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Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
Steel Plates - Product Research
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Steel Plates - Product Research

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  • 1. KOMAL KUMAR GAUTAM IIT BOMBAY
  • 2. MANUFACTURING PROCESS
  • 3. METALLURGY OF PLATE ROLLING
  • 4. Process for Producing Heavy Plates
  • 5. The Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP) Through TMCP, very fine and uniform ferrite microstructure is obtained and results in higher strength and toughness. The plate is also less susceptible to cold cracking and has better weldability. Concept Of Microstructure Change During TMCP
  • 6. The Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP) Advantages • Superior weldability due to lower carbon equivalent (Ceq) • Better formability • Excellent mechanical properties (high strength and toughness) attained through fine microstructure • Shorter processing time as no heat treatment is required
  • 7. Normalising The process of producing a stable microstructure by heating it to the high temperature austenite and slowly cooling it. Advantages • Refines and ensures homogenous structure • Reduces residual stresses from rolling • Reduces the risk of "banding”
  • 8. Quenching and Tempering This is a conventional process used to harden or strengthen steel. During quenching, the austenite is converted to martensite. The quenched alloy is then tempered at an intermediate temperature to transform the brittle martensite into a very fine dispersion of cementite (iron carbide) phase in an iron ferrite matrix.
  • 9. Quenching and Tempering Advantages • Increases hardness for better wear and abrasion resistance • Improves ductility and toughness • Reduces cracking • Increases impact resistance
  • 10. PLATE MILL FACILITIES Equipments • Rolling mills, ADCO facilities, roller tables, cooling beds, hot and cold levellers, including automation and control systems • Digital reheating furnace • Heat treatment facilities covering austenising and normalising, quenching and tempering furnaces • Auto UT testing • Shot blasting and painting • Roll grinders
  • 11. PLATE MILL FACILITIES • Digital Reheating Furnaces Equipped with side burners and split into different control zones for uniform heat transfer. The digital furnaces eliminate hot spots and reduce excess scale formation on slab. • Rolling Mill High roll separating force of 10,000 tonnes, almost double compared to some of the other plate mills - generates extremely fine grain properties on plates. The mill is supported by a fully automatic gauge controller, plan view rolling and flatness gauge to achieve a high degree of profile, even for very thick plates. • Thermo-Mechanical Controlled Rolling (TMCR) and Accelerated Direct Cooling (ADCO) Thermo mechanical rolling and DQ (direct quenching) equipped with ADCO facility for high strength plates - can be used in demanding applications for the oil & gas sector and other segments.
  • 12. PLATE MILL FACILITIES • Hot Leveller A leveling force of 4000 tonnes, generates excellent flatness, zero distortion and an optimally adjusted even surface. The rollers flatten plates up to 1/2 ASTM tolerance. • Shearing Units Equipped with different types of mechanical shears such as crop shears, double side cut shears, slitting shears and dividing shears, the steel plates can be customized to size and widths as specified by the customer. Mechanical cutting as opposed to burning also leads to lesser heat treated zones and better utilization and yield. • Heat Treatment Heat treatment facility with austenising, normalizing, quenching and tempering to provide desired properties of steel plates. Furnace normalization is done in an inert atmosphere with indirect radiant type heating to ensure no scales are formed on the surface of the plates, leading to a better yield. Quenched & Tempered facilities spray the plates with more than 10,000 cubic metres of water in two minutes.
  • 13. PLATE MILL FACILITIES • Ultrasonic Testing 100% ultrasonic testing is performed for plates up to 50 mm thickness using an image comparator and without any manual intervention. To keep it perfectly aligned the testing unit is recalibrated every day. Testing of plates above 60mm thickness is done manually by an international third party inspection agency. • Marking and Traceability All plates produced are marked with unique identification mark for traceability using paint marking, mechanical stamping and bar coding.
  • 14. STANDARD GRADES
  • 15. PLATE APPLICATIONS Type Application Boilers and Pressure Vessels High strength alloyed steel plates Sub-critical to super-critical boilers applications High strength steel plates High pressure applications Normalised steel plates Low-temperature applications Yellow Goods & Mining Equipment Ultra high strength steel plates with superior toughness Structures like - Truck body - Arm - Support structures High abrasion and wear resistant steel plates Shovels, quarries & mines equipment crushers, buffer bins, buckets, dump trucks Line Pipe High strength and ultra tough steel plates - Line pipes carrying different fluids, gases - Offshore structural application Defence High strength, hardness, toughness and anti-ballistics steel plates Armour tanks, mine protective vehicles Ultra high strength and toughness, bulletproof steel Personal and vehicle protection Special alloy steel plates Naval warships, submarines
  • 16. PLATE APPLICATIONS Type Application General Engineering / Fabrication High strength steel plates with excellent weldability General engineering / fabrication Shipbuilding Ultra high strength and tough steel plates - Merchant ships, cargo, bulk carriers, submarine hulls - Low-temperature applications Construction Ultra high strength and tough steel plates Dams, bridges, buildings, power plant structures, penstock Atmospheric corrosion resistant steel plates Offshore platforms, bridges, building structure Seawater corrosion resistant steel plates Bridges, offshore platforms, structures Wind Engineering Higher width high strength steel plates Conical sections of long wind towers
  • 17. PLATES FOR BOILERS AND PRESSURE VESSELS Applications Boilers: • Power plants • Process industries • Refineries • Coal gasifiers • Petrochemical exchangers Pressure Vessels: • Process industries • Power plants • Nuclear power plants Properties Required During Service Generally, steel plates are hot / cold formed to desired shape for major boilers to withstand high temperature, pressure and adverse corrosive environments. Since boilers and pressure vessels carry high pressure and temperature fluids and hold low temperature fluids, the steel plates are required to have high strength, toughness, ductility and corrosion resistance. Due to high temperature applications, the steel plates should have excellent creep resistant properties.
  • 18. PLATES FOR BOILERS AND PRESSURE VESSELS Mechanical Properties • High strength • Good low-temperature toughness • High corrosion resistance, high resistance to HIC, SSCC and embrittlement • High creep resistance Metallurgy Composition / Treatment Result Clean steel with low S and P Improved strength and toughness Furnace normalisation Improved mechanical properties and fatigue resistance Vacuum Degassing Clean steel
  • 19. PLATES FOR YELLOW GOODS & MINING EQUIPEMENT Applications • Mines and quarries • Agricultural machinery • Vehicle manufacturing • Cement works • Dump trucks • Front loaders • Crushers • Booms Challenges During Usage The plates used in yellow goods are subjected to land mines, hard rocks, loading bulk material, shovels, crushing units, etc. The plates are therefore required to have high strength and toughness and excellent abrasion and wear resistance.
  • 20. PLATES FOR YELLOW GOODS & MINING EQUIPEMENT Mechanical Properties • High strength • High hardness • High abrasion and wear resistance • Good weldability Metallurgy Composition / Treatment Result Low S, P and H High toughness Optimum alloy chemistry with C, Mn and other alloying elements High strength and toughness Alloying of special elements like Cr, Mo and Ni Improved abrasion and wear resistance Quenching and tempering Desired mechanical properties
  • 21. PLATES FOR LINE PIPE Applications • Transport of oil, gas, water • Offshore structures Challenges During Usage Pipes are required to withstand very high hoop / circumferential stress generated due to the transport elements. These are built across different geographies, and thus would require good corrosive resistance to Sulphide Stress Corrosion Cracking (SSCC) and Hydrogen Induced Cracking (HIC), a high Ductile to Brittle Transition Temperature (DBTT) and a good Drop Weight Tear Test (DWTT) value.
  • 22. PLATES FOR LINE PIPE Mechanical Properties • High strength • Good low-temperature toughness • High corrosion resistance to HIC and SSCC • Good weldability Metallurgy Composition / Treatment Result Low C and very low S and P High strength and toughness Clean steel Improved resistance to HIC and toughness Addition of Micro-alloying elements like Nb, Ti, V Reduced DBTT and increased DWTT TMCR Improved strength and toughness
  • 23. DEFENCE Applications • Armoured vehicles • Mine protective vehicles • Protective buildings • Security vehicles Challenges During Usage The plates used for defence have to face battlefield conditions like land mines, rockets, high momentum bullets and other blast materials. They are therefore required to have excellent toughness, high strength, high hardness and good ballistic properties.
  • 24. DEFENCE Mechanical Properties • High strength, up to 1,500 MPa tensile strength • Good low-temperature toughness • High corrosion resistance • Good weldability • NIJ Level-III for anti-ballistic properties Metallurgy Composition / Treatment Result Proper alloy design having micro-alloys such as Mo, Cr, Ni, B and others Desired toughness, strength, hardness and ballistic properties
  • 25. PLATES FOR SHIPBUILDING Applications • Offshore structures • Bulk carriers • Tankers • Barges Challenges During Usage Plates for marine applications must endure adverse load conditions like corrosion and large cyclical loads - wave loading, sea slap and slamming thermal excursions in tropical and arctic seas, vibration and cargo buoyancy. Thus, steel plates require high strength coupled with good low-temperature toughness, through thickness properties, corrosion and fatigue resistance, and tight dimensional tolerances. One of the most important requirements is toughness in the base plate and in the HAZ regions.
  • 26. PLATES FOR SHIPBUILDING Mechanical Properties • High strength • Good low-temperature toughness • High corrosion resistance • Excellent high and low cycle fatigue properties • Excellent weldability due to lower carbon equivalent and HAZ toughness Metallurgy Composition / Treatment Result Clean steel, with very low S content Avoid lamellar tearing Optimal carbon equivalent (Ceq) with low carbon and micro-alloying elements Good mechanical properties and good weldability
  • 27. PLATES FOR GENERAL ENGINEERING / FABRICATION Applications • Equipment manufacturing • Forging and industrial fabrication • Kilns • Gates for hydro projects • Crane girders • Turbine runners Challenges During Usage The plates are required to have high strength, toughness, corrosion resistance and good weldability.
  • 28. PLATES FOR GENERAL ENGINEERING / FABRICATION Mechanical Properties • High strength • High toughness • Good weldability • Good corrosion resistance Metallurgy Composition / Treatment Result Optimum alloy design and TMCR High strength, high toughness and good corrosion resistance
  • 29. PLATES FOR CONSTRUCTION Applications • Civil structures • Bridges • Dams • Highways • Power projects • Mega residential and commercial complexes • Telecom towers • Hydro Project • Offshore Project Challenges During Usage Plates used for this segment are pre-fabricated structures and range from low strength to high strength depending on the application. These plates must have good corrosion resistance, toughness, weldability and dimensional tolerances.
  • 30. PLATES FOR CONSTRUCTION Mechanical Properties • High strength • High corrosion resistance • Good weldability Metallurgy Composition / Treatment Result Optimum alloy design and TMCR High strength and toughness Low levels of S and P Improved toughness Furnace normalisation on demand Uniform mechanical properties
  • 31. PLATES FOR WIND ENGINEERING Application • Conical sub-sections of wind towers Challenges During Usage The plates used in wind engineering are subjected to high wind, tower and buckling loads due to rotation of blades. The plates are required to have high strength and toughness, good weldability and formability.
  • 32. PLATES FOR WIND ENGINEERING Mechanical Properties • High strength, up to 690 MPa tensile strength • Good weldability • Good corrosion resistance • Weldbead bend taste on demand Metallurgy Composition / Treatment Result Clean steel with low S and P Improved toughness Optimal alloy design containing C, Mn, and High strength and toughness other micro-alloying elements like Nb, V and Ti TMCR / Normalised roll Desired mechanical properties
  • 33. TESTING FACILITIES • Optical emission spectrometer • Universal testing machine with elevated temperature testing with a capacity of 1,200 KN • Universal testing machine with a capacity of 2,000 KN • Cold bend tester with a capacity of 1,000 KN • Drop weight tear tester with a capacity of 80,000 J • Impact tester with a capacity of 450 J • Vicker hardness tester • Rockwell cum Brinell hardness tester • Metallurgical microscope with 1000 X Magnification • NACE testing facilities • Simulation heat treatment furnace • Through thickness testing • Weldbead bend test on demand
  • 34. MARKING • Paint marking • Mechanical stamping • Bar coding R & D FACILITIES • SME with EADX and EDSD • Micro hardness • Optical microscopy

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