Selective breeding in fish and conservation of genetic resources for aquaculture

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Invited presentation given by Dr Curtis Lind at the 17th International Congress on Animal Reproduction (ICAR), Vancouver, Canada, 31st July, 2012. …

Invited presentation given by Dr Curtis Lind at the 17th International Congress on Animal Reproduction (ICAR), Vancouver, Canada, 31st July, 2012.

SUMMARY: To satisfy increasing demands for fish as food, progress must occur towards greater aquaculture productivity whilst retaining the wild and farmed genetic resources that underpin global fish production. We review the main selection methods that have been developed for genetic improvement in aquaculture, and discuss their virtues and shortcomings. Examples of the application of mass, cohort, within family, and combined between-family and within-family selection are given. In addition, we review the manner in which fish genetic resources can be lost at the intra-specific, species and ecosystem levels and discuss options to best prevent this. We illustrate that fundamental principles of genetic management are common in the implementation of both selective breeding and conservation programmes, and should be emphasized in capacity development efforts. We highlight the value of applied genetics approaches for increasing aquaculture productivity and the conservation of fish genetic resources.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0531.2012.02084.x/abstract

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  • 1. Selective breeding in fish and conservation ofgenetic resources for aquacultureCurtis E Lind, RW Ponzoni, NH Nguyen, and HL KhawThe WorldFish Center ICAR 2012, Vancouver 31st July
  • 2. IntroductionDifferences between livestock and fishSelective breeding approaches in fishGenetic resources for aquacultureConcluding remarks
  • 3. IntroductionDifferences between livestock and fishSelective breeding approaches in fishGenetic resources for aquacultureConcluding remarks
  • 4. IntroductionDifferences between livestock and fishSelective breeding approaches in fishGenetic resources for aquacultureConcluding remarks
  • 5. IntroductionDifferences between livestock and fishSelective breeding approaches in fishGenetic resources for aquacultureConcluding remarks
  • 6. IntroductionDifferences between livestock and fishSelective breeding approaches in fishGenetic resources for aquacultureConcluding remarks
  • 7. aquaculture provides nearly half of all food fish
  • 8. mostly freshwater species farmed in Asia
  • 9. key constraints are lack of feed, seed and capacity
  • 10. <10% is from genetically improved strains
  • 11. fish breeding and genetic resources major issues
  • 12. livestock vs. fish
  • 13. High 100 – 10,000 progeny per female per cyclereproductive rate Low < 10 progeny per female per cycle
  • 14. 1-3 yearsgeneration interval 3-8 years
  • 15. few defined breeds no breed societiesdomestication many defined breeds preserved by keepers or breed societies
  • 16. often wild-caught producer or hatchery ownedsource of breeders stud farms producer-owned domesticated stock
  • 17. greater selection intensity, response per generationlivestock vs. fish greater annual genetic gain risk of inbreeding greater
  • 18. greater potential for rapid dissemination at scalelivestock vs. fish focus on developing and maintaining strains focus on minimizing impact to wild genetic resources
  • 19. Selective breeding in fish
  • 20. Several approaches to geneticimprovement feasible with fish hybridization transgenesis cross-breeding chromosome manipulation selective breeding only approach where gains are cumulative and permanent
  • 21. Several approaches to geneticimprovement feasible with fish hybridization transgenesis cross-breeding chromosome manipulation selective breeding multiple selection approaches with varying complexity
  • 22. Several approaches to geneticimprovement feasible with fish “combined” selection within-family selection cohort selection individual (mass) selection selective breeding multiple selection approaches with varying complexity
  • 23. Application in fish lags farbehind livestock or crops “combined” selection within-family selection cohort selection individual (mass) selection selective breeding multiple selection approaches with varying complexity
  • 24. age unknownpedigree and geneticrelationships unknown individuals selectedhigh risk of on phenotype onlyinbreeding (measurable alive) μ 150 g 300 g 550 gIndividual selection
  • 25. limited success in fish due to high inbreeding rates can be managed with controlled mating and standardized family contributions challenging in developing countriesIndividual selection
  • 26. selection done within inbreeding limited bycohort or group mating between cohorts (fe)males rotate field personnel comfortable with this designCohort selection
  • 27. requires family identification families reared in separate tanks, hapas, cages high within-family selection intensity possible inbreeding easily controlled by rotational matingWithin-family selection
  • 28. successfully applied FaST strain at Central Luzon in tilapia State University, Philippines genetic gain for body weight estimated at 12% per generation after 12 generations easily managed but requires greater inputsWithin-family selection
  • 29. utilizes information from can produce single indexindividual plus relatives, incorporating multiple traits linked by pedigree uses Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) to estimate breeding values (EBVs)BLUP accounts for systematic effects (e.g. sex, batch, age) and maternal, common environmental effectsCombined selection
  • 30. BLUP permits selectionof traits unmeasured on information from relatives candidates related individuals likely have similar EBVs inbreeding can be an issue if unchecked successfully applied in salmon, tilapia, Indian carpsCombined selection
  • 31. ample evidence that constraints are usually selective breeding can be financial and lack of successful in fish adequate capacity current breeding programs mostly focus on growth improvements unfavourable correlated traits must be monitoredBreeding programs in fish
  • 32. conservationof fish genetic resources
  • 33. genetic resources:fish genetic genetic material of actual or potential value (Convention on Biological Diversity) resources genetic resources for food “fish” often extended to and agriculture derived from include other aquatic fish species organisms
  • 34. biological diversity often categorized infish genetic hierarchical levels resources intra-specific genetic diversity
  • 35. biological diversity often categorized infish genetic hierarchical levels resources intra-specific genetic diversity species diversity
  • 36. biological diversity often categorized infish genetic hierarchical levels resources intra-specific genetic diversity species diversity ecosystem diversity
  • 37. biological diversity often categorized infish genetic hierarchical levels resources intra-specific genetic diversity (population diversity) species diversity ecosystem diversity
  • 38. intra-specific concerned with management of genetic and resource at population level population level maintenance of gene variants (alleles) many alleles will characterize a population
  • 39. intra-specific problem is... genetic and fish vulnerable to rapid loss of diversity population level difficult to maintain pedigree high reproductive rate large populations from a few breeders exaggerated genetic drift low effective population size (Ne)molecular tools provide some assistance
  • 40. intra-specific problem is... genetic and fish vulnerable to rapid loss of diversity population level can be managed through proper hatchery practices and training …and developed a production level industry structure diversity not critical if maintained in nucleus generally not present
  • 41. species and consider consequences of interactions among species or populationsecosystem levelfish are cultured in manyenvironments and systems
  • 42. species and consider consequences of interactions among species or populationsecosystem level fish can readily escape
  • 43. species and consider consequences of interactions among species or populationsecosystem level fish can readily escape and are difficult to recapturemanaging impacts ofescapees is a major concern wild genetic resources
  • 44. species and consider consequences of interactions among species or populationsecosystem level non-natives can proliferatemanaging impacts ofescapees is a major concern wild genetic resources
  • 45. species and consider consequences of interactions among species or populationsecosystem level fish can hybridize easily or breed with wild relativesmanaging impacts ofescapees is a major concern wild genetic resources
  • 46. issues at this level are farspecies and more complexecosystem level difficult to predict likely impacts often must incorporate broader environmental management strong governance, regulation and science required
  • 47. scope for substantial gains throughselective breeding programs in fish essential for future aquaculture development concluding remarks ample proof of success significant progress canoccur with limited inputs if properly trained
  • 48. genetic improvement should notcome at the cost of conservation vice versa genetic management concluding remarks necessary for both government support important for both
  • 49. photo credits:1. Flickr/ Dr DeNo full manuscript:7-11. Flickr/ PraYudi Lind, CE, Ponzoni, RW, Nguyen, NH and Khaw, HL. (2012), Selective12-18. top: Flickr/ Robin Robokow breeding in fish and conservation of genetic resources for aquaculture. bottom: Flickr/ ILRI Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 47 (Suppl.4): 255–263.19. Flickr/Johnny Peacock doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2012.02084.x20-23. Flickr/ Guy Mason25. Curtis Lind26. Flickr/ wockerjabby thanks to:27. top, middle: Curtis Lind ICAR 2012 organizers, chair and hosts bottom: Flickr/Marcodvz28. Flickr/ Seafdec30. mymakolet.com31. anonymous/CEL collection32. Flickr/ ~ Martin ~34. Wikipedia36. Flickr/ Michael McCullough37. Flickr/ Mike_tn38.39.41. Flickr/ Suneko Flickr/ US Fish & Wildlife Service Flickr/ linuts acknowledgements42. anonymous43. Flickr/ Ray Morris 144. Illinois Natural History Museum45. www.elusivetrout.com46. Flickr/ Patrick Choi47-48. Peter Fredenburg49. Bill Reidtilapia illustrations:Susanne Weitemeyer,Scandinavian Fishing Year Book