Selective breeding in fish and conservation ofgenetic resources for aquacultureCurtis E Lind, RW Ponzoni, NH Nguyen, and H...
IntroductionDifferences between livestock and fishSelective breeding approaches in fishGenetic resources for aquacultureCo...
IntroductionDifferences between livestock and fishSelective breeding approaches in fishGenetic resources for aquacultureCo...
IntroductionDifferences between livestock and fishSelective breeding approaches in fishGenetic resources for aquacultureCo...
IntroductionDifferences between livestock and fishSelective breeding approaches in fishGenetic resources for aquacultureCo...
IntroductionDifferences between livestock and fishSelective breeding approaches in fishGenetic resources for aquacultureCo...
aquaculture provides nearly half of all food fish
mostly freshwater species farmed in Asia
key constraints are lack of feed, seed and capacity
<10% is from genetically improved strains
fish breeding and genetic resources major issues
livestock vs. fish
High                    100 – 10,000 progeny                     per female per cyclereproductive rate                    ...
1-3 yearsgeneration interval                      3-8 years
few defined breeds                   no breed societiesdomestication                 many defined breeds                pr...
often wild-caught                        producer or                      hatchery ownedsource of breeders                ...
greater selection intensity,                       response per generationlivestock vs. fish                     greater a...
greater potential for rapid                         dissemination at scalelivestock vs. fish      focus on developing and ...
Selective breeding in fish
Several approaches to geneticimprovement feasible with fish hybridization                              transgenesis      c...
Several approaches to geneticimprovement feasible with fish hybridization                              transgenesis      c...
Several approaches to geneticimprovement feasible with fish                                                “combined”     ...
Application in fish lags farbehind livestock or crops                                               “combined”            ...
age unknownpedigree and geneticrelationships unknown                                individuals selectedhigh risk of      ...
limited success in fish due  to high inbreeding rates       can be managed with controlled mating        and standardized ...
selection done within                 inbreeding limited bycohort or group                     mating between cohorts     ...
requires family          identification   families reared in separate      tanks, hapas, cages  high within-family selecti...
successfully applied     FaST strain at Central Luzon         in tilapia          State University, Philippines    genetic...
utilizes information from          can produce single indexindividual plus relatives,       incorporating multiple traits ...
BLUP permits selectionof traits unmeasured on          information from relatives        candidates                       ...
ample evidence that       constraints are usually  selective breeding can be    financial and lack of      successful in f...
conservationof fish genetic  resources
genetic resources:fish genetic           genetic material of actual or potential value                       (Convention o...
biological diversity often categorized infish genetic      hierarchical levels resources               intra-specific gene...
biological diversity often categorized infish genetic      hierarchical levels resources               intra-specific gene...
biological diversity often categorized infish genetic      hierarchical levels resources               intra-specific gene...
biological diversity often categorized infish genetic      hierarchical levels resources               intra-specific gene...
intra-specific                     concerned with management of genetic and         resource at population level populatio...
intra-specific            problem is... genetic and              fish vulnerable to rapid loss of                         ...
intra-specific         problem is... genetic and           fish vulnerable to rapid loss of                       diversit...
species and         consider consequences of interactions                    among species or populationsecosystem   level...
species and   consider consequences of interactions              among species or populationsecosystem   level            ...
species and            consider consequences of interactions                       among species or populationsecosystem  ...
species and           consider consequences of interactions                      among species or populationsecosystem   l...
species and           consider consequences of interactions                      among species or populationsecosystem   l...
issues at this level are farspecies and      more complexecosystem   level              difficult to predict              ...
scope for substantial gains throughselective breeding programs in fish         essential  for future aquaculture       dev...
genetic improvement should notcome at the cost of conservation      vice versa genetic management                         ...
photo credits:1.              Flickr/ Dr DeNo                      full manuscript:7-11.           Flickr/ PraYudi        ...
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Selective breeding in fish and conservation of genetic resources for aquaculture

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Invited presentation given by Dr Curtis Lind at the 17th International Congress on Animal Reproduction (ICAR), Vancouver, Canada, 31st July, 2012.

SUMMARY: To satisfy increasing demands for fish as food, progress must occur towards greater aquaculture productivity whilst retaining the wild and farmed genetic resources that underpin global fish production. We review the main selection methods that have been developed for genetic improvement in aquaculture, and discuss their virtues and shortcomings. Examples of the application of mass, cohort, within family, and combined between-family and within-family selection are given. In addition, we review the manner in which fish genetic resources can be lost at the intra-specific, species and ecosystem levels and discuss options to best prevent this. We illustrate that fundamental principles of genetic management are common in the implementation of both selective breeding and conservation programmes, and should be emphasized in capacity development efforts. We highlight the value of applied genetics approaches for increasing aquaculture productivity and the conservation of fish genetic resources.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1439-0531.2012.02084.x/abstract

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Selective breeding in fish and conservation of genetic resources for aquaculture

  1. 1. Selective breeding in fish and conservation ofgenetic resources for aquacultureCurtis E Lind, RW Ponzoni, NH Nguyen, and HL KhawThe WorldFish Center ICAR 2012, Vancouver 31st July
  2. 2. IntroductionDifferences between livestock and fishSelective breeding approaches in fishGenetic resources for aquacultureConcluding remarks
  3. 3. IntroductionDifferences between livestock and fishSelective breeding approaches in fishGenetic resources for aquacultureConcluding remarks
  4. 4. IntroductionDifferences between livestock and fishSelective breeding approaches in fishGenetic resources for aquacultureConcluding remarks
  5. 5. IntroductionDifferences between livestock and fishSelective breeding approaches in fishGenetic resources for aquacultureConcluding remarks
  6. 6. IntroductionDifferences between livestock and fishSelective breeding approaches in fishGenetic resources for aquacultureConcluding remarks
  7. 7. aquaculture provides nearly half of all food fish
  8. 8. mostly freshwater species farmed in Asia
  9. 9. key constraints are lack of feed, seed and capacity
  10. 10. <10% is from genetically improved strains
  11. 11. fish breeding and genetic resources major issues
  12. 12. livestock vs. fish
  13. 13. High 100 – 10,000 progeny per female per cyclereproductive rate Low < 10 progeny per female per cycle
  14. 14. 1-3 yearsgeneration interval 3-8 years
  15. 15. few defined breeds no breed societiesdomestication many defined breeds preserved by keepers or breed societies
  16. 16. often wild-caught producer or hatchery ownedsource of breeders stud farms producer-owned domesticated stock
  17. 17. greater selection intensity, response per generationlivestock vs. fish greater annual genetic gain risk of inbreeding greater
  18. 18. greater potential for rapid dissemination at scalelivestock vs. fish focus on developing and maintaining strains focus on minimizing impact to wild genetic resources
  19. 19. Selective breeding in fish
  20. 20. Several approaches to geneticimprovement feasible with fish hybridization transgenesis cross-breeding chromosome manipulation selective breeding only approach where gains are cumulative and permanent
  21. 21. Several approaches to geneticimprovement feasible with fish hybridization transgenesis cross-breeding chromosome manipulation selective breeding multiple selection approaches with varying complexity
  22. 22. Several approaches to geneticimprovement feasible with fish “combined” selection within-family selection cohort selection individual (mass) selection selective breeding multiple selection approaches with varying complexity
  23. 23. Application in fish lags farbehind livestock or crops “combined” selection within-family selection cohort selection individual (mass) selection selective breeding multiple selection approaches with varying complexity
  24. 24. age unknownpedigree and geneticrelationships unknown individuals selectedhigh risk of on phenotype onlyinbreeding (measurable alive) μ 150 g 300 g 550 gIndividual selection
  25. 25. limited success in fish due to high inbreeding rates can be managed with controlled mating and standardized family contributions challenging in developing countriesIndividual selection
  26. 26. selection done within inbreeding limited bycohort or group mating between cohorts (fe)males rotate field personnel comfortable with this designCohort selection
  27. 27. requires family identification families reared in separate tanks, hapas, cages high within-family selection intensity possible inbreeding easily controlled by rotational matingWithin-family selection
  28. 28. successfully applied FaST strain at Central Luzon in tilapia State University, Philippines genetic gain for body weight estimated at 12% per generation after 12 generations easily managed but requires greater inputsWithin-family selection
  29. 29. utilizes information from can produce single indexindividual plus relatives, incorporating multiple traits linked by pedigree uses Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP) to estimate breeding values (EBVs)BLUP accounts for systematic effects (e.g. sex, batch, age) and maternal, common environmental effectsCombined selection
  30. 30. BLUP permits selectionof traits unmeasured on information from relatives candidates related individuals likely have similar EBVs inbreeding can be an issue if unchecked successfully applied in salmon, tilapia, Indian carpsCombined selection
  31. 31. ample evidence that constraints are usually selective breeding can be financial and lack of successful in fish adequate capacity current breeding programs mostly focus on growth improvements unfavourable correlated traits must be monitoredBreeding programs in fish
  32. 32. conservationof fish genetic resources
  33. 33. genetic resources:fish genetic genetic material of actual or potential value (Convention on Biological Diversity) resources genetic resources for food “fish” often extended to and agriculture derived from include other aquatic fish species organisms
  34. 34. biological diversity often categorized infish genetic hierarchical levels resources intra-specific genetic diversity
  35. 35. biological diversity often categorized infish genetic hierarchical levels resources intra-specific genetic diversity species diversity
  36. 36. biological diversity often categorized infish genetic hierarchical levels resources intra-specific genetic diversity species diversity ecosystem diversity
  37. 37. biological diversity often categorized infish genetic hierarchical levels resources intra-specific genetic diversity (population diversity) species diversity ecosystem diversity
  38. 38. intra-specific concerned with management of genetic and resource at population level population level maintenance of gene variants (alleles) many alleles will characterize a population
  39. 39. intra-specific problem is... genetic and fish vulnerable to rapid loss of diversity population level difficult to maintain pedigree high reproductive rate large populations from a few breeders exaggerated genetic drift low effective population size (Ne)molecular tools provide some assistance
  40. 40. intra-specific problem is... genetic and fish vulnerable to rapid loss of diversity population level can be managed through proper hatchery practices and training …and developed a production level industry structure diversity not critical if maintained in nucleus generally not present
  41. 41. species and consider consequences of interactions among species or populationsecosystem levelfish are cultured in manyenvironments and systems
  42. 42. species and consider consequences of interactions among species or populationsecosystem level fish can readily escape
  43. 43. species and consider consequences of interactions among species or populationsecosystem level fish can readily escape and are difficult to recapturemanaging impacts ofescapees is a major concern wild genetic resources
  44. 44. species and consider consequences of interactions among species or populationsecosystem level non-natives can proliferatemanaging impacts ofescapees is a major concern wild genetic resources
  45. 45. species and consider consequences of interactions among species or populationsecosystem level fish can hybridize easily or breed with wild relativesmanaging impacts ofescapees is a major concern wild genetic resources
  46. 46. issues at this level are farspecies and more complexecosystem level difficult to predict likely impacts often must incorporate broader environmental management strong governance, regulation and science required
  47. 47. scope for substantial gains throughselective breeding programs in fish essential for future aquaculture development concluding remarks ample proof of success significant progress canoccur with limited inputs if properly trained
  48. 48. genetic improvement should notcome at the cost of conservation vice versa genetic management concluding remarks necessary for both government support important for both
  49. 49. photo credits:1. Flickr/ Dr DeNo full manuscript:7-11. Flickr/ PraYudi Lind, CE, Ponzoni, RW, Nguyen, NH and Khaw, HL. (2012), Selective12-18. top: Flickr/ Robin Robokow breeding in fish and conservation of genetic resources for aquaculture. bottom: Flickr/ ILRI Reproduction in Domestic Animals, 47 (Suppl.4): 255–263.19. Flickr/Johnny Peacock doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0531.2012.02084.x20-23. Flickr/ Guy Mason25. Curtis Lind26. Flickr/ wockerjabby thanks to:27. top, middle: Curtis Lind ICAR 2012 organizers, chair and hosts bottom: Flickr/Marcodvz28. Flickr/ Seafdec30. mymakolet.com31. anonymous/CEL collection32. Flickr/ ~ Martin ~34. Wikipedia36. Flickr/ Michael McCullough37. Flickr/ Mike_tn38.39.41. Flickr/ Suneko Flickr/ US Fish & Wildlife Service Flickr/ linuts acknowledgements42. anonymous43. Flickr/ Ray Morris 144. Illinois Natural History Museum45. www.elusivetrout.com46. Flickr/ Patrick Choi47-48. Peter Fredenburg49. Bill Reidtilapia illustrations:Susanne Weitemeyer,Scandinavian Fishing Year Book

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