Steel Naming Conventions

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Steel Naming Conventions

  1. 1. NAMING CONVENTIONS OF STEEL AIM: TO HELP GUESS THE END USE FROM GRADES
  2. 2. AVAILABLE GRADING SYSTEMS• SAE steel grades• British Standards• International Organization for Standardization ISO/TS 4949:2003 For Steel only• European standards - EN 10027• Japanese steel grades : JIS standard• Germany steel grades : DIN standard• China steel grades : GB standard• Unified Numbering System (UNS) of ASTM Int. For alloys in general• The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).
  3. 3. FOR INDIAN STEEL INDUSTRYAmerican Standards : AISI & SAE seriesBritish Standards : EN & RVSS seriesGerman Standards : DIN seriesJapanese Standards : JIS seriesIndian Standards : IS seriesIndian Railways : RDSO seriesFrench Standards : AFNOR seriesState Road Transport : ASTRU seriesStandards
  4. 4. BS EN STANDARDS USED• BS EN 10079:1992 : It is a Reference standard which defines steel products based on their physical properties a) Their shape and dimensions b) Their appearance and surface condition• BS EN 10027-1:1992:The steel grade names consist of alpha numerical characters and define two main designation systems.
  5. 5. STEELS DESIGNATION (BS EN 10027-1:1992) ON THE BASIS OF THEIR USE AND THEIR MECHANICAL PROPERTIES.Letter Application Mechanical Property that is indicatedS Structural Steel Minimum Yield StrengthP Pressure Purposes Minimum Yield StrengthL Line Pipe Minimum Yield StrengthE Engineering Minimum Yield StrengthB Reinforcing Steel Characteristic Yield CaseY Pre-stressing Steel Minimum Yield CaseR Rails Minimum Yield CaseH High Strength Cold Rolled Minimum Yield CaseD Flat Products for Cold Forming C, D or X followed by two numbers characterising steelT Tinmill Products Nominal Yield Case 100 x specific loss in W/kg, "—"M Electrical Steel 100 x nom thick in mm Letter for type of steel (A,B,E,N,S or P) Eg. S420 designates a structural steel(S) with a specified yield strength of 420MPa
  6. 6. BS EN 10027-1:1992 STEELS DESIGNATION ON THE BASIS OF THEIR CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONCarbon Steel : According to AISI (American Iron and SteelInstitute) , a steel can be called carbon steel when no minimumpercentage of other alloying elements is mandatory forobtaining the desired properties. And the percentagecomposition {by weight } does not exceed – • 1.65 for Mn • 0.6 for Si • 0.6 for CuBS EN 10027-1:1992 designation : The grade name is „C‟followed by a number „XX‟ where XX is ( PC of carbon* 100)Eg: a “C56” steel is essentially a carbon steel with 0.56 weightpercentage of carbon
  7. 7. BS EN 10027-1:1992 STEELS DESIGNATION ON THE BASIS OF THEIR CHEMICAL COMPOSITIONAlloy Steel: Steel that does not fall under Carbon steelcriteria and have significant proportions of alloyingelements.BS EN 10027-1:1992 designation : The name consists ofX followed by (100 x Carbon %age ) then the Symbolsof alloying elements followed by numbers indicatingthe associated % contents.Eg : a “X2CrNi18-9” steel is an alloy steel with average Carbon,Chromium and Nikel percentages of 0.2%, 18 %, 9% respectively.
  8. 8. BS EN 10027-2:1992• This system gives a steel number to the grade• Grade number consists of 1 (denoting steel) followed by a point and then 4 figures. Steel Number= 1.YYXX• YY (2 digit number) represent the steel type• XX (2 digit number) does not represent anything • XX is awarded sequentially by a European Registering Office.
  9. 9. BS EN 10027-2:1992Carbon Steel :1.00XX & 1.90XX ..Base Steels1.01XX& 1.91XX ..Quality Steel , General structural steels1.02XX& 1.92XX ..Structural Steels (Not intended for heat treatment )1.03XX& 1.93XX ..Steels with average C< 0,12% 1.93XX..Steels with average C< 0,12%1.04XX& 1.94XX ..Steels with average C >= 0,12% < 0,25%1.05XX & 1.95XX..Steels with average C >= 0,25% < 0,55%1.06XX& 1.96XX ..Steels with average C > 0,55%1.07XX & 1.97XX..Steels with higher P or S content
  10. 10. BS EN 10027-2:1992Special Carbon Steel:1.10XX & 1.90XX .. Steels with special physical properties1.11XX .. Structural, Pressure vessel and engineering steels with C < 0,5%1.12XX & 1.90XX .. Structural Pressure vessel and engineering steels with C ≥ 0,5% )1.13XX .. Structural Pressure vessel and engineering steels with special requirements1.14XX .. Special steels for specific purpose1.15XX to 1.18XX .. Tool steels1.19XX .. Special steels
  11. 11. BS EN 10027-2:1992Alloy Steel : 1.08XX & 1.98XX ..Steels with special physical properties 1.09XX & 1.99XX ..Steels for other applications 1.2000 -1.2999 ..Tool Steels 1.20XX..Tool Steels-Cr 1.21XX..Tool Steels-(Cr-Si , Cr-Mn ,Cr-Mn-Si, 1.22XX..Tool Steels-(Cr-V , Cr-V_Si ,Cr-V-Mn,Cr-V-Mn_Si 1.23XX..Tool Steels .. (Cr-Mo, Cr-Mo-V, Mo-V ) 1.24XX..Tool Steels .. (W, Cr-W) 1.25XX..Tool Steels .. (W-V, Cr-W-V) 1.26XX..Tool Steels .. (other W) 1.27XX..Tool Steels .. (with Ni) 1.28XX..Other Tool Steels ) 1.29XX..Other Tool Steels ]
  12. 12. BS EN 10027-2:1992Alloy Steel : 1.3000 - 1.3999.. Special Steels 1.35XX .. Bearing Steels 1.39XX .. Ni Steels with special physical properties 1.4000 -1.4999 .. Stainless and Heat Resisting 1.43XX .. Stainless Steels ( > 2.5% Ni but without Mo & Ti) 1.44XX .. Stainless steel ( < 2,5% Ni and Mo, but without Nb and Ti) 1.5000 -1.8999 .. Structural, pressure vessel and engineering steels 1.51XX .. Structural , Pressure Vessel , Engineering Steels . (with Mn-Si, Mn-Cr) 1.61XX ..Special steels, structural, Pressure Vessel and Engineering steels 1.70XX..Cr, Cr-B And so on. . . !!!
  13. 13. SAE DESIGNATIONS FOR CARBON STEEL AND ALLOY STEEL• The name consists in 4 digits• The first digit denotes main alloying element/elements SAE designation Type1xxx Carbon steels2xxx Nickel steels3xxx Nickel-chromium steels4xxx Molybdenum steels5xxx Chromium steels6xxx Chromium-vanadium steels7xxx Tungsten steels8xxx Nickel-chromium-vanadium steels9xxx Silicon-manganese steels
  14. 14. SAE DESIGNATIONS FOR CARBON STEEL AND ALLOY STEEL• Second digit represents secondary alloying elements• The last two digits indicate the carbon content in hundredth of a percent. SAE designation Type 10xx Plain carbon (Mn 1.00% max)Eg. “1049 steel” is aplain carbon steel with 11xx Resulfurized carbon steel0.49% carbon 12xx Resulfurized and rephosphorized 15xx Plain carbon (Mn 1.00% to 1.65%) Tools and machine xxBxx Boron steels manufacturing wear plates blades fans etc xxLxx Leaded steels ductile
  15. 15. END USES OF SAE GRADES (SUPERFICIAL IDEA) Plain carbon used in noncritical structuralCylinders, turbine fabricationsblades, bolts High carbon steel used forforged products , making toolsbearings(highstress conditions) Spring , boltsFabrications forundergroundusage(high corrosion High temp and highenvironment) corrosion condition (boilers pipes furnaces) Cutting and Drilling tools
  16. 16. STAINLESS STEEL GRADESUsual representation : A three digit number sometimes followed bya letter.Series 400 (martensitic) eg. 410 440C used in : Fasteners, pump shaftsSeries 400 (ferritic) eg. 405 436S used in : automotive exhaust systems, catalytic converters, radiatorcaps, and chimney liners200/300 Series (austenitic) eg. 304 used in : Food equipment, chemical equipment, architecturalapplicationsSuffixes A,B,C are used to indicate carbon content„A‟ type will mainly be required where aesthetics is needed as it isMore stain resistant. C type is the hardest and used to make stainless steel tools and springs.
  17. 17. A TYPICAL ASTM DESIGNATIONASTM A 582/A582M-95b (2000), Grade 303Se AIndicates sequentialferrous numbermaterial Year of last revision Indicates Year of that the last re- Usually standard approval written in was SAE written in standard SI units notation
  18. 18. SYMBOLS IN EUROPEAN STANDARDS Code Condition A Annealed QT Quenched and tempered Process Codes N Normalised SR Stress relieved C Cold worked U UntreatedApplication Meaning symbolS Structural steelP Steel for pressure lines and vesselsL Steel for pipe and tube Applications CodesE Engineering steelsB Steel for reinforced concreteR Steel for rail use
  19. 19. JIS AND BS STANDARDS "JIS X 0208:1997" • X will be G for ferrous alloys and H for non-ferrous • Stainless steels ae named according to AISI conventions (SUS 304) • SUH -> Heat resistant alloysA letter that denotesthe • SCS and SCH numbers are used for stainlessarea of application steel castings.of material “BS XXXX[-P]:YYYY” Number of the year standard Sub-division number in the standard

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