Science forum Day 2 - Suan Pheng Kam - Integrated aquculture planningPresentation Transcript
Valuing wetlands: what if TEV doesn’t work? - case of the Yellow River Delta * , China Presenter: Kam Suan Pheng WorldFish Science Week 18-22 July 2011 * Part of a two-year research project ‘Valuing living aquatic resources of wetlands in China’, funded by the Challenge Program for Water and Food, CPWF Phase 1
The Yellow River and its Delta
The Yellow River supplies water to12% of China's 1.3 billion people and 15% of its farmland; its annual runoff is only 2% of the national total
Prior to 1999, the lower reaches of the Yellow River ran dry in 21 out of 27 years, for a total of 1,090 days
The Yellow River Delta (YRD) covers 6000 km 2 and is still accreting, forming the youngest temperate wetland ecosystem in the world
153,000 ha of the YR estuary has been gazetted as nature reserve, with 58,000 ha of core zone
The Yellow River
To justify maintaining environmental flow to the YRD estuary
Direct economic value of the delta resources is extremely high; the Shengli oilfield fuels Dongying’s economic growth - 2008 GDP: RMB2 trillion (~USD300 billion), growth rate: 13.7%
Local awareness of ecosystem services of wetlands is low; TEV for YRD is RMB3.2 billion
Rather than conducting economic valuation, we opted for semi-quantitative approach, focusing on raising stakeholder awareness
Study Site: Eastern Dongying municipality in the Yellow River Delta Oilfield Pond aquacultre and salt evaporatiuon pans Mudflats used for mollusk collection Agriculture, with pockets of drained wetlands Dongying City 20 June 2009 Landsat 5 satellite image courtesy of the U.S. Geological Survey, http://www.usgs.gov Protective coastal dyke & road The YRD Nature Reserve core conservation area – 37,000 ha Yellow River Airport
Stakeholder consultations to identify the main wetlands ecological functions and ecosystem services that they recognize as important
GIS mapping of landuse using satellite imagery
Literature review to collect evidence and quantification of ecosystems services of wetlands
Engaged the local experts in rating the relative contributions of the main ecosystem services of the natural, disturbed and man-made wetlands (including aquaculture areas)
Map of land use in the study area
Criteria and indicators of the key ecosystem services of the wetlands in the Yellow River delta Criteria category Wetland service Indicator Economic Direct human use Production value: Harvesting mollusks Harvesting reeds Aquaculture Salt production Agriculture Eco-tourism Cultural value Water quality Purification Nutrient (N, P) retention Climate change GHG mitigation C storage & GHG emission Biodiversity Food web support Bird diversity
Estimates of production value for economic indicators related to direct use of wetland resources Per unit area production value RMB/ha Harvesting mollusks 4,300 Harvesting reeds 2,300 Freshwater – crab 21,600 Freshwater – fish 40,500 Freshwater - shrimp 120,000 Brackishwater - shrimp 67,500 Brackishwater - sea cucumber 120,000 Salt production 47,000-310,000 Agriculture 12,000-28,000
Aquatic bird occurrence in different habitats in the Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve
Factors that favor carbon and nutrient retention in wetlands Factors that favor GHG mitigation Nutrient sinks High rate of sediment accumulation Increases C burial Increases nutrient (N, P) burial High biomass (roots, microflora, phytoplankton) Captures atmospheric CO 2 Some vegetation types increase N burial Low O 2 condition Discourages CO 2 and NO 2 release Encourages N 2 release Saline condition, high SO 4 2- Lowers CH 4 generation
Standardized rating scores on wetland ecosystem services for different land use types.
Climate change (GHG mitigation) 气候变化 ( 减少温室气体的危害 ) Economic (income/returns) 经济 ( 收入 / 收益 ) Biodiversity (food web support) 生物多样性 ( 维持食物链 ) Water quality (purification) 水质 ( 净化 ) Mapped results of standardized rating scores on wetland ecosystem services for different land use types.
Multi-criteria combination map 平等权重 Equal weight Figure 4. Overall rating of wetland ecosystem services for different land use types, with equal weighting for the four criteria – direct economic value, water quality regulation, climate change mitigation and biodiversity support.
Multi-criteria combination map 注重经济发展 Economics emphasis Figure 5. Overall rating of wetland ecosystem services for different land use types, with 50% weighting for direct economic value and the remaining 50% equally weighted among the other criteria - water quality regulation, climate change mitigation and biodiversity support.
Multi-criteria combination map 注重减缓气候变化 Climate change emphasis Figure 6. Overall rating of wetland ecosystem services for different land use types, with 50% weighting for climate change mitigation and the remaining 50% equally weighted among the other criteria - water quality regulation, biodiversity support and direct economic value.
Enhance the value and benefits of the Nature Reserve - use it as outdoor laboratory and benchmark for quantifying ecosystem services of temperate estuarine wetlands
Provide incentives for low-impact and biodiversity-enhancing agriculture surrounding the Nature Reserve
Promote low-carbon aquaculture of organisms that sequester carbon, are lower down the food chain and requiring good-quality water, e.g. molluscs, sea cucumber, algae
Promote cleaner industries that create less water pollution
Without being thoroughly quantitative, but by presenting map outputs, we were able to flag key issues relating to the management of the wetlands and other land uses
Opportunities to improve the management of the wetlands of the YRD hinge on recognizing the broader ecosystem services of wetlands, both natural and manmade, and how their value can be enhanced.
Protecting the wetlands does not have to mean depriving people of opportunities for economic benefits. Carefully chosen economic activities can coexist with natural wetland conservation and, further, complement the ecosystem services that the wetlands provide. This can help realize the “highly efficient eco-economy” that Dongying municipality envisions, and for it to be a model for emulation elsewhere in China and around the world.
Thank you for your attention
Table 1. Current uses of the wetlands in eastern Dongying municipality USE VALUES CURRENT USE DIRECT USE Conversion: physical land area Urban/industrial Agriculture Salt production Aquaculture - freshwater Aquaculture - brackish water Consumptive: product extraction Mollusk, crustacea, fish Reeds, medicinal plants Non-consumptive Recreation, tourism In-situ research, education INDIRECT USE Regulatory (due to ecological processes) Storm protection Water purification Climate change mitigation Biological (including living aquatic resources) Recruitment/feeding Biodiversity
Table 5 . Nutrient removal rates of wetland types (example from the Netherlands) Source: Goosen , 2006 Nutrient removal (kg/ha/yr) Land cover N P Agricultural use 0 0 Reed marsh 279 13 Open water 45 0 Woodland 95 9 Reservoir 0 0
Table 6 . Carbon sequestration capacities of different forest types Source: Kennedy and Bjork (2009) Ecosystem Standing carbon stock (gC m -2 ) Long-term rate of carbon accumulation in sediment (gC m -2 y -1 ) Plants Soil Tropical forests 12,045 12,273 2.3-2.5 Temperate forests 5,673 9,615 1.4-12.0 Boreal forests 6,423 34,380 0.8-2.2 Tropical savannas and grasslands 2,933 11,733 Temperate grass- and shrub-lands 720 23,600 2.2 Deserts and semi-deserts 176 4,198 0.8 Tundra 632 12,737 0.2-5.7 Croplands 188 8,000 Wetlands 4,286 72,857 20 Tidal Salt Marshes 210 Mangroves 7,990 139 Seagrass meadows 184 7,000 83 Kelp Forests 120-720 NA NA
To assess how the ecosystem services of the coastal wetlands have been affected due to modification and conversion of wetlands for various economic activities;
To raise awareness and understanding among development agencies of the value of wetlands beyond their immediate and direct economic contributions; and
To identify strategies for reducing development impacts and enhancing future use value of the wetlands.