc.<br /><ul><li>Weathering steel</li></ul>eliminates the need for painting, and form a stable rust like appearanceApplication: railway carriage<br />Carbon- 0.12-0.16%<br />Ni-0.40-0.65% <br />Cr-0.4- 1.0% <br />Mn-0.2-1.25% <br />Cu-0.2–0.5% <br />Si- 0.25-0.75%<br />S- 0.030%<br />P-0.030-0.15%<br />7<br />
  11. 11. Wrought iron/ Wootz Steel<br />something worked with hand….. <br /><ul><li>highly rust resistant,
  12. 12. welts easily,
  13. 13. 'worked' into chains and ornamental ironwork such as gates and railings.
  14. 14. is more suitable for forging or rolling</li></ul>C - 0.05 to 0.25 wt% <br />Fe- 99-99.8%<br />plus slag inclusions which mostly contains<br />Si - 0.02-0.2wt%<br />Mn- 0.01 to 0.1%<br />P – 0.05 to 0.2%(increase corrosion resistance)<br />S- 0.02-0.1% (decrease corrosion resistance)<br />8<br />

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