Sustainable development of fish supplies to meet food and nutrition security needs
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Sustainable development of fish supplies to meet food and nutrition security needs

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Presentation by Michael Phillips, Malcolm Beveridge and Stephen Hall on: fish and food and nutrition security; fish as food; fish, food and nutrition security scenarios in ASEAN. ...

Presentation by Michael Phillips, Malcolm Beveridge and Stephen Hall on: fish and food and nutrition security; fish as food; fish, food and nutrition security scenarios in ASEAN.

This was presented at the meeting on “Integrating Nutrition into the ASEAN Food Security Framework and Strategic Plan of Action on Food Security in ASEAN Region”, held from the 29 January – 1 February 2013 in Bangkok, Thailand.

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Sustainable development of fish supplies to meet food and nutrition security needs Sustainable development of fish supplies to meet food and nutrition security needs Presentation Transcript

  • Sustainable development of fish supplies to meet food and nutrition security needsMichael Phillips, Malcolm Beveridge and Stephen Hall
  • Overview•  Fish and food and nutrition security•  Fish as food•  Fish, food and nutrition security scenarios in ASEAN•  Key messages
  • Fish, food andnutritionsecurity andlivelihoods
  • Fish – producers, value chains, livelihoods•  Globally,120 million people engaged in capture fisheries and 40 (?) million in aquaculture: –  90% small-scale (>30% below poverty line) –  Production generates food and income –  Value chain employment (e.g. Vietnam, Bangladesh) –  Women and men
  • Fish - consumption•  Fish consumption important in many 120 120 cultures 100 Growing fisheries (0.7% per annum) Growing fisheries (0.7% per annum) Stagnant fisheries Stagnant fisheries Pig 100 Production forecast (this study) Production (million tonnes) Production (million tonnes) Production targets (national data) • • Global  consumption  rises  to  22.5   kg/y Global  consumption  rises  to  22.5   kg/y 80•  Main source of animal 80 Chicken • • Global  consumption      remains  at Global  consumption   remains  at 1996   levels  ((15.6   kg/y) 1996   levels   15.6   kg/y) protein for > 1 billion 60 60 Fish Fish Fish people 40 40 •Technological  advances  iin  aquaculture •Technological  advances   n  aquaculture 20 •Baseline  scenario •Baseline  scenario 20•  Particularly important for •Ecological  collapse  of  ffisheries •Ecological  collapse  of   isheries the poor 1950 1950 1960 1960 1970 1970 1980 1980 1990 1990 Year 2000 2000 2010 2010 2020 2020 2030 2030 Year Ye (1999) IFPRI (2003) (1999) Ye FAO IFPRI (2003) (2004) FAO (2004) Wijkstrom (2003) Wijkstrom (2003)•  Demand globally is growing
  • Fish as food
  • so … what’s in fish? – protein
  • so.. what’s in fish? - lipid source:  h$p://www.fish-­‐4-­‐ever.com/fish4health.htm    
  • essential fats in some food fishesg per 100 g; * mg per 100 gSpecies Total Saturated Mono- Poly- Omega-3 Omega-6 Cholesterol unsaturate unsaturate * d dCarp 5.5 1.1 2.3 1.4 0.7 0.5 66Eel 12 2.4 7.2 0.9 0.7 0.2 126Salmon 6 1.0 2.1 2.5 2.0 0.2 55Flounder 1 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.008 448Cod 1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.008 43Grouper 1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.01 37Herring 9 2.0 3.7 2.1 1.7 0.1 60Tuna 5 1.3 1.6 1.4 1.3 0.05 38Mackerel 14 3.3 5.5 3.3 2.7 0.2 70Shark 5 0.9 1.8 1.2 1.0 0.08 51Meat 3 2.0 0.8 0.1 TrMilk 18 4.5 4.5 0.5 0.06modified from: Hambraeus (2010)
  • Micronutrients – dried fish, Lake Mweru
  • Availability – nutrients and importance of fish plant fish other animal protein * * * * * * * *from Kawarazuka & Béné (2011); data from FAO (2011) * = ASEAN countries
  • Determinants of nutritional status Nutritional Status use and Outcomes utilization Dietary Health Physiological Immediate Intake Status Demands causes Household Maternal and Child Health Services and Underlying Stability Food Access Care Services the Environment causes access information/education/communication/marketing/lifestyle/beliefs Resources and Control human, economic and organizational Basic causes availability political and ideological factors economic structure Potential Resources modified from UNICEF (1991), Kawarazuka & Béné (2010) modified from UNICEF (1991), Kawarazuka & Béné (2010)
  • Fish and foodand nutritionsecurityscenarios inASEAN
  • Changes in global fish supplies and utilizationutilization population (billion)tonnes x 106 per capita supply (kg) from FAO (2011)
  • Wild fisheries – critical for the poor, food andnutrition, but…
  • Growth in demand for fish – 2007-2015source:  Cai  (2011)  
  • Annual growth rate of aquaculture 2007-2015 to satisfy fish demandsource:  Cai  (2011)  
  • Availability – ASEAN aquaculture
  • Cambodia - scenarios show growing fish demand •  population and wealth driving demand •  scenario setting for 2030 shows significant new supply required •  even more aquaculture will be required if capture fisheries are not well managed •  new investments will be needed to support that
  • Aquaculture is substituting for declining capturefisheries 1996                              2006   Changes  in  farmed  and  wild  fish  consump:on  among  957  households  in  4  districts,  1996-­‐2006   (Bangladesh,  IFPRI  survey  data)  
  • Aquaculture is essential, but there areconsequences for the fish we eat source: Beveridge et al. (in press)
  • Aquaculture and economic access… what farmers want to produce? … what people want to eat?
  • Farmed tilapia prices, Bangladesh 2011
  • Micronutrients – selected fish, Bangladesh per 100 g edible portionsource: Thilsted & Roos (1999)
  • Small, oily fish eaten whole are best
  • Aquaculture and small fish species, Bangladesh
  • Intensification of production is inevitableIntensive  :lapia  ponds,  Egypt  
  • Farmed fish are generally fattier than wild 10 wild farmed 8fat (g) per 100 g serving 6 4 2 0 source: USDA nutrient database
  • .. and the fatty acid profiles differ tooWildExtensiveSemi-intensive polycultureSemi-intensive, wi poultry/pigsIntensive mono- culturesource: Karapanagiotidis et al.(2006)
  • Key messages
  • (1) Fish is important for ASEAN food & nutrition security•  Fish is a preferred item in the diets of many, especially poor, people•  It is an important source of quality and highly bioavailable protein, but more importantly of essential fatty acids and micronutrients —  at key life stages (e.g. the first 1000 days) —  importance should be measured in relation to consumption of other foods, intra- household food distribution•  The species we eat are changing, as is the method of production —  the rise of aquaculture —  intensification of culture methods•  Changes impact nutrient content; implications for food and nutrition security
  • (2) Increasing availability by aquaculture isimportant, but is not enough Nutritional Status Outcomes Dietary Health Physiological Immediate Intake Status Demands causes Household Maternal and Child Health Services and Underlying Stability Food Access Care Services the Environment causes information/education/communication/marketing/lifestyle/beliefs Resources and Control human, economic and organizational Basic causes political and ideological factors economic structure modified from UNICEF (1991), Kawarazuka & Potential Resources Béné (2010)
  • (3) Gender plays an important role•  Intra-household assets and food allocation•  Workloads•  Technologies•  Access to inputs and knowledge
  • (4) Emerging lessons from integrating fish, withhorticulture systems, and nutrition •  Integrated systems •  Promotion of nutrition education •  Interventions can improve income as well as nutrition •  Growing experiences in Bangladesh and Cambodia with partners (HKI, USAID etc)
  • Key recommendations•  Recognize –  value of fish in human nutrition –  fish demand will grow significantly –  wild fisheries and aquaculture are different and we need interventions in both –  Aquaculture interventions required for food and nutrition –  availability is only part of the solution –  opportunities for better integration of fisheries for human nutrition and health
  • (1) Dialogue and partnerships•  Fish has a role, but ensuring positive nutrititional outcomes is about more than fish supply•  Inter-sectoral dialogue•  Public, civil society, private sector partnerships•  Opportunities for sharing of experiences, within and outside ASEAN
  • (2) Research – new CGIAR Research Programs
  • (3) Policy•  National –  R&D investment that sustain fisheries and grow aquaculture –  nutrition –oriented investment/ incentives for aquaculture –  value chains and markets –  intersectoral, integrated interventions based on understanding of pathways to positive nutritional outcomes•  Regional –  Fish as an integral part of the ASEAN food and nutrition security framework
  • Thankyou