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  1. 1. EGYPT
  2. 2. Egypt is very pretty and seems very interesting to learn about
  3. 3. LANGUAGE <ul><li>Egyptian is the indigenous language of Egypt and a branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family. </li></ul><ul><li>Written records of the Egyptian language have been dated from about 3400 BC, making it one of the oldest recorded languages known. </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptian was spoken until the late 17th century AD in the form of Coptic. The national language of modern-day Egypt is Egyptian Arabic. </li></ul><ul><li>Gradually replaced Coptic as the language of daily life in the centuries after the Muslim conquest of Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Coptic is still used as the liturgical language of the Coptic Church. It reportedly has a handful of native speakers today </li></ul>
  4. 4. Geography <ul><li>Location: the northeast corner of the continent of Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Size: approximately 997,740 sq. km </li></ul><ul><li>Major river: The Nile divides Egypt in half </li></ul><ul><li>Deserts: Libyan, Nubian, and Eastern. They were barriers of protection, shielding the people against invasion by surrounding civilizations </li></ul><ul><li>Topography: The highest lands are in the south and the land slopes gently toward the Mediterranean Sea. There are some mountains located on the southern Sinai peninsula. Some of these reach over 2600 meters (8530 feet high). The land at the Mediterranean is at sea level. </li></ul><ul><li>Climate: very dry; there is almost no rainfall on a regular basis. The people depend on the annual summer floods of the Nile River for water. The floods begin in June and end in October. Without the Nile, there would likely be no Egypt. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Holidays <ul><li>December 25 but Coptic Orthodox Christian is January 7 Christmas (Old Calendarists)Celebrates the nativity of Jesus Christ </li></ul><ul><li>April 25 Sinai Liberation DayCelebrates the withdrawal of Israeli troops from the Sinai peninsula </li></ul><ul><li>May 1Labour Day </li></ul><ul><li>July 23Revolution DayCelebrates the 1952 Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>October 6Armed Forces DayCelebrates The Crossing of the Suez Canal by Egyptian forces during the October War </li></ul>
  6. 6. PYRAMIDS <ul><li>The Egyptian pyramids are ancient pyramid-shaped masonry structures located in Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>There are over 100 pyramids in Egypt. Most were built as tombs for the country's Pharaohs and their consorts during the Old and Middle Kingdom periods. </li></ul><ul><li>The earliest known Egyptian pyramid is the Pyramid of Djoser which was built during the third dynasty. This pyramid and its surrounding complex were designed by the architect Imhotep, and are generally considered to be the world's oldest monumental structures constructed of dressed masonry. </li></ul><ul><li>The best known Egyptian pyramids are those found at Giza, on the outskirts of Cairo. Several of the Giza pyramids are counted among the largest structures ever built. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pyramid of Khufu at Giza is the largest Egyptian pyramid. It is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still in existence. </li></ul>
  7. 7. History <ul><li>The history of Egypt is the longest continuous history, as a unified state, of any country in the world.[ </li></ul><ul><li>The Nile valley forms a natural geographic and economic unit, bounded to the east and west by deserts, to the north by the sea and to the south by the Cataracts of the Nile. </li></ul><ul><li>The need to have a single authority to manage the waters of the Nile led to the creation of the world's first state. </li></ul><ul><li>in Egypt in about 3000 BC. Egypt's peculiar geography made it a difficult country to attack, which is why Pharaonic Egypt was for so long an independent and self-contained state. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nubians and Hyksos were among the earliest foreign rulers of Egypt, but the ancient Egyptians regained control of their country soon after their invasions. </li></ul><ul><li>The Neo-Assyrian Empire also controlled Egypt for a while before native Egyptians regained control. </li></ul>
  8. 8. La ndmark s <ul><li> Mausoleum of Aga Khan III </li></ul><ul><li>Aswān High Dam </li></ul><ul><li>Great Pyramid of Giza </li></ul><ul><li>Giza's Sphinx and the Great Pyram ids </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrimage Mural </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cuisine <ul><li>Fattah </li></ul><ul><li>Fattah is a mixture of meat cubes embedded in rice and crusted pita pieces in soup. It is a traditional meal that is enjoyed by all Egyptian and is considered the most famous dish in Egypt. It is served in the bairam feast (an Islamic holy feast after the month of Ramadan) but it can also be served at any time of the year. </li></ul>LAMB in Phyllo  I ngredient: 2 racks of lamb, deboned, fat removed  Brown sauce made with lamb stock from bones (recipe below) 1/4 cup olive oil 1 tsp. fresh thyme, chopped 4 slices prosciutto, 1 tbsp butter 2 tbsp chopped shallots and 1 garlic clove, sliced 7 oz. fresh spinach, washed, salt and pepper, 2 sheets phyllo pastry 2 tbsp butter, melted Vegetables:  8 oz. potatoes, peeled, cut in thin slices 2 tbsp vegetable oil 8 cherry tomoatoes,  4 thyme leaves This hearty and filling country dish is good for a cool, fall evening meal, served with Semit rolls (see the June issue of Tour Egypt Monthly), a green salad and Basbousa for dessert. ‘ Arnabit musa&quot;a’a – Moussaka Cauliflower Swarma (Shawerma) Method Slice meat on a bias very thin. Then slice into julienne strips. Mix together all the dry spices and sprinkle on top of the meat. Add the oil and stir. Cover and refrigerate for at least one hour. Heat a frying pan or wok. When hot add a little oil and heat. When hot, add some of the meat to form a single layer, so it is not crowded in the pan Continue to fry on the hottest heat possible, and turn the meat over so it cooks quite quickly. About 2 minutes. Remove and place on a dish. Repeat until all the meat is cooked. Add to the pan the onions and tomatoes, cook for 1/2 minute. Add the already cooked meat. Mix completely. Serve, on bread with some tahina.
  10. 10. Interesting Facts about EGYPT Cement was first invented by the Egyptians The 365 days calendar and the 24-Hour division of the day are Egyptian inventions. The Egyptians did not invent beer, but left us with the best documentation of ancient brewing practices The use of cosmetics dates from around 5,000 years ago in ancient Egypt. Their original use was to protect skin from sunlight, rather than for beauty care. The first recorded use of the flute, clarinet, oboe, and trumpet was in ancient Egypt. Some ancient Egyptians slept on pillows made out of stone. The ancient Egyptians played a game like bowling using large stones set up as pins and small stones as a ball. It is not known who destroyed the nose of the Sphinx. There are sketches of the Sphinx without a nose in 1737, over 60 years before Napoleon reached Egypt and hundreds of years before the British and German armies of the two World Wars. The only person known to have damaged it was an Islamic cleric, Sa'im al-dahr, who was lynched in 1378 for vandalism. Only about 4% of Egypt can be used for agriculture
  11. 11. Did You Know…? <ul><li>The color of the pyramids were originally white but over the years the color has changed </li></ul><ul><li>The Average Egyptian man was about 5 feet tall </li></ul>Cleopatra wasn't Egyptian, she was Greek The only one of the Seven Wonders that still survives is The Great Pyramid of Giza The real name of Egypt is actually Misr. It was the Greeks who named it Egypt after it's fall In Ancient Egypt there where just a few who knew how to read and write. About 99% did not The first man ever to be mummified was probably Osiris The Egyptians thought it was good luck to enter a house left foot first
  12. 12. And a little more… <ul><li>population tops 74 million </li></ul><ul><li>-popular religion is Muslim </li></ul><ul><li>-Egyptians were the first to invent writing </li></ul><ul><li>-earliest known wine cellars were discovered in Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>It is said that Egyptians used to shave most of the hair off thier bodies. They did this to keep away lice and other insects! </li></ul><ul><li>Which God guided people to thier afterlife? That was the jackal-headed god Anubus. He would guide them into the judgement halls of Osiris. </li></ul><ul><li>The outside layer of Tutankhamuns wrap was melted paraffin-wax. During the removal of the layers there were 97 groups of items removed! </li></ul><ul><li>What did the Egyptians use to build thier homes? They used mud brick. </li></ul><ul><li>-pharoahs never let thier hair be seen </li></ul><ul><li>-men and women wore makeup- it was said to be protectant from the sun </li></ul><ul><li>-children wore no clothes until they were teens </li></ul><ul><li>-egyptians believed the earth was flat and round </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>I learned so much about how interesting Egypt really is… </li></ul>
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