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Types of iron and steel Types of iron and steel Presentation Transcript

  • Types of Iron and Steel
    By: Karan Vohra – B.Tech IIT BHU
    (Department of Metallurgical Engineering)
  • Pig iron
    C- 3.5 to 4.5% (makes it brittle)
    Si - 0.5 to 1.2%
    Mn- 0.4 to 1.0%
    P – 0.15%
    S- 0.04%
    Not suitable for any commercialapplication.Further sent for steel makingor foundries.
    2
  • Cast iron carbon content between 2.5%-4%
    because of its ease of castability…..
    Si - 1 to 3 wt%
    • GREY CAST IRON (graphitic microstructure)
    C - 2.5 to 4.0%
    Si - 1 to 3% (graphite stabilizing )
    Mn- 0.5 to 0.8%, P – 0.2%, S- 0.1%
    Excellent damping capacity, Low solidification shrinkage
    Good lubricant
    • WHITE CAST IRON
    Cementitic microstructure
    C - 2.5 to 4.0%
    Si - 0.2 to 0.6% (low , so cementite stabilizing )
    Mn- 0.5 to 0.8%, P – 0.2%, S- 0.1%
    Excellent compression strength
    WCI + GCI used in ball mills
    • MALLEABLE IRON –
    C - 0.08 to 0.5 wt% plus slag inclusions
    Si - 1 to 3 wt%
    Mn- 0.5 to 0.8%
    P – 0.2%
    S- 0.1%Electrical fittings, hand tools, pipe fittings
    3
  • DUCTILE / SG/ NODULAR IRON
    C: 3.3 to 3.4% Si: 2.2 to 2.8% Mn: 0.1 to 0.5% Mg: 0.03 to 0.05% P: 0.005 to 0.04% S: 0.005 to 0.02%
    High Ductility due to nodular graphite inclusions
    Mg is the nodulizer
    Application: Trucks, Tractors, oil well pumps
  • Steel carbon content between 0.2% and 2.1%
    • Low carbon steel contains approximately 0.05–0.15% carbon
    • Mild steel contains 0.16–0.29% carbon
    Amenability to welding and tooling. Application: Sheeting and structural forms
    • Mediumcarbon steel
    Approximately 0.30–0.59% carbon content.
    Balances ductility and strength and has good wear resistance
    Application: in large parts, forging and automotive components, railway tracks
    • High carbon steel
    Approximately 0.6–0.99% carbon content.
    Great hardness and brittleness.
    Application: Dies and cutting tools
    • Ultra-high carbon steel
    Approximately 1.0–2.0% carbon content
    Application: knives, axles or punches
    • Spring steel
    1.50-1.80% Si, 0.70-1.00% Mn and 0.52-0.60% C
    very high yield strength.
    Si is the main element
    5
  • Alloy Steel (contains non-carbon elements)
    • Application: jet engines, aircrafts, nuclear reactors, electric motors, transformers
    • HSLA steel: high formability and weldability
    • Tool steel
    C - 0.7 to 1.5%
    Ni-0.3%
    Cr- 5%
    Mn-0.5-1.5% (low to minimize the
    Possibility of cracking during quenching)
    Mo- 0.9-1.4%
    V-0.15-1.0%
    Heat treated state
    • Maraging steel
    17–19% nickel,
    8–12% cobalt,
    3–5% molybdenum,
    0.2–1.6% titaniumSuperior strength and toughness
    Low carbon
    Application: PSLV/GSLV, golf sticks
    6
  • Alloy Steel (continued……)
    • Stainless steel
    Something which is “inoxydable”
    Cr – minimum of 10-11% by mass
    High tensile strength
    Resistant to abrasion and corrosion
    Application: Razor blades, swords, scissors, etc.
    • Weathering steel
    eliminates the need for painting, and form a stable rust like appearanceApplication: railway carriage
    Carbon- 0.12-0.16%
    Ni-0.40-0.65%
    Cr-0.4- 1.0%
    Mn-0.2-1.25%
    Cu-0.2–0.5%
    Si- 0.25-0.75%
    S- 0.030%
    P-0.030-0.15%
    7
  • Wrought iron/ Wootz Steel
    something worked with hand…..
    • highly rust resistant,
    • welts easily,
    • 'worked' into chains and ornamental ironwork such as gates and railings.
    • is more suitable for forging or rolling
    C - 0.05 to 0.25 wt%
    Fe- 99-99.8%
    plus slag inclusions which mostly contains
    Si - 0.02-0.2wt%
    Mn- 0.01 to 0.1%
    P – 0.05 to 0.2%(increase corrosion resistance)
    S- 0.02-0.1% (decrease corrosion resistance)
    8